NOVON 8: 455-456. 1998.
Herbarium, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China
Lazarus Walter Macior
Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3908, U.S.A.
Herbarium, Sichuan Grassland Research Institute, Hongyuan, Sichuan 624400, People’s Republic of China
ABSTRACT. Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph var. hongyuanensis Y. Tang is described, and the characters that distinguish it from the other varieties of P. longiflora are discussed.
During the summer of 1996 field research was carried out in Hongyuan County, northwest Sichuan Province (China), to study the pollination ecology of various Pedicularis species. Field observations were made near the town of Hongyuan along highway 213, which connects Sichuan and Gansu provinces. In addition to the new variety (P. longiflora var. hongyuanensis) herein described, the following 18 species or infraspecific taxa were found: P. alashanica Maximowicz, P. bidentata Maximowicz, P. cranolopha Maximowicz, P. davidii Franchet, P. ingens Maximowicz, P. kansuensis Maximowicz, P. lasiophrys Maximowicz, P. longiflora var. tubiformis (Klotzsch) Tsoong, P. oederi var. sinensis (Maximowicz) Hurus, P. plicata Maximowicz, P. polyodonta Li, P. rhinanthoides subsp. labellata (Jacquin) Tsoong, P. semitorta Maxomowicz, P. spicata Pallas, P. stenocorys Franchet, P. verticillata L., and P. violascens Schrenk.
Species of Pedicularis varied in their habitat preferences and population size. For example, P. verticillata was very common in the study area, and it grew in damp and dry sites. In contrast, P. longiflora var. tubiformis and P. oederi var. sinensis grew in moist meadows, P. rhinanthoides subsp. labellata was restricted to dry meadows, and P. semitorta was almost always among shrubs of Spiraea alpina. Species association in a given area ranged from six to nine. Except for P. oederi var. sinensis, which was in fruit during the duration of fieldwork, plants of all other taxa were in full flower.
In every research site, all Pedicularis species were easily within the flight range of a given pollinator. However, no putative hybrids were found. This agrees with the field observations of one of us (Macior) from other parts of the world. It appears, therefore, that geographic isolation among Pedicularis species may be less important than pollinator behavior in the prezygotic reproductive isolation. Population size in Pedicularis appears to be related to the availability of microhabitats, which seem to play an important role in speciation within the genus.
Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph var. hongyuanensis Y. Tang, var. nov. TYPE. China. Sichuan: Hongyuan County, near Waqie (29 km from Hongyuan town), dry slope meadows, ca. 3450 m, July 1996, Tang Ya, L. M. Macior & Chen Jianzhong 9622 (holotype, CDBI).
Herba perennis humilis, 10--15 cm alta. Radix teres, ad 5--8 cm longa, carnosa. Caules saepe 3--5, caespitosi. Folia basalia et caulinaria petiolata, petiolis 3--5 cm longis, complanatis, basi membranaceis leviter dilatatis vaginatisque, margine pilosis; lamina linearis usque lanceolata, 4--8 cm longa, pinnatisecta, segmentis 10--18-jugis, margine duplicato-serratis, saepe leviter revolutis, glabra. Flores axillares; pedicelli 8--12 mm longi. Calyx cylindrico-campanulatus, 14--17 mm longus, pilis obtectis. Corolla flava, tubus 6.5--9.2 cm longus.
Perennial herbs, 10--15 cm tall. Taproot cylindric, 5--8 cm long, with several fibrous roots. Stems usually 3--5, caespitose. Leaves basal and cauline, basal ones densely fascicled; petiole 3--5 cm on basal leaves, 2--3.5 cm on cauline ones, sparsely pubescent or glabrate, lower part membranous, swollen, sparsely ciliate; leaf blade linear or lanceolate, 4--8 cm long, pinnately lobed or parted; lobes rounded-dentate or linear, 10--18, glabrous, adaxially purple when dry, abaxially brown, margin denticulate, sometimes double serrate, slightly reflexed. Flowers axillary. Pedicel 0.8--1.2 cm long. Calyx tubelike, 1.4--1.7 cm excluding teeth, exterior hairy, dense in the lower part; teeth 2--3 mm long. Corolla yellow adaxially, yellowish abaxially; tube 6.5--9.2 cm long; lower lip glabrous or sparsely long ciliate, ca. 22 mm wide, ca. 15 mm long, with 3 red spots; middle lobe obovate to orbicular, 6--8 mm long, apex rounded or obtuse; lateral lobes oblong to orbicular, ca. 16 mm long, with two red spots. Galea S-shaped, extending outward, with a single red spot. Filaments villous. Style exceeds galea. Fruits unknown.
This new variety is common in the slope meadows on the way from Tangke to the county town of Zoige County and in the meadows near Longriba of Hongyuan County.
Pedicularis longiflora var. hongyuanensis differs from variety longiflora in having longer (3--5 vs. 1--2 cm) petioles, 10--18 vs. 5--9 lateral leaf lobes, pilose instead of ciliate calyces, and obtuse instead of emarginate apices of the middle and lateral lobes of the petals. The most striking difference is the presence in variety hongyuanensis of three red spots on the lower lip, one on the upper lip, and two on the lateral sides. In variety longiflora the corolla is not spotted or the number of red spots is different.
Pedicularis longiflora var. hongyuanensis differs from variety tubiformis (Klotzsch) P. C. Tsoong in having three instead of two red spots on the lower lip, a larger (ca. 1.5 ´ 2.2 vs. 1.1--1.2 ´ 2 cm) lower lip with an orbicular and obtuse to rounded instead of square and emarginate middle lobe, and a yellowish instead of dark yellow corolla abaxially. The two varieties also grow in different habitats. Variety hongyuanensis grows on sloping land and hillsides that are usually dry, whereas variety tubiformis always occurs in Kobresia meadows that are always damp.
Paratypes. CHINA. Sichuan: Hongyuan County, near Hongyuan town, Tang Ya, L. W. Macior & Chen Jianzhong 9608 (CDBI); roadside from Longriba to Shujinshi, Tang Ya, L. W. Macior & Chen Jianzhong 9697 (CDBI).
Acknowledgments. We are grateful to the Eppley Foundation for Research, Inc., Chengdu Institute of Biology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences for funding. We thank Chen Jianzhong (Chengdu Institute of Biology) and Dong Zhaolin (Sichuan Grassland Research Institute) for field assistance, and Ihsan Al-Shehbaz (Missouri Botanical Garden) for help with the manuscript.