NOVON 4(1): 46-47. 1994.
Naturhistorisches Museum, Botanische Abteilung, Burgring 7, A-1014, Wien, Postfach 417, Austria
ABSTRACT. Cynoglossum macrocalycinum from Xinjiang, China, is described as new, and its distinguishing characters from the other species of the genus are given. The new combinations C. furcatum var. villosulum and Hackelia difformis are proposed.
Cynoglossum officinale L., a species widespread in Europe and western Asia, was reported for China by various workers, including Liu (1989). Liu's description of the species indicated that a different species, though superficially resembling C. officinale, is involved. A specimen identified under this name was loaned from Jiangsu Institute of Botany (NAS) during the revision of Boraginaceae for the Flora of China. The specimen is herein described as a new species.
Cynoglossum macrocalycinum Riedl, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Sinkiang (Xinjiang) Shawan County, Ziniquan, Ning jiahe, hill slope, 1,750 m, T. Zhou s.n. (holotype, NAS).
Species nova imprimis foliis caulinis maximis, mediis et sperioribus tantum notis 13--14 cm longis, 3--3.5 cm latis, pedicellis sub anthesi 1 cm, postea usque ad 3 cm longis, calycibus floriferis 8--9 mm longis, laciniis fere ad basin liberis, marginibus sese tegentibus, ovatis vel ovato-oblongis, obtusissimis, subpatule dense albo-pilosis imprimis, post florendum ad 10--12 mm elongatis, latitudine inaequalibus lobo latissimo usque ad 5 mm lato, angustissimo, quam omnes ceteri multo angustiore, 2.5 mm lato, corolla campanulata, calycem paulo tantum sperante, 9--9.5 mm lata, obscure reticulato-venose, fornicibus magnis subquadratis quam antherae multo majoribus insignis.
Herbs stout, at least 50--60 cm high, lower parts missing. Stem with few branches in leaf axils, densely covered with white patent or slightly reflexed hairs. Upper middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 13--14 cm long, 3--3.5 cm wide, sessile, base attenuate, apex subacute; uppermost leaves ovate- to oblong- lanceolate, 5.5--11 cm long, 2--3 cm wide, base often abruptly contracted or rounded, apex acute to subobtuse; leaves of lateral branches lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, (3--)6--9 cm long, 0.8- -1.8 cm wide, lowermost indistinctly petiolate; leaf indumentum of + patent, curved hairs of different length. Cymes short, loose at last, without bracts. Pedicel ca. 1 cm at flowering, to 3 cm in fruit, densely covered with white hairs, straight at first, little recurved later along upper third. Calyx 8--9 mm long in flower, sepals free to base, imbricately covering each other along margins, ovate to ovate-oblong, broadly obtuse, elongated to 10--12 mm after flowering, unequal in width, widest to 5 mm, narrowest ca. 2.5 mm, often also shorter than others, all subexplanate, densely covered with patent white hairs. Corolla campanulate, to 1 mm longer than calyx, 9--9.5 mm wide, dark purple, with reticulate veins; tube ca. 5 mm long, equaling limb; lobes to 2 mm long, very broadly rounded. Faucal appendages large, subquadrate, much bigger than anthers. Ovary remaining very small well after anthesis. Style short, included in corolla. Mature nutlets not seen.
Due to the lack of mature nutlets, the exact relationships of Cynogolssum macrocalycinum cannot be established. It is readily distinguished from C. officinale and the other Chinese species by large calyces strongly accrescent after flowering, broadly obtuse unequal calyx lobes with overlapping margins, distinctly veined corollas only slightly longer than calyx, and nutlets attaining their full size very late. This combination of characters is unique in the genus. The corolla venation of C. macrocalycinum resembles that of C. creticum Miller, but the latter species has a smaller (3--5 mm long) flowering calyx that becomes reflexed in fruit and with equal oblong lobes. In addition to C. macrocalycinum, there are two other species of Cynoglossum from Xinjiang, C. divaricatum Stephan and C. viridiflorum Pallas ex Lehmann, both belonging to subgenus Cynoglossum. It is most likely that the new species also belongs to this group.
Cynoglossum furcatum Wallich ex Roxburgh var. villosulum (Nakai) Riedl, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Cynoglossum villosulum Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37: 6. 1923. TYPE: not designated.
The inflorescence in variety villosulum is less branched and more elongated than in the type variety, the leaves are short pubescent and usually also larger, and the glochids are less abundant on the dorsal surface of the nutlets.
Cynoglossum furcatum is the correct name for what has been erroneously called C. zeylanicum by various authors who followed Brand (1921). True C. zeylanicum (Vahl) Thunberg has one or few, terminal, elongated, upright branches of the inflorescence, instead of many divaricate branches. In this respect it is more similar to variety villosulum, but the leaf hairs are shorter and more rough, and the plant and leaves are usually much smaller. Cynoglossum javanicum Thunberg is probably conspecific with C. zeylanicum, and the species does not grow north of Sri Lanka. The case will be dealt with at more length in connection with a revision of Cynoglossum subg. Paracynoglossum now in progress.
Hackelia difformis (Y. S. Lian & J. Q. Wang) Riedl, comb. nov. Basionym: Eritrichium difforme Y. S. Lian & C. Q. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 515. 1980. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Leibo, T. T. Y;auu 3842 (holotype, HP).
Lian & Wang (1980, 1989) argued that there are not sufficient differences between Eritrichium and Hackelia to keep the latter as a separate genus. However, the most important character separating the two, shape of the gynobase, was not mentioned in their argument. The gynobase in Eritrichium is cushion-shaped and 1 mm high at best, whereas in Hackelia it is distinctly conical and 2--3 mm high. Furthermore, Hackelia species are taller as a rule, many have basal leaves with cordate to truncate base, and all have deflexed fruiting pedicels, though such pedicels are found in some species of Eritrichium. The marginal prickles of nutlets are less reliable in differentiating between the two genera. In Hackelia they always are anchorlike at the apex, but in Eritrichium they may be acute or even broadly obtuse and flat as a whole, and only sometimes are they mixed with glochids. Hackelia difformis is a typical representative of the genus, and it bears close resemblance to many Pacific American species, where Hackelia is centered. In my opinion, the two genera represent different evolutionary lines. It is very likely that other species listed under Eritrichium from China will have to be transferred to Hackelia in the future.
Acknowledgments. I am grateful to Ihsan Al-Shehbaz for help during the revision of Boraginaceae for the Flora of China and in the preparation of this manuscript. I am indebted to the directors and curators of IBSC, KUN, NAS, PE, and SZ for the loan of specimens.
Brand, A. 1921. Borraginaceae--Borraginoideae-- Cynoglosseae. In: A. Engler (editor), Das Pflanzenreich IV. 252.
Lian, Y. S., J. Q. Wang & W. T. Wang. 1980. New Taxa of Boraginaceae from Xizang (Tibet). Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 514-- 520.
--- & ---. 1989. Eritrichium. In: X. W. Kung & W. T. Wang (editors), Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(2): 116--151.
Liu, Y. L. 1989. Cynoglossum. In: X. W. Kung & W. T. Wang (editors), Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(2): 220--229.