NOVON 4(4): 369-372. 1994.
T. N. Ho
Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810001, People's Republic of China
ABSTRACT. The taxa Gentiana densiflora T. N. Ho, G. kunmingensis S. W. Liu, G. myrioclada var. wuxiensis T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu, G. xingrenensis S. W. Liu, and Swertia luquanensis S. W. Liu are described as new. The new combinations G. cephalantha Franchet ex Forbes & Hemsley var. vaniotii (Leveille) T. N. Ho, G. davidii Franchet var. fukienensis (Ling) T. N. Ho, G. lawrencei Burkill var. farreri (I. B. Balfour) T. N. Ho, G. ninglangensis T. N. Ho var. glabrescens (Harry Smith) T. N. Ho, G. prostrata Haenke var. ludlowii (Marquand) T. N. Ho, G. pulvinarum W. W. Smith subsp. subtilis (Harry Smith) T. N. Ho, G. stipitata Edgeworth subsp. tizuensis (Franchet) T. N. Ho, G. suborbisepala Marquand var. kialensis (Marquand) T. N. Ho, G. trichotoma Kusnezow var. chingii (Marquand) T. N. Ho, G. wardii W. W. Smith var. emergens (Marquand) T. N. Ho, and Swertia wardii Marquand var. rigida (T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu) T. N. Ho are proposed.
Gentiana densiflora T. N. Ho, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Chengkou, 1,500 m, 16 Apr. 1958, L. T. Dai 100047 (holotype, HNWP).
Inter species sect. Chondrophyllarum Bunge ser. Fastigiatarum T. N. Ho foliis caulinis obovatis vel spathulatis, marginibus calycis anguste membranaceis et laevibus, ramulis confertis ceteras excellens.
Annuals 3--13 cm tall. Stems erect, purple, fastigiate- branched at base, with short slender branches and 2--6 crowded flowering branches, papillate. Basal leaves withered at anthesis, petiole 2--3 mm long; blade ovate to broadly ovate, 10--25 X 7- -13 mm, margin cartilaginous and ciliolate, apex obtuse; veins 1- -3, slender. Cauline leaves widely spaced; connate sheathing bases 1--1.5 mm long, abaxially papillate; blade spatulate to obovate, 5--15(--20) X 2--10(--15) mm, shorter than internodes, gradually smaller toward stem apex, margin narrowly membranous and ciliolate, apex rounded; veins 1--3, slender. Flowers many. Pedicel purple, 2--3.5 mm long, papillate, subtended by upper leaves. Calyx narrowly obconic, 5--6.5 mm long, lobes broadly triangular, 1--2 mm long, margins narrowly membranous and smooth, midvein prominent, apex acute and apiculate. Corolla pale yellow- green outside, pale blue inside, tubular, 1--1.3 cm long; lobes ovate, 1.5--2 mm long, margin entire, apex obtuse; plicae semiorbicular, 0.8--1 mm long, margin entire or crenulate, apex obtuse. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube, equal, filaments 2.5--3 mm long; anthers narrowly oblong, 1.3--1.5 mm long. Style 1--1.5 mm long. Gynophore to 1.8 cm long, stout. Capsules spatulate to obovate, 4.5--6 mm long, conspicuously winged. Seeds brown, oblong to ellipsoid, 1--1.2 mm long, minutely reticulate.
Gentiana densiflora is a distinctive species, easily recognized by its having crowded flowering branchlets and narrowly membranaceous and smooth leaf margins and calyx lobes. It is only distantly allied to the remaining members of section Chondrophyllae ser. Fastigiatae. It does, however, clearly belong to this series because of its fastigiate branches and triangular calyx lobes.
Paratypes. CHINA. Sichuan: Nanchuan, 800--900 m, 31 May 1928, W. P. Fang 1177 (PE); Nanchuan, 1,300--1,800 m, 5--28 Apr. 1957, J. H. Xiong 90155 & 90556 (SZ); Wushan, 2,040 m, 16 Apr. 1964, G. H. Young 57904 (PE). Hubei: Fenjie, 1,200 m, 25 Apr. 1964, H. F. Zhou & H. Y. Su 107812 (SZ); Fenjie, 1,800 m, 1 June 1964, H. F. Zhou & H. Y. Su 108401 (SZ). Guizhou: Fanjing Shan, 11 May 1959, Qian bei exped. 833 (PE).
Gentiana kunmingensis S. W. Liu, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Yunnan: Kunming, 26 Apr. 1957, B. Y. Qiu 54533 (holotype, KUN).
Inter species sect. Chondrophyllarum, Gentianae maeulchanensi Franchet similis, differt foliis et calycibus pubescentibus, corolla flavida, calycem paullo superante, staminbus aequilongis.
Annuals or biennials, 2--5 cm tall. Stems erect, rigid, fastigiate-branched at base, flowering branches crowded into a capitulum, papillate toward apex. Basal leaves with petiole 1--3 mm long; blade spatulate, oblanceolate, or obovate, 5--22 X 3-- 13 mm, densely pubescent, margin densely ciliolate, apex rounded, midvein prominent. Cauline leaves petiolate, blade 5--11 X 1.5- -3.5 mm, gradually smaller toward stem apex, densely pubescent, margin densely ciliolate, apex rounded, midvein distinct; lower leaves widely spaced, shorter than internodes, blades spatulate or obovate; upper leaves crowded, blades elliptic. Flowers many, subsessile. Calyx narrowly obconic, 7--8 mm long, outside pubescent; lobes narrowly triangular, 3--3.5 mm long, nearly as long as tube, equal, margin membranous and densely ciliolate, apex acute, midvein prominent. Corolla scarcely exceeding calyx, pale yellow, tubular, 8--9 mm long; lobes ovate, 1.5--2 mm long, margin entire, apex obtuse; plicae ovate, 0.8--1 mm long, margin entire to crenulate, apex obtuse. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube, equal, filaments 1.2--1.5 mm long, anthers 0.4--0.6 mm long. Style 1--1.2 mm long; stigma lobes linear. Gynophore to 5 mm long, stout. Capsules spatulate to obovate, 4--4.5 mm long, conspicuously winged; wing strong and broad at apex, narrowed toward base. Seed brown, oblong or ovoid, 0.7--1 mm long, minutely reticulate.
Gentiana kunmingensis resembles G. maeulchanensis of section Chondrophyllae but differs in having pubescent leaves and calyx, a pale yellow corolla that is scarcely exserted from the calyx, and equal stamens.
Gentiana myrioclada Franchet var. wuxiensis T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu, var. nov. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Wuxi, on hillside, Aug. 1958, G. H. Young 59446 (holotype, IBSC).
A var. myrioclada foliis lobisque calycis dense hispidulis differt.
Plants of this variety are distinguished from those of variety myrioclada by being densely hispidulous, especially on the leaves and calyx lobes.
Gentiana xingrenensis T. N. Ho, sp. nov. TYPE: China. Guizhou: Xingren, among shrubs, 1,300 m, Aug. 1972, C. G. Den s.n. (holotype, GMI---Herbarium, Guizhou Institute of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Guiyuan, Guizhou).
Inter species Chondrophyllarum habitu Gentianae pedatae Harry Smith et G. scyphyllae T. N. Ho similis, a quibus foliis inferioribus oblongis, orbicularibus usque obovatis, superioribus lineari-lanceolatis usque linearibus, corolla extra luteo-viridi, intra pallide caerulea, calycem vix superanti differt.
Annuals 3--4 cm tall. Stems erect, lower half simple and leafless; upper half much-branched, with short internodes, apically many-leaved, flowering branches crowded into a capitulum. Lower leaves with connate sheathing bases 0.5--1 mm long; blade oblong, orbicular, to obovate, 1.4--2 X 0.8--1.6 cm, base narrowed, margin cartilaginous, apex obtuse to rounded and cuspidate with a recurved tip, midvein distinct. Upper cauline leaves with connate sheathing bases 1--1.5 mm long; blade linear-lanceolate to linear, 5--7 X 1--2.5 mm, base obtuse, margin cartilaginous and ciliolate, apex acuminate and awned, midvein distinct. Flowers many, subsessile. Calyx tubular, 6--7 mm long; lobes subulate, 2.5--3 mm long, margin cartilaginous and ciliolate, apex acuminate and awned, midvein prominent. Corolla pale yellow-green outside, pale blue inside, tubular, 8--10 mm long; lobes ovate, 1--1.5 mm long, margin entire, apex obtuse; plicae ovate, 0.5--0.8 mm long, margin denticulate, apex obtuse. Stamens inserted on lower part of corolla tube, equal, filaments 2--2.5 mm; anthers 0.8--1 mm. Ovary oblong, 2--2.5 mm long; style 0.8--1 mm long; stigma lobes oblong. Gynophore ca. 2 mm long, stout. Capsules obovoid, ca. 3 mm long, conspicuously winged; wing strong and broad at apex, narrowed toward base. Seed coat minutely reticulate.
Within section Chondrophyllae, Gentiana xingrenensis resembles G. pedata and G. scyphylla, but differs from both by having oblong, orbicular, or obovate lower leaves and linear- lanceolate to linear upper leaves, and corollas scarcely exserted from the calyx and pale yellow-green outside and pale blue inside.
Gentiana cephalantha Franchet ex Forbes & Hemsley var. vaniotii (Leveille) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana vaniotii Leveille, Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 182. 1913. TYPE: China. Yunnan: Yunnansen (Kunming), 8 Nov. 1896, Bodinier 31 (lectotype, selected here, E).
Gentianodes vaniotii (Leveille) A. & D. Love, Bot. Not. 125: 258. 1972.
This variety is very common around Kunming, Yunnan. It is distinguished from variety cephalantha by having numerous glandular hairs toward the stem apex. The syntypes of G. vaniotii belong to different taxa. One, Bodinier 31, corresponds well to the original description and hence is placed here. Another, Esquirol 701, is G. rigescens Franchet ex Forbes & Hemsley.
Gentiana davidii Franchet var. fukienensis (Ling) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana fukienensis Ling, Contr. Inst. Bot. Nat. Acad. Peiping 6(4): 217. 1949. TYPE: China. Fujian (as Fukin): Shanghan, Chutsaotung, southern slope, 1,350--1,500 m, 20 Oct. 1945, Y. Ling 4604 (holotype, PE).
Gentiana davidii var. fukienensis differs from variety davidii in being a smaller plant (2.5--4 cm tall) with truncate corolla plicae. It is restricted to Fujian and Taiwan.
Gentiana lawrencei Burkill var. farreri (I. B. Balfour) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana farreri I. B. Balfour, Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 27: 248. 1918. TYPE: cultivated plant collected 27 Oct. 1916 grown from seed collected in China. Gansu: Jo-Ni alps, Farrer & Purdom s.n., 1914 (lectotype, selected here, E).
The actual description by Balfour was based on living plants, and the type cover for this species in the cultivated section at E contains two sheets (M. Watson, pers. comm.). Both these sheets were apparently made from the cultivated plants that were the basis of Balfour's description. One specimen, collected in September 1916, contains just a dissected calyx and corolla, and the other specimen, collected 27 October 1916, contains eight flowers and several plants. The labels on both the September 1916 and the 27 October 1927 specimens appear to be in Balfour's hand, but there is no indication on these sheets as to which Balfour considered to be the holotype. Because no holotype was designated, the 27 October 1927 specimen is being designated as the lectotype.
Gentiana lawrencei is a very common species native to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau of China. Within this species there are two recognizable varieties. Gentiana lawrencei var. lawrencei has calyx lobes about as long as the calyx tube, and Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri has calyx lobes at least 1.8 times as long as the calyx tube.
Gentiana ninglangensis T. N. Ho var. glabrescens (Harry Smith) T. N. Ho, comb. nov. Basionym: Gentiana pubigera var. glabrescens Harry Smith in Handel-Mazzetti, Symbolae Sinicae 7: 961. 1936. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Yenyuan-Yalung, 27;dg31;prN, 2,400--3,300 m, 12 May 1914, Handel-Mazzetti 2206 (holotype, UPS).
On the basis of its having elliptic to linear- lanceolate leaves toward the stem apex, variety glabrescens is better placed in Gentiana ninglangensis than in G. pubiflora. The type locality of variety ninglangensis is in Ninglang Hsien, northern Yunnan, and is very close to that of variety glabrescens.
Gentiana prostrata Haenke var. ludlowii (Marquand) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana ludlowii Marquand, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937: 189. 1937. TYPE: China. Xizang: Lhakang, shady rocky hillside, 3,900 m, 1 Sep. 1933, Ludlow & Sherriff 507 (holotype, BM).
This variety, which is restricted to Xizang and Qinghai provinces, differs from variety prostrata by having papillate stems and leaf margins and calyces usually half as long as the corolla.
Gentiana pulvinarum W. W. Smith subsp. subtilis (Harry Smith) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana subtilis Harry Smith, Anz. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. 63: 103. 1926. TYPE: China. NW Yunnan: Mekong-Salwin divide, Sila, 26 Aug. 1916, Handel-Mazzetti 9941 (holotype, K; isotypes, E, UPS, US).
Subspecies subtilis, which is endemic to northwestern Yunnan, is readily distinguished from subspecies pulvinarum by its spatulate or elliptic leaves and elliptic calyx lobes. The latter has linear leaves and calyx lobes and is distributed in China (Yunnan), India, and Nepal. The width of leaves and calyx lobes appears to narrow from the eastern part of the species range to the west, and it is better to treat the two entities as subspecies than as independent species.
Gentiana stipitata Edgeworth subsp. tizuensis (Franchet) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana tizuensis Franchet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 494. 1896. TYPE: China. Sichuan: Da-tsien-lou (Kangding), Tizou and Tongolo, Sep.--Oct. 1891, Soulie 368 (holotype, P; isotype, K).
Gentianodes tizuensis (Franchet) A. & D. Love, Bot. Not. 125: 257. 1972.
Smith (1961) distinguished Gentiana tizuensis from G. stipitata primarily on the basis of having 4-merous rather than 5-merous flowers. The examination of types and other gatherings of both taxa reveals that this character is unreliable and that the two are basically very similar in all respects except the corolla. Gentiana stipitata has corollas 2.5--3 cm long and distinctly awned corolla lobes and is distributed in northwestern India and Nepal, whereas G. tizuensis has corollas (2.5--)3--4 cm long and indistinctly awned corolla lobes and is distributed in western China. The two are better treated as subspecies.
Gentiana suborbisepala Marquand var. kialensis (Marquand) T. N. Ho, comb. nov. Basionym: Gentiana yunnanensis var. kialensis Marquand, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937: 166. 1937. TYPE: China. W Sichuan: [Kangding], Tongolo, Kiala, 1893, Soulie 680 (lectotype, selected here, K; isolectotype, P).
Gentiana blinii Leveille, Bull. Geogr. Bot. 25: 22. 1915. TYPE: China. Yunnan: Lou-pou, 3,000 m, Oct. 1912, E. E. Maire s.n. (holotype, E).
On the basis of its having uniform suborbicular calyx lobes, variety kialensis is more at home in Gentiana suborbisepala than in G. yunnanensis. The variety differs from variety suborbisepala by having corollas less than 1.5(--2) cm long. It is distributed in northeastern Yunnan, southwestern and western Sichuan, and Guizhou.
Gentiana trichotoma Kusnezow var. chingii (Marquand) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana chingii Marquand, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1931: 83. 1931. TYPE: China. Gansu (as Kansu): Ye Cheon K'ou, near old Taochow [Lintao Xian] on the border of Tibet [Qinghai], in dense tussocks, 3,300--3,800 m, 21 Aug. 1923, R. C. Ching 817 (holotype, K; isotype, N).
This variety differs from variety trichotoma by having linear basal leaves and 1--3-flowered inflorescences. It is distributed in Gansu, Qinghai, and Xizang.
Gentiana wardii W. W. Smith var. emergens (Marquand) T. N. Ho, comb. et stat. nov. Basionym: Gentiana emergens Marquand, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1931: 82. 1931. TYPE: China. SW Sichuan: Muli, Mt. Mitzuga, on rocks and boulders, 3,050--4,875 m, June 1928, Rock 16591 (holotype, E; isotypes, A, K, NY, UPS).
This variety differs from variety wardii by having large corollas 3--3.5 cm long and triangular plicae 2--2.5 mm long.
Swertia luquanensis S. W. Liu, sp. nov. TYPE: China. NE Yunnan: Luquan, hillsides, 2,450 m, 28 Oct. 1965, Hu Yue-ying 652338 (holotype, GMI).
Speciei Swertiae patenti Burkill similis, sed foliis basilaribus lineare-oblongis, calycis lobis 2--3 mm latis, lanceolatis, non bracteaceis distinguenda.
Perennials 5--6(--18) cm tall. Roots stout, 3--4 mm diam., fibrous. Stems procumbent to ascending, caespitose, subquadrangular, narrowly winged, papillate on angles, simple. Leaves mostly basal, crowded in a rosette, short petiolate; blade linear-oblong, 2--6 X 0.2--0.3 cm, base narrowed, apex acute, midvein distinct; cauline leaves sessile, linear, to 3 X 0.2 cm, base narrowed, apex acuminate, midvein distinct. Inflorescences racemelike, few-flowered; flowers 4-merous, ca. 1.5 cm diam. Pedicel erect, 7--12 mm, slender. Calyx longer than corolla; lobes not bractlike, lanceolate, 8--11 X 2--3 mm, unequal, obtuse at both ends, margin scabrous and slightly revolute, veins 3 and indistinct. Corolla pale yellow, tube 1--2 mm; lobes ovate, apex acute; nectaries 2 per corolla lobe, pocket-shaped, with a triangular scale and many short fimbriae. Filaments ca. 5 mm long; anthers blue, oblong, ca. 1.5 mm long. Ovary ovoid-ellipsoid, 8--10 mm long; style short, distinct; stigma lobes capitate. Capsules ovoid, ca. 8 mm long. Seeds brown, subglobose, smooth.
Swertia wardii Marquand var. rigida (T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu) T. N. Ho, comb. nov. Basionym: Swertia phragmitiphylla var. rigida T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 79. 1980. TYPE: China. Xizang: Yadong Xian, 20 Sep. 1974, Qinghai-Xizang Exped. 74-2716 (holotype, PE).
Swertia wardii var. rigida has racemelike inflorescences with pedicels that are erect, rigid, and elongating to 10 cm in fruit. This variety differs from S. wardii var. wardii (syn. S. phragmitiphylla T. N. Ho & S. W. Liu var. phragmitiphylla), which has paniculate inflorescences with pedicels that are spreading to somewhat arcuate, not rigid, and elongating to only 7.5 cm in fruit. Both varieties are endemic to Xizang, China.
Acknowledgments. We are most grateful to the directors and staff of the herbaria at BM, GMI, K, P, and PE for the loans and permission to consult their collections. We are much indebted to Bruce Bartholomew and Michael Gilbert for useful discussions and help in the preparation of this manuscript, and to Ihsan Al- Shehbaz for editing the manuscript.
Smith, H. 1961. Problems relating to the Gentiana cachemirica of the "Flora of British India." Kew Bull. 15: 43-- 55.