NOVON 7(4): 373-375. 1997.
Ludmila I. Ivanina and Tamara N. Popova
Herbarium, Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof. Popov Street 2, St. Petersburg 197376, Russia
ABSTRACT. Three new series of Pedicularis, ser. Maximoviczianae, ser. Albertianae, and ser. Semenowianae, are described, and three species, P. maximoviczii, P. chorgossica, and P. albertii, are reported from China.
Some of the Central Asian species of Pedicularis were not included in Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Tsoong, 1963) but were reported later from Dzhungaria by Ivanina (1970). These include P. albertii Regel, P. maximoviczii Krassnow, and P. chorgossica Regel & Winkler. Pedicularis albertii and P. maximoviczii each belongs to a monotypic series, and the latter species most probably belongs to section Capitatae (Prain) Ivanina (Ivanina, 1991), rather than to section Cyclophyllum Bunge ser. Semenowianae Vvedensky (Vvedensky, 1955). Descriptions and distributions in China of these three species are herein provided.
Tsoong (1963) placed Pedicularis semenowii Regel in series Caucasicae Maximowicz, but we believe that series Caucasicae is not represented in China. Pedicularis semenowii and three other Middle Asian species (P. popovii Vvedensky, P. karatavica Pavlov, and P. waldheimii Bonati) belong to series Semenowianae. On the other hand, P. chorgossica belongs to series Platyrrynchae Maximowicz rather than series Interruptae Vvedensky, as was determined by Vvedensky (1955).
Pedicularis ser. Maximoviczianae Ivanina & T. N. Popova, ser. nov. TYPE: Pedicularis maximoviczii Krassnow.
Radice crassa fasciculata; caule supra collum squamatum ramosissimo ramis dense caespitosis brevissimis glabris oligophyllus; foliis plerisque basalibus longe petiolatis, lamina pinnatisecta, segmentis oblongis; floribus roseo-albis amplis ramos omnes terminantibus breve capitatis; calyce hirsuto campanulato; corollae tubo erecto, galea falcata, ad angulum inferiorem breve truncata et infra apicem breve bidenticulata, labio galeam aequante. Capsula oblique ovato-oblonga cuspidata.
Roots fleshy, fascicled, fusiform, thickened. Stems small, branched basally, branches long, alternate and opposite, crowded. Flowers axillary and apical, 1--3 on long pedicels. Corolla 3--3.5 cm; tube suberect; upper lip erect or slightly bent with small widely triangular teeth, beakless. Capsule obliquely ovate-oblong.
Series Maximoviczianae is monotypic and is related to series Flexuosae Prain and series Acaules Prain. From series Flexuosae, it differs in having short stems (5--15 cm tall) and beakless corolla galeas, instead of stems more than 40 cm tall and corolla galeas with robust beaks. From series Acaules, it differs in having corolla galeas with 2 marginal teeth and flowers axillary and in apical inflorescences. In contrast, series Acaules has corolla galeas without marginal teeth and flowers exclusively axillary. Vvedensky (1955) placed Pedicularis maximoviczii in series Seminovianae Vvedensky, but species of this series typically have opposite or verticillate lower stem leaves and subcapitate inflorescences, instead of alternate lower stem leaves and non-capitate inflorescences characteristic of P. maximoviczii. In our opinion, series Maximoviczianae and Seminowianae are unrelated.
Pedicularis maximoviczii Krassnow, Zap. Russk. Geogr. Obz. 19: 339. 1888; Scripta Bot. Horti Univ. Imp. Petrop. 2: 18. 1889. TYPE: China. Xinjiang: [Dzdungaria], Muzart, 1886, Krassnow s.n. (lectotype, here designated, LE).
Herbs perennial. Roots fleshy, fusiform-thickened. Stems 5--15 cm tall, branched basally, glabrous. Basal leaves long-petiolate, 1--5 cm, lanuginose; stem leaves alternate, uppermost subopposite, crowded near inflorescences; blade 2--5 cm, lanceolate, pinnatisect, segments oblong, pinnatipartite. Flowers axillary, 1--3 with short pedicels on branches and 2 or 3 with long pedicels on apical inflorescences; bracts leaflike, petioles mostly pubescent. Calyx campanulate, membranous, densely pubescent, 1.2--1.5 cm; lobes narrowly triangular, serrate; tube 1.5 X longer than lobes. Corolla reddish white, glabrous, 3--3.5 cm; tube straight, as long as upper lip; upper lip falcate, with 2 triangular teeth; lower lip as long as upper. Filaments 2 glabrous and 2 villous. Ovary conical. Capsule obliquely ovate-oblong.
Flowering March--May, fruiting June--July.
Additional Chinese specimens examined. CHINA. Xinjiang: "prope fontes fl. Muzart," Krassnow s.n. (LE); "prope fontes fl. Tekess," Krassnow s.n. (LE).
Habitat and distribution. Stony and gravelly slopes; 3000--3600 m. Xinjiang [Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan].
Pedicularis ser. Platyrrhynchae Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg, ser. 3, 32: 586. 1888. TYPE: Pedicularis chorgossica Regel & Winkler.
Roots vertical, stout, branched. Stems several, erect, stout, 4-angular along upper part. Stem leaves 3--6, pinnatisect. Inflorescences spicate, interrupted. Calyx coriaceous or membranous, lobes 5. Corolla tube decurved apically, longer than calyx; upper lip bent, beak conical, apex with 2 marginal teeth; lower lip to 1.5--2 X shorter than upper. Capsule oblong-lanceolate or ovate, subsymmetrical.
The series includes three species distributed in Siberia, China, Kazakstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and one of its species, Pedicularis chorgossica, is recorded here from China. Series Platyrrhynchae is related to series Verticillatae Maximowicz, from which it differs in having the corolla tube decurved apically and galeas with conical beak and 2 marginal teeth, instead of the corolla tube decurved basally and galeas that are beakless and toothless. Pedicularis platyrrhyncha Schrenk is a synonym of P. interrupta Stephan ex Willdenow, but the series name Platyrrhynchae is legitimate and has priority over series Interruptae Vvedensky (1955).
Pedicularis chorgossica Regel & W inkler, Acta Horti Petrop. 6: 350. 1879. TYPE: China. Xinjiang: Dzhungaria, "Mittlerer Chorgos," 1500--1800 m, 15 May 1878, A. Regel s.n. (lectotype, here designated, LE).
Herbs perennial. Roots vertical, with several stout branches. Stems 20--35 cm tall, 1--8, simple, erect, stout, glabrous, 4-angular in upper part. Stem leaves verticillate in 3 or 4 nodes, lower long petiolate, upper sessile; petiole and midrib winged; blade pinnatisect or pinnatipartite, segments lanceolate. Inflorescences spicate, to 10 cm; bracts leaflike, hirsute at base, upper shorter than flowers. Calyx cylindric, 6--9 mm, membranous, scabrous; lobes 5, lanceolate, acute, entire or callose-serrulate, to 2--3 X shorter than tube. Corolla reddish lilac, 2.2--2.5 cm; tube ± straight; upper lip falcate apically, beak short with small teeth; lower lip ca. 1.5 X shorter than upper, middle lobe smaller than lateral pair, curved. Filaments glabrous. Capsule ovoid, subsymmetrical, ca. 1--1.3 cm, apex acuminate.
Flowering June--July, fruiting July--August.
Additional Chinese specimens examined. CHINA. Xinjiang: Dzhungaria, "Mittlerer Chorgos," 1500--1800 m, 16 May 1878, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Mittlerer Dschin-Zaganlunge," 1200--1800 m, 7 June 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Naryngol am Zaganussu (Dschin)," 1800--2450 m, 10 June 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Borgatypass," 2450--2750 m, 7 June 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Kokkamyrgebirge, nord Kuldsha," 2450--2750 m, 29 July 1878, A. Regel s.n. (LE).
Habitat and distribution. Dry rocky and sandy slopes; 2300--2900 m. Xinjiang [Kyrgyzstan].
Pedicularis ser. Albertianae Vvedensky ex Ivanina & T. N. Popova, ser. nov. TYPE: Pedicularis albertii Regel.
Perennia; radix abbreviata, fibris funiculatis crassis; caules 1--3, erecti, 5--20 cm alti; folia radicalia pinnatisecta, ovata vel lanceolata; caulina alternata, 1--3, brevi petiolata; inflorescentia spiciformis, 5--10 cm longa; corolla roseo purpurea, 1.5--1.7 cm longa, tubus infractus, galea recta, edentula, labio parvo 5 X 5 mm lobo medio parvo. Capsula oblique ovata.
Herbs perennial. Roots short, thick. Stems 1--3, erect, 5--20 cm tall. Basal leaves pinnatisect, ovate to lanceolate; stem leaves alternate, 1--3, short-petiolate. Inflorescences spicate, 5--10 cm. Corolla rose-purple, 1.5--1.7 cm; upper lip toothless, straight; lower lip shorter, 5 X 5 mm, middle lobe short. Capsule oblique ovate.
Series Albertianae is monotypic, and Vvedensky (1955) did not provide a Latin diagnosis for it. It is most closely related to series Flammeae Prain, from which it differs in having basipetal inflorescences, the corolla tube curved at the calyx throat, and small (ca. 5 X 5 mm) corolla lips. In contrast, series Flammeae has centrifugal inflorescences, the corolla decurved just below the galea, and wider corolla lips.
Pedicularis albertii Regel, Tran. Petersb. Bot. Sada 6: 353. 1880.
Herbs perennial. Rootstock fascicled, fusiform. Stems (5--)10--20 cm tall, 1 or 2, simple, crisped-arachnoid pubescent. Basal leaves lanceolate, crisp-hairy along veins and petiole, pinnatisect; segments oblong-lanceolate, imbricate-lobed, dentate, acute; stem leaves 1--3, sessile or subsessile. Inflorescences 4--10 cm, dense; lowermost bracts similar to upper leaves, middle ones oblong-lanceolate, entire, uppermost linear. Calyx campanulate, 5--6 X ca. 10 mm, membranous, villous on veins; teeth triangular-lanceolate, acute, entire. Corolla pink-purple, 1.5--1.7 cm, tube curved; upper lip straight, not beaked, toothless, ca. 2 X longer than lower lip; lower lip 3-lobed, ca. 5 X 5 mm, glabrous. Filaments glabrous or with solitary short hairs. Capsule ca. 1.2 cm, oblique ovoid.
Flowering April--June, fruiting May--July.
Chinese specimens examined. CHINA. Xinjiang: Dzhungaria, "Ober Lauf des Taldy," 2400--2750 m, 17 May 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE), 2750--3050 m, 20 May 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Hochebene an den Quellen vos Dschurgalan et Pilutschi," 1800 m, 24 Apr. 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); "Pilutschipass," 26 Apr. 1879, A. Regel s.n. (LE); Orient Tian-schan, Bogdo-ula," 26 Apr. 1959, Junatov & Yan-J-Fan 45 (LE).
Habitat and distribution. Abies and broad-leaved forests. Xinjiang [Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan].
Pedicularis ser. Semenowianae Vvedensky ex Ivanina & T. N. Popova , ser. nov. TYPE: Pedicularis semenowii Regel.
Radix crassa fasciculata, rami fusiformiter incrassatis; caule brevis; folia radicalia paucissima pinnatipartita rhachi serrata, caulina opposita vel verticillata; corolla ultra 20 mm longa, tubus ad calycis faucem incurvis vel rectus, galea recta aequilata plus triplo longior, galea apice obtuso vel brevius rostrata et 2-denticulata, labium galeam aequans ovarium globosum, capsule oblique late ovata.
Roots fascicled, thick, branches fusiform. Stem short. Basal leaves pinnatipartite, rachis serrate; stem leaves opposite or whorled. Corolla more than 2 cm; tube curved at calyx mouth or straight; upper lip straight, 1--3 X longer than broad; lower lip obtuse to short-beaked at apex, 2-toothed, as long as globose ovary. Capsule obliquely broad ovate.
Vvedensky (1955) did not provide a Latin diagnosis for series Seminowianae, and the name is herein validated. Series Semenowianae is most closely related to series Caucasicae Maximowicz and differs by its fleshy fusiform roots, slender stems, inflated fruiting calyx, and corollas more than 2 cm long. Series Caucasicae has conical roots, stout stems, a non-inflated fruiting calyx, and corollas less than 2 cm long.
Acknowledgments. We are grateful to Ihsan Al-Shehbaz for his help with the manuscript and to A. Grabovskaya for help with communication.
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Tsoong, P.-C. 1963. Pedicularis. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 68: 1--378.
Vvedensky, A. I. 1955. Pedicularis. Fl. URSS 22: 687--795.