Asteraceae Tribe ASTEREAE [Draft]

紫菀族 zi wan zu

Chen Yilin (陈艺林 Chen Yi-ling)[1]; Luc Brouillet[2], John C. Semple[3]

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Leaves mostly alternate, simple, serrate, dentate, or pinnatisect. Capitula radiate or discoid. Involucral bracts generally many, imbricate in many-seriate, more rarely 1- to 2-seriate, herbaceous, scarious or subcoriaceous. Receptacle flat or convex, epaleate, alveolate or sometimes paleate. Marginal florets 1 to numerous, female, ligulate or finely subulate, central florets tubular, hermaphrodite, or marginal female florets reduced and with homomorphic tubular florets, female florets ligulate, rays yellow or other color, 2- or 3-denticulate, or finely tubular, shorter than style, hermaphrodite florets tubular, yellow, fertile or sometimes sterile. Anthers mostly caudate, obtuse at base, apical appendage ovate-lanceolate; style arms plain, apically with lanceolate, triangular appendage, abaxially pilose, adaxially glabrous. Cypselas cylindrical, oblong-obovoid. Pappus of scabrid-barbellate, fine or coarse bristles, or scales, or absent.

About 180 genera and 2700 species: worldwide, especially in temperate America; 29 genera and 228 species (106 endemic) in China.

Add to key: 40. Formania, if this genus is to be included in the Astereae.

1a.       Capitula radiate, ray florets yellow (Solidaginae); pappus of many fine bristles
                                                                                                                        10. Solidago

1b.       Capitula radiate, ray florets white, red, or purple, or discoid ray florets absent.

2a.       Capitula small, discoid, with 2- to many-seriate tubular female florets; corolla apically 2–4-lobed, pappus absent, or dentiform or shortly bristled (Grangeinae).

3a.       Receptacle conical or convex, finely lobed or with a denticulate ring  .........  13. Grangea

3b.       Receptacle elongate, globose; cypselas without fine lobes or with denticulate ring.

4a.       Receptacle ± swollen; cypselas compressed, thickened at margins
...................................................................................................  11. Dichrocephalus

4b.       Receptacle convex; cypselas compressed, not thickened at margins
.........................................................................................................  12. Cyathocline

2b.       Capitula larger, radiate, with female ray florets, or disciform with female fine tubular florets.

5a.       Capitula with finely tubular female florets, sometimes female florets with erect small rays, or female florets without corolla, and without conspicuous ray florets (Conyzinae).

6a.       Pappus of bristles short; corolla in female florets absent  ............................  39. Thespis

6b.       Pappus of bristles long; corolla in female florets present.

7a.       Cypselas cylindrical, 5-angled; high or climbing shrub  .....................  37. Microglossa

7b.       Cypselas compressed or slightly compressed, 2–5-angled; erect herb  ....  38. Conyza

5b.       Capitula with distinctly spreading female ray florets or sometimes female florets absent.

8a.       Cypselas rostrate, or narrowed at apex, or apiculate, apically bearing a viscid ring; female florets 2- to many-seriate (Bellidinae).

9a.       Stemless herbs; capitula solitary, scapose hermaphrodite florets usually sterile  14. Lagenophora

9b.       Stems erect, branched; capitula on branches.

10a.     All cypselas rostrate; pappus absent, or of 1–5 minute, easily deciduous bristles  15. Rhynchospermum

10b.     Cypselas apiculate or shortly rostrate; pappus absent  .......................  16. Myriactis

8b.       Cypselas erostrate, compressed; female florets usually seriate.

11a.     Pappus absent; phyllaries large, subequal  ...................................................  17. Bellis

11b.     Pappus of long or short bristles, or scaly, or cypselas apically narrowly ringed and pappus absent (Asterinae).

12a.     Pappus very short, scaly or aristate on narrowly ringed cypselas.

13a.     Hermaphrodite florets sterile; pappus 1- to many aristate, or aristate and scaly  18. Calotis

13b.     Hermaphrodite florets fertile.

14a.     Cypselas narrowly ringed at apex, pappus absent (Gymnaster)
                                                                                            19. Miyamayomena

14b.     Cypselas with scabrid or shortly scaly pappus at apex  .................  20. Kalimeris

12b.     Pappus of long bristles, with or without outer scales.

15a.     Phyllaries outer series large and leaf-like, inner series membranous or scarious; pappus double, inner of long scabrid bristles, outer a short membranous crown ...  21..Callistephus

15b.     Phyllaries outer series not leaf-like; pappus 1- or many-seriate, sometimes outer membranous.

16a.     Phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, narrow, equal; style arm appendages triangular; female florets 1- or many-seriate.

17a.     Hermaphrodite and female florets discolor (purple, white, or orange), hermaphrodite florets fertile .........................................................................................  36. Erigeron

17b.     Hermaphrodite and female florets homochromatic (yellow or red), hermaphrodite florets sterile.

18a.     Capitula with trimorphic florets; female florets ligulate and filiform, hermaphrodite florets tubular, female sterile  ........................................................  34. Nannoglottis

18b.     Capitula with 2 types of florets; female florets filiform, hermaphrodite florets sterile       35. Psychrogeton

16b.     Phyllaries many-seriate, imbricate, foliaceous or scarious at margin, or double, subequal; ray florets usually 1-seriate; style arm appendages lanceolate at apex.

19a.     Ray florets short, shorter than pappus.

20a.     Disc florets radiate; erect herbs  ...........................................  32. Brachyactis

20b.     Disc florets zygomorphic; scandent or erect herbs  .............  33. Hereroplexis

19b.     Ray florets long, longer than pappus, sometimes absent.

21a.     Corolla of disc florets zygomorphic, 1 lobe longer; pappus of bristles, scaly or absent in ray florets  .............................................................................  22. Heteropappus

21b.     Corolla of disc florets actinomorphic, 5 lobes equal; pappus of scabrid bristles in both ray and disc florets.

22a.     Pappus many-seriate, ± unequal, scabrid bristles.

23a.     Cypselas oblong, not ribbed on both surfaces, densely villous; capitula solitary at apex; leaves narrow and long, gramineous
                                                                                         30. Arctogeron

23b.     Cypselas narrowly oblong, with thickened marginal rib, and 1 finely ribbed on each side, glabrous or sparsely hairy; capitula many, corymbose; leaves lanceolate    31. Tripolium

22b.     Pappus 1- or 2-seriate, outer very short or scaly.

24a.     Cypselas cylindrical, slightly narrowed, 2-ribbed on both surfaces except marginal rib; pappus of many bristles  ................................................  23. Doellingeria

24b.     Cypselas oblong or ovate, slightly compressed.

25a.     Cypselas finely ribbed at margin, not ribbed on both surfaces, densely villous        24. Turczaninowia

25b.     Cypselas ribbed at margin, ribbed or not on both surfaces, sparsely or densely hairy.

26a.     Cypselas inconspicuously ribbed; ray florets sterile, or absent; pappus 2- or 3-seriate of scabrid bristles.

27a.     Capitula usually with reduced sterile ray florets; cypselas oblanceolate  28. Galatella

27b.     Capitula with homomorphic hermaphrodite florets, without reduced female florets; cypselas oblong  ..........................................................  29. Linosyris

26b.     Cypselas distinctly ribbed; ray florets fertile; pappus 1- or 2-seriate, outer series very short or shorter.

28a.     Style arms with triangular appendage; cypselas appressed villous ..  27. Asterothamnus

28b.     Style arms with lanceolate appendage; cypselas sparsely hairy or glandular.

29a.     Pappus 1- or 2-seriate, outer series short, scaly  ..............  25. Aster

29b.     Pappus 2-seriate, outer series shorter; disc florets often bilabiate  26. Krylovia

10. SOLIDAGO Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 878. 1753.

一枝黄花属 yi zhi huang hua shu

Herbs perennial, rarely subshrubs. Leaves alternate. Capitula small or rather small, heterogamous, radiate, numerous in terminal racemes, panicles, corymbs, or spiciform panicles. Involucre narrowly campanulate or elliptical; phyllaries many-seriate, imbricate. Receptacle small, usually alveolate. Florets fertile. Outer florets female, ligulate, 1-seriate, or reduced, homogenous; disc florets hermaphrodite, tubular, with expanded or narrow limb, apically 5-denticulate. Anthers obtuse at base; style arms flattened; appendage lanceolate. Cypselas oblong-obovoid, 8–12-ribbed, glabrous or pubescent. Pappus of many fine bristles, 1- or 2-seriate, rather unequal or outer rather short.

About 150 species: mainly in North America, a few species also in Asia, Europe, and South America; four species (one endemic) in China.

1a.       Capitula small, less than ca. 3 mm in diam.; inflorescence branches on one side inserted, often curved      4. S. canadensis

1b.       Capitula larger, 6–10 mm in diam.; inflorescence branches erect, inserted around stem, in raceme of panicles, sometimes conferted into a compound capitula head.

2a.       Phyllaries rounded or obtuse ......................................................................  2. S. pacifica

2b.       Phyllaries acuminate or acute.

3a.       Capitula large, ca. 10 mm in diam., 10–12 mm; leaves thin in texture
                                                                                                               1. S. virgaurea

3b.       Capitula smaller, 6–9 mm in diam., 6–8 mm; leaves thicker in texture
                                                                                                               3. S. decurrens

1. Solidago virgaurea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 880. 1753.

毛果一枝黄花 mao guo yi zhi huang hua

Herbs perennial, 15–100 cm tall, rhizomes procumbent or ascending. Stems erect, simple or inflorescence-branched in upper part, sparsely puberulent in upper part, glabrous in lower part. Middle leaves elliptic, long elliptic, or lanceolate, 5–17 × 2–3 cm, lower cauline leaves homomorphic with middle leaves, rarely ovate, glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely puberulent along nerves, base gradually narrowed and decurrent into a wing, petioles of lower leaves usually equal to blade, margin coarsely or finely serrate. Capitula larger, 10–12 × ca. 10 mm, numerous in densely or laxly terminal long panicles, panicles to 30 cm, or in 10–12 cm racemes, rarely conferted into compound-capitula. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries 4–6-seriate, lanceolate, 5–8 mm, acuminate or acute, with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets yellow, 7–13; disc florets many. Cypselas angled, 3–4 mm, sparsely puberulent or 1/3–1/2 pilose in upper part and glabrous or almost glabrous elsewhere. Pappus white, 4–5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Forests, forest glades, forest margins, and thickets; 1200–2700 m. Hebei, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Mongolia, Russia; SW Asia (Caucasus), Europe].

This species is used medicinally and as a honey plant.

1a. Cypselas sparsely puberulent ...........................................................................  1a. var. virgaurea

1b. Cypselas 1/3–1/2 pilose, in upper part otherwise glabrous or almost glabrous
.........................................................................................................................  1b. var. dahurica

1a. Solidago virgaurea var. virgaurea

毛果一枝黄花(原变种) mao guo yi zhi huang hua (yuan bian zhong)

Cypselas sparsely puberulent.

Forests, forest margins, and thickets; 1200–2700 m. Xinjiang (Altai and Tienshan) [Mongolia, Russia; SW Asia (Caucasus), Europe].

1b. Solidago virgaurea var. dahurica Kitagawa, Rep. Inst. Sci. Res., March 1: 297. 1937.

寡毛 gua mao

Solidago dahurica Kitagawa.

Cypselas 1/3–1/2 pilose in upper part, otherwise glabrous or almost glabrous.

Forests, forest glades. NE China, Hebei, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Mongolia, Russia].

Here and elsewhere: “NE China” needs to be replaced by whichever provinces apply for this taxon.

2. Solidago pacifica S. V. Juzepczuk, Fl. URSS 25: 576. 1959.

純苞一枝黄花 tun bao yi zhi huang hua

Solidago virgaurea Linnaeus var. coreana Nakai.

Herbs perennial, rhizomes robust. Stems slender erect, to 1 m tall, simple, glabrous, lax-leaved. Leaves elliptic or lanceolate, lower cauline leaves narrowly petiolate, upper cauline leaves gradually smaller, glabrous on both surfaces, or sparsely ciliate. Capitula smaller, 7–12 mm, numerous, terminal, corymbose, several corymbs arranged in racemes on stem, racemes to 35 cm. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, elliptic or oblanceolate, 4–6 mm, rounded or obtuse. Ray florets ca. 5 mm. Cypselas ca. 2 mm, completely glabrous. Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct.

Grasslands on slopes, forests or forest margins; ca. 1600 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning [Japan, Russia].

3. Solidago decurrens Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 501. 1790.

一枝黄花 yi zhi huang hua

Amphirhapis chinensis Schultz Bipontinus; A. leiocarpa Bentham; Solidago cantonensis Loureiro; S. japonica Kitamura var. paludosa Honda; S. virgaurea Linnaeus subsp. leiocarpa Hulten; S. virgaurea var. leiocarpa (Bentham) A. Gray; S. virgaurea var. paludossa Honda.

Herbs perennial, (9)35–100 cm tall. Stems erect, usually slender, solitary or rarely fascicled, simple or branched in upper part. Middle cauline leaves elliptic, long elliptic, ovate, or broadly lanceolate, 2–5 × 1–1.5(–2) cm, with winged petioles, base cuneate-attenuate, upper margin denticulate or entire, lower leaves homomorphic with middle leaves, thicker in texture, puberulent on both surfaces or glabrous adaxially, petioles 2–4 cm or more, with longer winges. Capitula smaller, 6–8 × 6–9 mm, numerous in terminal dense or lax racemes or corymbose-panicles, rarely in compound-capitula. Phyllaries 4–6-seriate, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, acute or acuminate, middle and inner series 5–6 mm. Ray florets elliptic, ca. 6 mm. Cypselas ca. 3 mm, glabrous, rarely sparsely pilose at apex. Fl. and fr. Apr–Nov.

* Forests, forest margins, thickets and grasslands on slopes; 500–2900 m. Anhui, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

Medicinal plant used for expelling “wind-evil,” promoting hemostasis, and treating poisonous snake bites, carbuncles, and furuncles.

4. Solidago canadensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 879. 1753.

加拿大一枝黄花 jia na da yi zhi huang hua

Herbs perennial, rhizomes creeping, branched. Stems to 2.5 m tall, erect, simple, green, short and softly aqua rose downy. Leaves numerous, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 5–12 cm, tapering at both ends, apex acuminate, margins of lower leaves sharply serrate, of basal leaves sometimes entire, of upper leaves entire, with 3 longitudinal veins, of which 2 lateral veins protrude weakly, glabrous or downy abaxially, shortly pilose adaxially. Inflorescence a panicle of racemes with heads borne on one side and racemes curved downward. Capitula very small, 4–6 mm. Involucre 2.3–4 mm; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 3–4 mm, slightly obtuse. Florets golden yellow; ray florets hardly longer than involucre. Fl. Aug–Sep.

An ornamental and decorative plant, widely cultivated in gardens and parks in China [native of North America].

11. DICHROCEPHALUS L’Heritier ex Candolle, Guill., Archiv. Bot. 2: 517. 1833.

鱼眼草属 yu yan cao shu

Herbs annual with alternate, lyrate or entire leaves. Capitula very small, heterogamous, disciform rounded or oblong, arranged in racemes or panicles, rarely solitary. Involucre small; phyllaries 2-seriate. Receptacle swollen, globose, or obconic, epaleate. Florets tubular, fertile. Outer florets pistillate, many-seriate, white or yellow; central florets perfect, 4- to 5-lobed, yellow or reddish. Anthers obtuse at base; style arms with lanceolate appendages. Cypselas obovoid, slightly compressed, glabrous, but basally and apically glandular, of pistillate florets without pappus, of bisexual florets with 1–2 short bristles and marginal vein.

Four species: Africa and tropical Asia; three species in China.

1a.       Corolla of pistillate florets shortly funnel-shaped; phyllaries externally shortly pilose; receptacle distinctly swollen, obconic, acute at apex, 5–6 mm in fruiting time ................  1. D. chrysanthemifolia

1b.       Corolla of pistillate florets linear or ovate or urceolate; phyllaries externally glabrous; receptacle swollen, but flat at apex.

2a.       Pistillate florets slender, linear; leaves lyrate, pinnatilobate basally, base gradually attenuate into winged petiole, petioles 1–3.5 cm  ....................................................................  2. D. integrifolia

2b.       Pistillate florets ovate or urceolate; leaves usually pinnatilobate, rarely lyrately pinnatilobate, sessile, base expanded auriculate-amplexicaul  ...........................................................  3. D. benthamii

1. Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) Candolle, in Guillemin, Arch. Bot. (Paris) 2: 518: 1833.

菊叶鱼眼草 ju ye yu yan cao

Cotula chrysanthemifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 918. 1826.

Herbs annual, many branched; branches ascending, spreading or apically oblique. Stems and branches rigid, white tomentulose, pubescent or hispidulous. Leaves oblong or obovate, 3–5 × 0.8–2 cm, pinnatifid, pinnatipartite or pinnatilobate, white pubescent on both surfaces, base expanded and auriculate-amplexicaul; lateral lobes 2- or 3-paired, oblong, lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate, margin 1- or 2-serrulate on one or both sides, or entire; lateral lobes of middle leaves large, of lower leaves smaller, of upper leaves gradually smaller, uppermost linear, entire or with 1- or 2-paired teeth. Capitula globose or oblong, ca. 7 mm in diam., solitary in upper leaves axil and arranged in subraceme; peduncles densely puberulent or puberulent-tomentose, ca. 5 cm, with 1–3 linear or lanceolate bracteole leaves. Phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, slightly unequal, ca. 1.5 mm, with white membranous margins. Marginal pistillate florets many-seriate, corolla purple, shortly funnel-shaped, ca. 0.7 mm, deeply 3–5-lobed; central bisexual florets few, tubular, ca. 1 mm, 4- or 5-lobed, externally sparsely viscid-glandular and pilose. Cypselas compressed, oblanceolate. Pappus absent or of bisexual florets with 1–2 bristles.

Grasslands on slopes, roadsides; ca. 2900 m. Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal (Africa)].

2. Dichrocephala integrifolia (Linnaeus) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 333. 1891.

鱼眼草 yu yan cao

Hippia integrifolia Linnaeus f. Suppl. Pl. 387. 1780; Cotula bicolor Roth; Dichrocephala auriculata (Thunberg) Candolle; D. bicolor (Roth) Schlechtendal; D. latifolia (Lamark) Candolle.

Herbs annual. Stems erect, 12–50 cm tall, robust, rarely slender, simple or branched from base, branches ascending, stems and branches white villous or pubescent. Leaves ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, sparsely puberulent on both surfaces, petioles 1–3.5 cm, winged, margin doubly coarsely serrate or incised, middle cauline leaves 3–12 × 2–4.5 cm, lyrate pinnatilobate, terminal lobe large, ca. 4.5 cm wide, lateral lobes 1- or 2-paired, upper or lower leaves gradually smaller, basal leaves often simple. Capitula small, globose, 3–5 mm in diam., numerous in terminal corymbs or corymbose-panicles; peduncles slender, to 3 cm. Phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, membranous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, unequal, ca. 1 mm. Marginal florets many-seriate, purple, corolla slender, linear, ca. 0.5 mm, apically usually 2-denticulate; central bisexual florets few, ca. 0.5 mm, with short tube and campanulate limb, 4- or 5-denticulate. Cypselas compressed, obovate, glabrous. Pappus absent, or of bisexual florets with 1–2 bristles. Fl. and fr. whole year.

On slopes, shaded places in valleys, under forests on slopes, watersides; 200–2000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [tropical Africa, Asia].

A medicinal plant, used for dyspepsia, indigestion, as an antiphlogistic, and an antiemetic.

3. Dichrocephala benthamii C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 36. 1876.

小鱼眼草 xiao yu yan cao

Dichrocephala amphiloba H. Léveillé; Dichrocephala bodinieri Vaniot.

Herbs annual, 15–35 cm tall. Stems solitary or fascicled, robust, rarely slender, many branched, white villous or pubescent. Leaves ovate, obovate oblong-spatulate or oblong, both surfaces sometimes glabrescent or subglabrous, sessile, middle cauline leaves 3–6 × 1.5–3 cm, pinnate or lyrate-pinnatilobate, lateral lobes 1–3-paired, spatulate or broadly spatulate, gradually attenuate and expanded, base auriculate-amplexicaul, margin deeply crenate-serrate, densely or sparsely white shortly hairy. Capitula small, globose, ca. 5 mm in diam., few or numerous in lax or dense corymbs or paniculate corymbs; peduncles slightly robust, puberulent or subglabrous. Phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, oblong, ca. 1 mm, margin denticulate. Receptacle swollen, apically flat. Marginal florets pistillate, many-seriate, white, corolla ovoid or urceolate, 0.5–0.7 mm, 2- or 3-denticulate; central florets bisexual, few, yellow-green, 0.8–0.9 mm, with shortly slender tube and campanulate limb, 4- or 5-denticulate. Cypselas compressed, obovoid, glabrous. Pappus absent, or of bisexual florets with 1–2 fine bristles. Fl. and fr. whole year.

Grasslands in valleys, riverbanks, fields, roadsides; 1300–3200 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indochina, Nepal].

Here and elsewhere: “Indochina” (or “Indochinese peninsula”) needs to be replaced by whichever countries apply for this taxon.

12. CYATHOCLINE Cassini, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1. 17: 419. 1829.

杯菊属 bei ju shu

Herbs annual or perennial with alternate pinnatifid or pinnatisect leaves. Capitula rather small, heterogamous, disciform corymbose-paniculate or nearly racemose. Receptacle cup-shaped, or funnel-shaped, naked. Involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 2-subseriate, slightly unequal, lanceolate, margin scarious. Outer florets many-seriate, female, fertile, filiform, white, 2-toothed; disc-florets bisexual, usually sterile, tubular, 5-cleft. Anthers truncate at base; style exserted, of bisexual florets simple or cleft. Cypselas minute, oblong, flattened. Pappus absent.

Three species: tropical Asia; one species in China.

1. Cyathocline purpurea (Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 333. 1891.

杯菊 bei ju

Tanacetum purpureum Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal, 181. 1825; Cyathocline lyrata Cassini; Dichrocephala minutiflora Vaniot.

Herbs annual, 10–15 cm tall. Stems erect, usually branched from base, branches ascending, reddish purple or red-tinged, viscid-villous, dense in upper part. Middle cauline leaves ovate or obovate, 2.5–12 cm, pinnatisect or pinnatifid, segments opposite or oblique, or 1 lateral segment reduced into pectinate, triangular, entire or minutely toothed margin, upper leaves smaller, abaxially puberulent, adaxially sparsely hairy or subglabrous, base expanded auriculate-amplexicaul, sessile. Capitula small, numerous or few in terminal corymbs or paniculate corymbs; peduncles white viscid villous or pubescent. Involucre hemispherical, ca. 2 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, margin scarious, ciliate, externally sparsely white multicellular villous or glabrous, apically purple. Outer florets female, many-seriate, fertile, filiform, purple, 2-toothed; disc florets bisexual. Cypselas oblong. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. nearly whole year.

Forests, grasslands on slopes, watersides, roadsides; 100–2000 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].

13. GRANGEA Adanson, Fam. 2: 121. 1763.

田基黄属 tian ji huang shu

Herbs annual or perennial, often prostrate. Leaves alternate, oblong-obovate to spatulate, lyrate-pinnatifid or serrate-dentate. Capitula solitary or laxly corymbose, disciform, heterogamous. Involucre broadly campanulate; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, rather unequal, inner series scarious at apex. Receptacle swollen, hemispheric or obconic, naked. Florets yellow. Outer florets 1- to many-seriate, female, narrowly tubular; central florets perfect, fertile. Corolla of female florets filiform, of outer usually 2-toothed, of inner 3- or 4-toothed, of bisexual with campanulate limb, 4- or 5-toothed. Anthers obtuse at base, apically with distinct appendage; style arms truncate, obtuse, or with triangular appendage, sometimes simple. Cypselas compressed or subcylindrical, margin scaly or hairy fine toothed, apex truncate, usually with a cartilaginous ring.

Ten species: tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia; one species in China.

1. Grangea maderaspatana (Linnaeus) Poiret, in Lamark, Encycl. Suppl. 3: 825. 1812.

田基黄 tian ji huang

Artemisia maderaspatana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 849. 1753; Cotula sphaeranthes Link; Grangea procumbens Candolle; Grangea sphaeranthus (Link) C. Koch.

Herbs annual, (5–)10–30 cm tall. Stems slender, usually procumbent, branched, white villous or glabrous in lower part by anthesis. Leaves obovate, oblanceolate, or obspatulate, 3.5–7.5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, shortly pubescent and yellow glandular on both surfaces, basal leaves sometimes ca. 10 × 4 cm, sessile, usually auriculate at base, pandurate or lyrate-lobate, terminal lobe obovate or subrounded, margin serrate, lateral lobes 2–5-paired; upper leaves gradually smaller. Capitula globose, 8–10 mm in diam., terminal, solitary, rarely paired. Involucre cup-shaped; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer series lanceolate, 4–8 mm, margin lacerate-ciliate, inner series oblanceolate or obovate, obtuse, distinctly clawed. Receptacle swollen. Florets sparsely brown-yellow glandulous. Female florets yellow, 2–6-seriate, filiform, ca. 1 mm, shortly 3- or 4-toothed; bisexual florets ca. 1.5 mm, short campanulate, 5-lobed. Cypselas compressed, with ± thickened margin, numerous brown-yellow glands, apex truncate, ring-like, thickened. Pappus scaly and conical lacerate. Fl. and fr. Mar–Aug.

Riverbanks, watersides, lax forests and thickets; below 100–1000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, S Yunnan [India, Indochinese peninsula, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal; Africa].

14. LAGENOPHORA Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 34. 1818.

瓶草属 ping tou cao shu

Scapose perennial herbs. Leaves radical or very rarely cauline. Capitula very small or small, heterogamous, radiate or disciform, solitary, usually pedunculate or scapose. Involucre small, hemispherical or subhemispherical; phyllaries 2–4-seriate, unequal. Receptacle flat or convex, naked. Ray florets in 1-seriate or more, female, white to purple; disc florets few, perfect or male, tubular, yellow, with campanulate limb, 4- or 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arms slender, flattened, with lanceolate or triangular appendage. Cypselas fattened, obovate to oblanceolate, with marginal ribs, with or without a short beak and an apical rim, ± glandular apically. Pappus absent.

Thirty species: SE Asia, Australia, Cental and South America, New Zealand; one species in China.

1. Lagenophora stipitata (Labillardiere) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. 1916: 630. 1917.

瓶头草 ping tou cao

Bellis stipitata Labillardiere, Pl. Holl. Nov. 2: 55. 1806; Lagenophora billardieri Cassini.

Dwarf annual herbs, 3.5–12 cm tall. Radical leaves rosulate, persistent by anthesis, obovate or broadly spatulate, 1.2–3 × 0.7–1.3 cm, sparsely shortly pubescent on both surfaces, base cuneate-attenuate into very short petioles, margin repand-dentate mucronulate, apex rounded or obtuse, scapigerous leaves few, 1–2, very small, linear, 1–l.5 × 3–5 mm, bracteole leaf-like. Capitula small, 4–7(–9) mm in diam., solitary. Involucre hemispherical, 2.5 × 3–5 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, acute, margin scarious, outer series lanceolate, ca. 1 mm, middle series oblanceolate or long elliptic, ca. 2 mm, apically purple tinged, inner series linear, with broadly scarious margin. Ray florets female, 3- or 4-seriate, rays 1.5–2.5 × 0.5 mm, purplish, entire, reflexed by anthesis; disc florets shortly campanulate, ca. 1.5 mm, 4- or 5-toothed. Cypselas oblanceolate, compressed, 2.5–3.5 mm, many glandular. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. Sep.

Forest margins, grasslands on slopes; 1700–1800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan [India, Indochinese peninsula, Indonesia (Java); Australia].

15. RHYNCHOSPERMUM Reinwardt ex Blume, Bijdr. 2: 902. 1825.

秋分草属 qiu fen cao shu

Herbs perennial. Leaves alternate, elliptic-oblanceolate, sparsely dentate. Capitula small, heterogamous, paniculate-racemose or spicate, sessile or shortly pedunculate. Involucre small, campanulate or hemispherical; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, slightly unequal, margin scarious. Receptacle flat, naked. Ray florets 2- or 3-seriate, female, whitish; disc florets numerous, bisexual, fertile; corolla tubular, with broadly campanulate limb, (4 or)5-toothed. Anthers obtuse, entire; style arms short, flattened, with inconspicuous appendages. Cypselas obovate, compressed, with thickened margins, with a beak in ray florets. Pappus absent or of few, minute, easily deciduous bristles.

One species: E and SE Asia.

1. Rhynchospermum verticillatum Reinwardt, Blume, Fl. Nederl. Ind. 902. 1825.

秋分草 qiu fen cao

Rhynchospermum formosanum Yamamoto; Rhynchospermum verticillatum var. subsessilis Oliver ex Miquel; Zollingeria scandens Schultes-Bip.

Herbs perennial, 25–100 cm tall. Stems rigid, solitary or fascicled, erect, usually divaricate-branched from middle part, or sometimes with racemose inflorescence branches, puberulent. Radical leaves deciduous or persistent by anthesis, lower leaves oblanceolate, elliptic-oblanceolate, or elliptic, rarely spatulate, 4.5–14 × 2.5–4 cm, petioles narrowly winged, base cuneate, margin repand-serrate, apex acute, middle leaves lanceolate, shortly petiolate, entire or repand-crenate, upper leaves gradually smaller, entire or mucronulate. Capitula terminal or axillary, solitary or subracemose, 4–5 mm in diam., shortly pedunculate. Involucre broadly campanulate or hemispherical, 3–4 mm wide; phyllaries rather unequal, obtuse, margin scarious, outer series ovate-elliptic, middle and inner seriess elliptic. Ray florets 2- or 3-seriate, ca. 1.2 mm, tube very short, glandular; disc florets ca. 2 mm, glandular. Cypselas in ray florets compressed, elliptic, ca. 4 × 1 mm, with thickened margins and a longer beak, in disc florets brown glandular, without beak or with a short beak. Pappus of minute, easily deciduous bristles. Fl. and fr. Aug–Nov.

Forest margins, in shady places of forests or watersides; 400–2500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar].

16. MYRIACTIS Lessing, Linnaea 6: 127. 1831.

粘冠草属 nian guan cao shu

Herbs annual or perennial. Leaves alternate, oblanceolate-oblong to spatulate, dentate-lobed. Capitula small, heterogamous, solitary or laxly corymbose-paniculate, long pedunculate. Involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 2-seriate. Receptacle convex, hemispherical or spatulate-globose, naked. Florets fertile. Ray florets, female, 2- to many-seriate white to purplish; disc florets male, tubular, with narrow limb, 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse at base; style arms flattened, with lanceolate appendage. Cypselas somewhat compressed, oblong-obovoid, with thickened margins, and shortly beaked or beakless, ± glandular. Pappus absent, but sometimes apex of cypselas with a viscid secretion.

About 12 species: tropical Africa and Asia; five species (one endemic) in China.

1a.       Rays of ray florets rounded or subrounded, length and width equal or nearly so, apex rounded, female florets many-seriate.

2a.       Leaves simple, sometimes lower leaves shallowly or deeply lobed, lateral lobes 1- or 2-paired        1. M. nepalensis

2b.       Leaves lyrate-pinnatipartite or lobed or pinnatisect, or sometimes lower leaves rounded, simple       2. M. longipedunculata

1b.       Rays of ray florets linear or long linear, apex acute, female florets (l or)2- or 3-seriate.

3a.       Middle leaves ovate, broadly ovate, or long ovate  ......................................  3. M. wightii

3b.       Middle leaves lanceolate, long lanceolate, elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate.

4a.       Leaves serrate, dentate or parted or lobed, but not pinnatilobed  .............  4. M. wallichii

4b.       Leaves pinnatipartite ..............................................................................  5. M. delavayi

1. Myriactis nepalensis Lessing, Linnaea 6: 128. 1831.

圆舌粘冠草 yuan she nian guan cao

Dichrocephala leveillei Vaniot.

Herbs perennial, usually robust, to 1 m tall, rhizomes short, procumbent. Stems erect, branched from middle or basal part, branches ascending, stems and branches glabrous or sparsely short or paleaceous hairs below capitula. Middle cauline leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 4–10 × 2.5–4.5 cm, margin coarsely serrate or crenate, base decurrent into winged petioles, petiole expanded and contracted at base, basal and lower leaves large, sometimes lobed or parted, lateral lobes 1–2(or 3)-paired, petioles to 10 cm, upper leaves gradually smaller, elliptic or long lanceolate, abaxially glabrous, adaxially sparsely puberulent along veins, base expanded and contracted with stem or auriculate-amplexicaul, sessile. Capitula globose or hemispherical, 1–1.5 cm, solitary or numerous, laxly corymbose or corymbose-paniculate. Phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, externally puberulent. Ray florets female, many-seriate, rays rounded, apically rounded, or emarginate; disc florets tubular, with broadly campanulate limb, 4-toothed, tube puberulent. Cypselas compressed, with thickened margins, apically with a viscid secretion. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. Apr–Nov.

Forests, forest margins, thickets, on slopes, or moist and humid places by watersides; 1200–3400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Nepal, Vietnam].

2. Myriactis longipedunculata Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 150. 1911.

台湾粘冠草 tai wan nian guan cao

Herbs perennial, 10–35 cm tall, rhizomes short, oblique. Stems solitary or 3, erect, branched, or simple, scapose; branches ascending, glabrous or ± puberulent. Leaves usually conferted in lower part, elliptic, spatulate, or long ovate, 2–3(or 4–7) × 1–2(or 2–4) cm, lyrate-pinnatipartite or pinnatipartite, or subrounded and simple, or radical leaves lyrate-bipinnatisect, both surfaces ± puberulent or subglabrous, lateral lobes 2- or 3-paired, oblong or obovate, entire or 1-serrate at one side of margin, terminal lobe large, broadly ovate or rounded, or oblong, margin coarsely serrate or lobed-serrate, upper cauline leaves few, oblanceolate-oblong or oblanceolate, pinnatipartite, terminal lobe triangular or lanceolate, uppermost leaves linear, simple; petioles of lower leaves 2.5–4 cm, base expanded and contracted with stem or auriculate, amplexicaul. Capitula hemispherical, 7–9 mm in diam., few (usually 3–4), solitary at top of stem and branches; peduncles 7–9 cm. Phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, oblong or narrowly oblong with narrow scarious margin, outer series pulverous-puberulent. Ray florets female, many-seriate, rays rounded, apically emarginate or rounded; disc florets 4-toothed. Cypselas oblanceolate, compressed, ca. 2 mm, with a thickened margin, apically with a viscid secretion. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

* Moist and humid places on shady slopes; 2300–2500 m. Taiwan.

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing).

2a. Myriactis longipedunculata var. longipedunculata

台湾粘冠草(原变种) tai wan nian guan cao (yuan bian zhong)

Leaves lyrate-pinnatipartite or pinnatipartite, or subrounded and simple, lateral lobes 2- or 3-paired.

* Moist and humid places on shady slopes; 2300–2500 m. Taiwan.

2b. Myriactis longipedunculata var. bipinnatisecta (Kitamura) Kitamura, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Univ. Ser. B. 13: 387. 1937.

再裂 zai lie

Myriactis bipinnatisecta Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 196. 1934.

Radical leaves lyrate-bipinnatisect, lateral lobes 2- or 3-paired.

* Taiwan.

2c. Myriactis longipedunculata var. formosana (Kitamura) Kitamura, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Univ. Ser. B. 13: 387. 1937.

单头 dan tou

Myriactis formosana Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 135. 1934.

Stems simple, scapose. Capitula terminal, solitary.

* Taiwan.

3. Myriactis wightii Candolle, in Wight, Contr. Bot. India, 10. 1834.

粘冠草 nian guan cao

Myriactis javanica Candolle.

Herbs annual, 20–90 cm tall. Stems erect, to 6 mm in diam. at base, usually branched from middle part, rarely from basal part, or simple, subscapose, branches ascending or spreading, stems and branches densely or sparsely villous or puberulent or subglabrous in lower part. Leaves alternate, often with axillary branches or fascicled, middle cauline leaves broadly ovate to ovate, 5–8 × 3–6 cm, rarely lyrate pinnatilobate, terminal lobe same shape as blade, wider toward base, gradually smaller toward apex, both surfaces villous or puberulent or only along veins pubescent, base expanded or contracted with stem, or auriculate semiamplexicaul, petiole winged, margin deeply crenate or serrate or incised-serrate, uppermost leaves or lateral lobes entire. Capitula few or numerous, terminally laxly corymbose or corymbose paniculate; peduncles ca. 5 cm, or arranged laxly in racemes, ca. 1.2 cm in diam., hemispherical. Phyllaries nearly 2-seriate, subequal, narrowly oblong, ca. 4 mm, glabrous fimbriate-lacerate at apex. Ray florets female, 2-seriate, rays linear, apically bilobed; disc florets tubular, with broadly campanulate limb, 5-toothed. Cypselas compressed, oblanceolate, ca. 2.5 mm, with a thickened margin, shortly beaked, apically with a viscid secretion. Fl. and fr. Jul–Nov.

Forests on slopes, mixed forests, grasslands, riverbanks, watersides; 2100–3600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Sri Lanka].

1a. Middle cauline leaf base expanded or contracted with stem ...................................  3a. var. wightii

1b. Middle cauline leaf base cordate, auriculate semiamplexicaul ................................  3b. var. cordata

3a. Myriactis wightii var. wightii

粘冠草 (原变种) nian guan cao (yuan lian zhong)

Middle cauline leaf base expanded or contracted with stem.

Forests on slopes, grasslands, riverbanks, watersides; 2100–3600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Sri Lanka].

3b. Myriactis wightii var. cordata Ling & Shih, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 355. 1985.

心叶 xin ye lian zhong

Middle cauline leaf base cordate, auriculate semiamplexicaul.

* Mixed forests; ca. 2700 m. Yunnan (Chingtung).

4. Myriactis wallichii Lessing, Linnaea 6: 129. 1831.

狐狸草 hu li cao

Herbs annual, 15–60 cm tall. Stems erect, ca. 5 mm in diam. at base, often many branched from basal or middle part; branches long and spreading, white strigulose, or sparsely white crisped hairs or subglabrous. Leaves sparsely white strigose on both surfaces, sometimes subglabrous, margin serrate, or not serrate or repand-dentate, base decurrent into narrowly winged petiole, petioles slightly expanded or auriculate-amplexicaul, between petiole and blade usually distinctly contracted, middle cauline leaves long elliptic-lanceolate, or long elliptic, 4–4.6 × 2–3 cm, uppermost leaves homomorphic with middle leaves, or nearly linear. Capitula hemispherical, ca. 1 cm in diam., numerous, laxly corymbose or subcorymbose; inflorescences ca. 22 cm in diam., or of lower arranged in paniculate corymbs or racemose-panicles; peduncles short and slender. Phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, oblong or oblanceolate 3–4 mm, sometimes sparsely pubescent at base. Ray florets female, 2- or 3-seriate, rays linear, acute; disc florets tubular, with broadly campanulate limb. Cypselas compressed, oblanceolate, ca. 3.5 mm, with thickened margin, shortly beaked, apically with a viscid secretion. Fl. Aug–Oct.

Grasslands, or forests on slopes, 2600–3600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Nepal].

5. Myriactis delavayi Gagnepain, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 68: 122. 1912.

羽裂粘冠草yu lie nian guan cao

Herbs perennial, 18–50 cm tall, rhizomes usually curved. Stems erect, base often curved, branched from middle part; branches elongate and spreading, or simple and subscapose, glabrous or sparsely paleaceous hairy in upper part only. Leaves subglabrous on both surfaces or sparsely paleaceous hairy along veins or sometimes sparsely ciliate at margin, petioles decurrent into a narrow wing, base expanded, middle cauline leaves lanceolate to long lanceolate, 4–7 × 2.5–3.5 cm, pinnatipartite, lateral lobes 1- or 2-paired, terminal lobe large, elliptic or long elliptic, margin pinnatilobed serrate, lower leaves homomorphic with middle, upper leaves long lanceolate or long elliptic, or linear, pinnatifid or pinnatilobate. Capitula hemispherical, ca. 8 mm in diam., few arranged in lax racemes. Phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, lanceolate, 3–4 mm, outer series rather externally puberulent. Ray florets female 2- or 3-seriate, rays linear, entire; disc florets tubular, with broadly campanulate limb, 5-toothed. Cypselas compressed, oblanceolate, ca. 2.5 mm, with thickened margins, shortly beaked, apically with a viscid secretion. Fl. and fr. Aug–Sep.

* Grasslands, or forests on slopes; ca. 3000 m. Sichuan, Yunnan.

17. BELLIS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 886. 1753.

雏菊属 chu ju shu

Herbs annual or perennial, scapose, caespitose or stem rarely branched. Leaves mainly rosulate, spatulate or oblanceolate, entire or repand-dentate. Capitula often solitary, heterogamous, pedunculate or scapose, radiate. Involucre hemispherical or broadly campanulate; phyllaries 2-seriate, rather unequal, herbaceous. Receptacle swollen or conical, naked. Ray florets 1-seriate, white, often tinged purplish crimson, apically entire; disc florets numerous, yellow fertile, style arm appendages short, triangular. Cypselas compressed, obovate, thickened at margins, beakless. Pappus absent or rarely of few, very short, basally connate bristles.

Eight species: Asia, Europe; one species in China.

1. Bellis perennis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 886. 1753.

雏菊 chu ju

Herbs perennial or annual, scapose, ca. 10 cm tall. Leaves radical, rosulate, spatulate, base gradually attenuate into petioles, apex obtuse, upper margin laxly obtusely dentate or repand-dentate. Capitula solitary, 2.5–3.5 cm in diam.; scape hairy. Involucre hemispherical or broadly campanulate; phyllaries 2-seriate, rather unequal, long elliptic, obtuse, externally pubescent. Ray florets 1-seriate, female, rays white or tinged purplish, entire or sometimes 2- or 3-toothed; disc florets numerous, bisexual, fertile. Cypselas obovate, compressed, with thickened margin, puberulent. Pappus absent.

An ornamental, widely cultivated in gardens and parks [native of Europe].

18. CALOTIS R. Brown, Bot. Reg. 6: t. 504. 1820.

刺冠菊属 ci guan ju shu

Herbs annual or perennial, or rarely subshrubs. Leaves alternate, entire to variously dissected. Capitula small, heterogamous, solitary or laxly corymbose, pedunculate or sessile, radiate or disciform. Involucre hemispherical or broadly campanulate; phyllaries 3-subseriate, rather unequal, with scarious margins. Receptacle convex, naked. Ray florets 1- to many-seriate, female, white, pink, violet, or purple; disc florets bisexual, tubular, with broad limb, 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse, entire; style arms linear, with short appendages, obtuse. Cypselas of ray florets compressed, obovate or oblong, often winged, glabrous to hairy. Pappus very variable, bristles or 2 to many awns, shortly barbed, 1 to several, elongate after flowering, spreading spiniform, sometimes with 2 to many scales.

Twenty-six species: mainly in Australia, few species in SE Asia; one species (endemic) in China.

1. Calotis caespitosa Chang, Sunyatsenia 3: 280. 1937.

刺冠菊 ci guan ju

Herbs annual, ca. 10 cm tall. Stems many branched, erect or ascending; branches slender, glabrous. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, ca. 2.5 × 0.15 cm, glabrous, base gradually narrow, sessile, margin entire, apex obtuse, upper leaves smaller. Capitula small, terminal, solitary, ca. 4 mm in diam. Involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 3-seriate, rather unequal, linear or linear-lanceolate, with scarious margins, ciliate and sparsely villous. Ray florets 1-seriate, female, fertile, rays white; disc florets many, bisexual, corolla tubular, yellow, with broad limb, 5-lobed. Cypsela obovate, compressed, sparsely stellate or branched minutely pubescent, with rather thickened margins. Pappus spiniform, barbellate, easily deciduous. Fl. and fr. ????–Nov.

* Open dry sand by sea beaches. Hainan.

19. MIYAMAYOMENA Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 409. 1982.

裸宛属 luo wan shu

Gymnaster Kitamura, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Univ. Ser. B. 13: 301. 1937.

Herbs perennial. Stems often branched. Leaves alternate, entire or coarsely dentate. Capitula solitary or corymbose, heterogamous, radiate. Ray florets female, 1- or 2-seriate; disc florets numerous, bisexual, fertile. Involucre hemispherical or broadly campanulate; phyllaries 2- to many-seriate, subequal or outer series gradually shorter, imbricate, outer series herbaceous, inner series with broadly scarious margins. Receptacle conical, violet, naked. Rays white or blue-purple, spreading, entire or toothed; disc florets tubular, yellow with campanulate limb, 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse at base; style arms with triangular or lanceolate appendages. Cypselas compressed, or slightly 4-angled, oblong-obovate, few-ribbed at margins and both surfaces, or not ribbed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, apically narrowly ringed margin. Pappus absent.

Seven species: E Asia; four species (all endemic) in China.

1a.       Phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate; cypselas obovoid, compressed, marginally ribbed.

2a.       Leaves oblong-oblanceolate, 7–9 cm, coarsely serrate; stems many branched; phyllaries 7–8 mm; cypselas major, ca. 3 × 1.8 mm  .................................................................  1. M. piccolii

2b.       Leaves oblong-lanceolate or subelliptic, 1.5–2.5(–4) cm, entire; stems few, branched or simplex; phyllaries ca. 6 mm; cypselas small, ca. 2 × 1.3 mm
..................................................................................................................  2. M. simplex

1b.       Phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate; cypselas long obovoid, 4- or 5- or more ribbed.

3a.       Leaves linear-lanceolate, base gradually narrowed into winged petioles, remotely serrulate at middle margins  ............................................................................................  3. M. angustifolius

3b.       Leaves broadly elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, base cuneate, margin inconspicuously repand-dentate     4. M. lushiensis

1. Miyamayomena piccolii (J. D. Hooker) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 33: 409. 1982.

裸宛 luo wan

Aster piccolii J. D. Hooker, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. t. 7669. 1899; Asteromoea piccolii (J. D. Hooker) Mandel-Mazzetti; Kalimeris piccolii (J. D. Hooker) S. Y. Hu.

Herbs perennial, 60–120 cm tall. Stems erect, densely or laxly hispidulous and glandular-puberulent, many spreading branched, or few branched. Leaves abaxially pale, adaxially green, oblong-oblanceolate, 7–9 × 1.2–1.8 cm, hispidulous on both surfaces or adaxially subglabrous, veins abaxially prominent, base attenuate, sessile, margin coarsely serrate, only margin and abaxially along veins hairy, apex acuminate, leaves in branches small, 2–3 × 0.4–0.6 cm, entire or toothed. Capitula numerous, 2–2.5 cm in diam., corymbose. Involucre turbinate-hemispherical, 7–8 × ca. 12 mm, basally with bract-shaped leaves; phyllaries ca. 5-seriate, laxly imbricate, outer series herbaceous, ovate-oblong, obtuse, apically often reflexed and tinged purplish, inner series narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, with broadly scarious margins, ciliate. Ray florets blue-purple, ca. 15 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, rays ca. 13 × 2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, tube ca. 1.8 mm, glandular. Cypselas obovoid, ca. 3 × 1.8 mm, with marginal ribs, glabrous, apically with narrow ringed margin. Pappus absent. Fl. Aug–Oct.

* Grasslands on slopes; 900–1700 m. Henan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan.

2. Miyamayomena simplex (Chang) Y. L. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 6(2): 42. 1986.

四川裸宛 si chuan luo wan

Aster simplex Chang, Sinensia 6: 541. 1935, not Willdenow (1809); Asteromoea simplex (Chang) Handel-Mazzetti; Gymnaster simplex (Chang) Ling.

Herbs perennial, 10–35 cm tall. Stems ascending, solitary or 2–4-fascicled, simple or 2- or 3-branched from middle part, white hispidulous-villous. Basal leaves spatulate, long petiolate, lower cauline leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or subelliptic, 1.5–2.5(–4) × 0.3–0.6(–0.9) cm, white hispidulous-villous on both surfaces, midrib abaxially convex, adaxially concave, base rounded, sessile, margin entire, apex obtuse or acute, uppermost leaves remote, linear, ca. 1 cm. Capitula solitary, 2–2.5 in diam. Involucre hemispherical, ca. 6 × 1.5 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer series green, rather short, lanceolate, 4–5 × 1.2–1.5 mm, acute or obtuse, externally pubescent, inner series obovate-oblong, 5–5.5 × 1.5–2 mm, acute, margin broadly scarious, ciliate, apically red-purplish. Ray florets purplish red, ca. 16 × 2 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, glandular-puberulent; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, puberulent. Cypselas obovoid, slightly compressed, ca. 2 × 1.3 mm, inconspicuously marginally ribbed, yellowish, glabrous. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Grasslands on slopes, canal sides; 2600–3000 m. NW Sichuan.

3. Miyamayomena angustifolius (Chang) Y. L. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 6(2): 43. 1986.

狭叶裸宛 xia ye luo wan

Aster angustifolius Chang, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 6: 43. 1935; Aster falri J. D. Hooker, in Shed; Asteromoea angustifolia (Chang) Handel-Mazzetti; Gymnaster angustifolius (Chang) Ling; Kalimeris angustifolia (Chang) S. Y. Hu.

Herbs perennial, 30–50 cm tall. Stems erect or somewhat flexuous, angled-striate, glabrous, few branched above or simple; branches elongate, sparsely shortly white hairy. Lower leaves caducous by anthesis, present leaves linear-lanceolate, 6–15 × 0.8–2.5 cm, abaxially grayish white, with appressed short hairs, adaxially green, glabrous or somewhat scabrid, pinnate veins abaxially prominent, base gradually narrowed into winged petioles, margin scabrid, remotely serrulate, apex acute, uppermost leaves linear, entire. Capitula solitary, ca. 2.5 cm in diam., long pedunculate. Involucre hemispherical, ca. 5 × 1 cm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, green, obovate to oblanceolate-oblong, acute or obtuse, with scarious margins, glabrous, orange veined. Ray florets 1-seriate, purplish or bluish, ca. 13 × 2–2.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, glabrous; disc florets yellow, ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.3 mm, glabrous. Cypselas long obovoid, ca. 2.8 × 1 mm, 4- or 5-ribbed, multi-angular, glabrous. Pappus absent. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

* Riverbanks in valleys and forest margins; ca. 600 m. Fujian, Zhejiang.

4. Miyamayomena lushiensis (J. Q. Fu) Y. L. Chen, comb. nov.

卢氏裸菀 lu shi luo wan

Basionym: Gymnaster lushiensis J. Q. Fu, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 3(1): 110. 1983.

Herbs perennial. Stems erect, terete, slightly flexuous, branched in upper part, densely white appressed villous. Leaves shortly petiolate or subsessile, narrowly winged, basal and lower leaves not seen, middle and upper leaves ovate, broadly elliptic, or obovate, 2–8 × 1–4 cm, abaxially gray-white appressed-villous, adaxially dark green, white hispidulous, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, veins adaxially prominent, base attenuate, margin obscurely repand-crenate, apex obtuse-acute or rounded, callous. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., 2–5, laxly corymbose. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series shorter, ovate, inner series longer, oblong, herbaceous, with hyaline membranous margins, externally puberulent. Ray florets female, rays bluish purple, oblong, 8–16 mm, apically inconspicuously 3-toothed; disc florets numerous, tubular, yellow, 3–4 mm. Cypselas (immature) obovate-oblong, 5- or multi-ribbed. Pappus absent, papillose. Fl. Oct.

* Path sides on slopes; ca. 7900 m. Henan (Lushi).

20. KALIMERIS Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331. 1832.

马兰属 ma lan shu

Asteromoea Blume; Boltonia L’Heritier sect. Asteromoea (Blume) Bentham & J. D. Hooker; Kalimeris Nees, p.p.

Herbs perennial. Leaves alternate, entire or sometimes dentate or pinnatifid. Capitula smaller, solitary or laxly corymbose. Radiate involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate. Ray florets 1- or 2-seriate, female, rays white, pale blue to purple, toothed or entire; disc florets bisexual, campanulate, deeply 5-lobed, yellow. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arms with triangular or lanceolate appendages. Cypselas rather compressed, obovoid, marginally ribbed, facially smooth or ribbed on one side, glabrous or sparsely sericeous. Pappus of short, free or basally connate scales.

About 20 species: C, E, and SE Asia, Himalayan region, Russia (E Siberia); eight species (five endemic) in China.

1a.       Leaves broadly ovate to cordate, margin dentate .................................  8. K. longipetiolata

1b.       Leaves oblong, ovate, or linear, margin entire, dentate, or pinnatifid.

2a.       Phyllaries subcoriaceous, with scarious margins, apically rounded or obtuse, green or reddish purple; cypselas 2.5–3.5 mm, sparsely long hairy; pappus 0.7–1.5(–2) mm.

3a.       Involucre smaller, 10–12 mm in diam., phyllaries narrow and small, 4–5 mm; leaves incised-dentate or sometimes pinnatifid  ...................................................................................  5. K. incisa

3b.       Involucre large, 10–15 mm in diam., phyllaries broader, 5–7 × 2–3 mm.

4a.       Leaves entire or pinnatifid, or shallowly dentate, thicker in texture
........................................................................................................  6. K. lantureana

4b.       Leaves pinnatilobate, thinner .............................................................  7. K. mongolica

2b.       Phyllaries herbaceous in upper part, apically slightly acute; cypselas small, 1.5–2.5 mm, glandular and puberulent in upper part.

5a.       Leaves obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, dentate or pinnately lobed, often entire in upper part.

6a.       Leaves thinner, sparsely puberulent or subglabrous; cypselas 1.5–2 mm; pappus 0.1–0.3 mm; leaf margin more variable  ..............................................................................  1. K. indica

6b.       Leaves thicker, densely velutinous; cypselas 2.5–2.7 mm; pappus ca. 0.3 mm; leaf margin toothed in 1–2 pairs or subentire  ........................................................................  2. K. shimadai

5b.       Leaves linear-lanceolate, oblong, or lanceolate, entire or minutely 1–3-denticulate.

7a.       Plant to 120 cm tall; leaves linear-lanceolate or oblong densely puberulent-hairs on both surfaces, lower leaves withered by anthesis; cypselas 1.8–2 mm; pappus 0.3–0.5 mm  3. K. integrifolia

7b.       Plant ca. 30 cm tall; leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, abaxially white glandular-hairs, adaxially appressed hispidulous and glandular, lower leaves persistent by anthesis; cypselas ca. 2 mm; pappus ca. 0.5 mm  ........................................................................................  4. K. lancifolia

1. Kalimeris indica (Linnaeus) Schultz Bipontinus, Zoll. Syst.-Verz. Ind. Archip. 125. 1854–55.

马兰 ma lan

Aster indicus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 876. 1753; A. yantzensis Migo.

Herbs perennial, rhizomes stoloniferous, sometimes with vertical roots. Stems erect, 30–70 cm tall, puberulent above, branched from upper or lower part. Basal leaves withered by anthesis, cauline leaves oblanceolate or obovate-oblong, 3–6(–10) × 0.8–2(–5) cm, base gradually narrowed into winged long petioles, medial margin mucronate, obtusely or acutely toothed or pinnately lobed, apex obtuse or acute, upper leaves small, entire, slightly thin, sparsely puberulent on both surfaces or subglabrous, base abruptly narrowed, sessile, margin and adaxially along veins hispidulous, midrib abaxially prominent. Capitula corymbose. Involucre hemispherical, 6–9 mm in diam., 4–5 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series oblanceolate, ca. 2 mm, inner series oblanceolate-oblong, ca. 4 mm, obtuse or acute, herbaceous in upper part, sparsely puberulent, margin scarious, ciliate. Receptacle conical. Ray florets 1-seriate, 15–20, tube 1.5–1.7 mm, rays purplish, ca. 10 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets ca. 3.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, densely puberulent. Cypselas obovate-oblong, compressed, 1.5–2 × ca. 1 mm, brown, marginally thickly ribbed, apically glandular and puberulent. Pappus 0.1–0.8 mm, subequal, easily deciduous. Fl. May–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Forest margins, grasslands, riverbanks, roadsides. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Indochinese peninsula to India, Japan, Korea].

This species is often referred to American boltonia, but it differs from the latter in having cypselas without long hairs at the top of the marginal ribs and cypselas in the ray florets often thickly 3-ribbed and triangular.

This species is used medicinally to expel heat and toxic materials, promote digestion and relieve dyspepsia, promote diuresis, dissipate blood stasis, and stop bleeding. The young leaves are usually used as a vegetable in the East.

This species is very variable.

1a. Phyllaries narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute; stems multi-branched  1d. var. stenolepis

1b. Phyllaries obovate-oblong, slightly acute; stems ± branched.

2a. Leaves linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, subglabrous  ................................  1c. var. stenophylla

2b. Leaves lanceolate to obovate-oblong, sparsely hairy.

3a. Lower and middle leaves dentate or subentire  ..........................................  1a. var. indica

3b. Lower and middle leaves pinnatipartite  ............................................  1b. var. polymorpha

1a. Kalimeris indica var. indica

马兰(原变种) ma lan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster indicus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 876. 1753; A. ursinus H. Léveillé; A. yangtzensis Migo; Asteromoea cantonensis (Loureiro) Matsumura; A. indica (Linnaeus) Blume; Boltonia cantonensis (Loureiro) Franchet & Savatier; B. indica (Linnaeus) Bentham, p.p.; Hisutsua cantonensis (Loureiro) Candolle; H. serrata Hooker & Arnott; Matricaria cantonensis Loureiro.

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-oblong, lower and middle leaves usually 3–6 × 0.8–2 cm, adaxially sparsely or densely hairy, margin shallowly or deeply toothed in 2–4 pairs. Phyllaries obovate-oblong.

Forest margins, grasslands, riverbanks, roadsides; very common. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Indochinese peninsula to India, Japan, Korea].

1b. Kalimeris indica var. polymorpha (Vaniot) Kitamura, J. Jap. Bot. 19: 340. 1943.

多型 duo xing

Martina polymorpha Vaniot, Bull. Ac. Geogr. Bot. 12: 32. 1903.

Leaves obovate-oblong, lower and middle leaves usually 4–10 × 2–4 cm, deeply lobed, lobes 2–4-paired, linear, upper leaves linear, entire or with 1-paired lobes, adaxially sparsely hairy or subglabrous, basal leaves shallowly toothed. Phyllaries obovate-oblong.

* Anhui, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

The cypselas in this variety are often less glandular or more conspicuously puberulent.

1c. Kalimeris indica var. stenophylla Kitamura, J. Jap. Bot. 19: 340. 1943.

狭叶 xia ye

Leaves linear-lanceolate, lower and middle leaves shallowly toothed, subglabrous. Stems often much branched. Phyllaries obovate-oblong.

* Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shanxi.

1d. Kalimeris indica var. stenolepis (Handel-Mazzetti) Kitamura, J. Jap. Bot. 19: 340. 1943.

狭苞 xia bao

Asteromoea indica var. stenolepis Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 225. 1938.

Leaves linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, lower and middle leaves shallowly toothed. Phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, acute.

* Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, SW Shaanxi, E Sichuan, Zhejiang.

2. Kalimeris shimadai (Kitamura) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 6: 50. 1937.

毡毛马兰 zhan mao ma lan

Asteromoea shimadai Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 2: 37. 1933; Aster indicus (Linnaeus) Schultz Bipontinus var. lautureana Yamamoto; A. shimadai (Kitamura) Nemoto; Asteromoea indica Blume var. lantureana Yamamoto.

Herbs perennial, with rhizomes. Stems erect, ca. 70 cm tall, densely hispidulous, much branched. Leaves thick, densely velutinous on both surfaces, adaxially along veins and margin densely hispidulous, trinerved, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves obovate, oblanceolate, or elliptic, 2.5–4 × 1.2–2 cm, base gradually attenuate, subsessile, margin shallowly toothed in 1–2 pairs or entire, upper leaves gradually smaller, oblanceolate or linear. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., solitary on top branches and arranged in lax corymbs. Involucre hemispherical, 6–7 × 0.8–1 cm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series narrowly oblong, 2–3 mm, inner series oblanceolate-oblong, ca. 5 mm, apically herbaceous with scarious margin, densely hairy and ciliate. Ray florets 1-seriate, ca. 10, tube ca. 1.5 mm, hairy, rays purplish, 11–12 × 2–3 mm; disc florets 4–4.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, hairy. Cypselas obovoid, compressed, 2.5–2.7 mm, gray-brown, marginally ribbed, appressed puberulent. Pappus scaly, ferruginous, ca. 0.3 mm, persistent. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug.

* Forest margins, grassy slopes, riverbanks; common. Anhui, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang.

3. Kalimeris integrifolia Turczaninow ex Candolle, Psodr. 5: 259. 1836.

全叶马兰 quan ye ma lan

Aster franchetianus H. Léveillé, Cat. Pl. Yunnan 40. 1915; A. pekinensis (Hance) Chen; A. pekinensis (Hance) Kitagawa, nom. illeg.; Asteromoea integrifolia (Turczaninow) Loes; A. pekinensis Hance; Boltonia integrifolia (Turczaninow) Bentham & J. D. Hooker; B. pekinensis Hance.

Herbs perennial with fusiform erect root. Stems erect, 30–70 cm tall, solitary or several fascicled, hispidulous, fastigiately branched from middle part. Leaves gray-green, puberulent-tomentulose on both surfaces, midrib adaxially prominent, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves more and dense, linear-lanceolate, oblanceolate, or oblong, 2.5–4 × 0.4–0.6 cm, mucronate, base gradually attenuate, sessile, entire, margin rather reflexed, apex obtuse or acuminate, upper leaves smaller, linear. Capitula solitary at top of branches and laxly corymbose. Involucre hemispherical, 7–8 in diam., ca. 4 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series sublinear, ca. 1.5 mm, inner series oblong-lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, acute, herbaceous in upper part, hispidulous and glandular. Ray florets 1-seriate, ca. 20, tube ca. 1 mm, hairy, rays purplish, ca. 1 × 2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 3 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, hairy. Cypselas obovoid, 1.8–2 × ca. 1.5 mm, brownish, compressed, with pale marginal ribs or ribbed on one side and triangular, apically puberulent and glandular. Pappus tinged brown, 0.3–0.5 mm, unequal, fragile, easily deciduous. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Jul–Nov.

Forest margins, thickets, mountain slopes, roadsides; 800–1000 m. Widely spreading in Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Korea, Russia (E Siberia)].

4. Kalimeris lancifolia J. Q. Fu, Bull. Bot. Res. 3(1): 112. 1983.

披针叶马兰 pi zhen ye ma lan

Herbs perennial, with slender roots. Stems erect, ca. 30 cm tall, rigid, fascicled, simple, slender, rather quadrangular, purplish in lower part, white appressed hispidulous. Radical leaves rosulate, obovate or obovate-lanceolate, 10–20 × 0.5–0.7 cm, base gradually attenuate, decurrent, margin ciliate, small toothed in 1–3 pairs, apex shortly acute; petioles 1–2 cm, narrowly winged; cauline leaves smaller upward, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.8–4.8 × 0.1–0.6 cm, abaxially appressed, hirtellous and glandulous, adaxially white glandular-pilose, sessile, base slightly amplexicaul, lower margin minutely 1–3-toothed, ciliate, apex acuminate. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., 2–3, laxly corymbose. Involucre broadly campanulate; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, outer series shorter, lanceolate obtuse, with white broadly scarious and ciliate margins. Ray florets purplish, ca. 11 mm; disc florets numerous, yellow, ca. 5 mm, 5-lobed, lobes reflexed, sparsely glandular. Cypselas obovoid, ca. 2 mm, compressed, 3-ribbed, densely appressed, hirtellous and glandular. Pappus ca. 0.5 mm, scaly unequal. Fl. Apr–May, fr. May–Jun.

* Grasslands by roadsides; ca. 700 m. Shaanxi (Lueyang).

5. Kalimeris incisa (Fischer) Candolle, Psodr. 5: 258. 1836.

裂叶马兰 lie ye ma lan

Aster incisus Fischer, Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 3: 76. 1812; A. incisus var. custralis Kitagawa; A. macroden H. Léveillé; A. pinnatifidus Makino f. robustus Makino; Asteromoea incisa Koidzumi, p.p.; Boltonia incisa (Fischer) Bentham; Grindelia incise (Fischer) Sprang; Kalimeris platycephala Cassini.

Herbs perennial with rhizomes. Stems erect, 60–120 cm tall, sulcate, glabrous or sparsely white hirsutulous upward, branched in upper part. Leaves papyraceous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves elliptic-lanceolate or lanceolate; 6–10(–15) × 1.2–2.5(–4.5) cm, abaxially subglabrous, adaxially glabrous, veins prominent, base gradually attenuate, sessile, margin sparsely incised-serrate, sometimes pinnatilobed, scabrid or upward setulose, apex acuminate, upper leaves small, linear-lanceolate, entire. Capitula 2.5–3.5 cm in diam., terminal, solitary and corymbose. Involucre hemispherical, 10–12 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, puberulent, outer series shorter, elliptic-lanceolate, 3–4 mm, acute, inner series 4–5 mm, obtuse with scarious margins. Ray florets bluish purple, tube ca. 1.5 mm, rays 1.5–1.8 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, 3–4 mm, tube 1–1.3 mm. Cypselas obovoid, 3–3.5 mm, brownish, compressed, with pale marginal ribs or sometimes 3-ribbed, triangulate, white puberulent. Pappus reddish, 0.5–1.2 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Grasslands on slopes, thickets, open places between forest, wet grasslands; 400–1000. NE China, E Nei Mongol [Japan, Korea, Russia (Siberia)].

6. Kalimeris lautureana (Debeaux) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 6: 22. 1937.

山马兰 shan ma lan

Boltonia lautureana Debeaux, Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 31: 215. 1876; Aster associates Kitagawa; A. associates var. stenslobus Kitagawa; A. lautureanus (Debeaux) Franchet; Aster lautureanus var. mangtaoensis (Kitagawa) Kitamura; A. mangtaoensis Kitagawa; Asteromoea lautureana (Debeaux) Handel-Mazzetti; B. lautureana Debeaux var. holophylla Chen; Calimesis incise Candolle var. holophylla Maximowicz; Kalimeris mangtaoensis (Kitagawa) Kitamura.

Herbs perennial, 50–100 cm tall. Stems erect, solitary or 2–3 fascicled, sulcate, white scabrid hairy, branched in upper part. Leaves thick or subcoriaceous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 3–6(–9) × 0.5–2(–4) cm, base gradually attenuate, sessile, margin laxly dentate or pinnatifid, apex acuminate or obtuse, leaves on branches linear-lanceolate, entire, sparsely scabrid hairs on both surfaces or glabrous. Capitula solitary at top of branches and arranged in corymbs, 2–3.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 10–14 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, apically green, glabrous, outer series shorter, elliptic, slightly acute, inner series oblanceolate-elliptic 5–6 × 2–3 mm, obtuse, with scabrous lacerate margins. Ray florets bluish, 1.5–2 × 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.3 mm. Cypselas obovoid, ca. 3(–4) × 2 mm, compressed, brownish, sparsely puberulent, with pale marginal ribs or sometimes 3-ribbed, triangular. Pappus reddish, 0.5–1 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug–Sep.

* Meadows, thickets, mountain slopes; 400–1600 m. NE, N China, Henan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong.

7. Kalimeris mongolica (Franchet) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 6: 21. 1937.

蒙古马兰 meng gu ma lan

Aster mongolicus Franchet, Pl. David. 11: 161. 1181; Aster lautureanus Franchet var. mongolicus (Franchet) Kitagawa; Asteromoea mongolica (Franchet) Kitamura.

Herbs perennial. Stems erect, 60–100 cm tall, sulcate upward strigose, branched in upper part. Leaves papyraceous or submembranous, lowermost leaves withered by anthesis, lower and middle leaves oblanceolate or narrowly oblong, 5–9 × 2–4 cm, pinnatifid, sparsely hispidulous or subglabrous, margin more densely hispidulous, lobes linear-oblong, obtuse, entire, uppermost leaves linear-lanceolate, 1–2 cm. Capitula solitary on top of branches, 2.5–3.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 1–l.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries seriate, imbricate, glabrous, elliptic to obovate, 5–7 × 3–4 mm, obtuse, with white or tinged purple-red scarious lacerate margins, apically green. Ray florets bluish purple, bluish, or white, tube ca. 2 mm, rays ca. 2.2 × 3.5 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm. Cypselas obovoid, ca. 3.5 × 2.5 mm, yellow-brown, compressed, with yellow-green marginal ribs or sometimes ribbed and triangular, sparsely puberulent. Pappus reddish, unequal, 0.5–l.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Mountain slopes, thickets, field sides; below 1300 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, NW Sichuan.

8. Kalimeris longipetiolata (Chang) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 105. 1985.

长柄马兰 chang bing ma lan

Aster longipetiolaltus Chang, Sunyatsenia 4: 22. 1941; A. trichanthus Handel-Mazzetti.

Rhizomes procumbent. Stems erect, 50–70 cm tall, slender, spreading or crisped villous, simple or with 1–2 inflorescence branches. Leaves remote, thin, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, margin, adaxially along veins, and petiole densely villous, basally palmately veined, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, reticulate veins ± conspicuous, basal leaves withered by anthesis or rarely persistent, lower leaves broadly ovate, 6–7 × 4–6 cm, long petiolate, petioles slender, 12–16 cm, base truncate or shallowly cordate, gradually expanded-amplexicaul, margin coarsely dentate, mucronulate, apex acute or cuspidate, middle leaves cordate, margin coarsely rounded dentate, petioles shorter, upper leaves small, subentire, gradually narrowed into linear-lanceolate bracteole leaf. Capitula 3.5–4.5 cm. Involucre 2- or 3-seriate, equal, linear-oblanceolate, 5–6 mm, acuminate, subulate-mucronate, herbaceous, inner series herbaceous in upper part, hairy, margin scarious, pectinate. Ray florets 1-seriate, ca. 30, tube ca. 2 mm, sparsely hairy near base, rays bluish, linear, ca. 20 × 1–1.3 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 3 mm, tube short, glabrous. Ovary cylindrical, rather compressed. Cypselas not seen. Pappus sordid-white, 0.3–1 mm, with unequal scalelike hairs. Fl. Jul.

* Brooklet banks, valleys; ca. 2500 m. W Sichuan.

21. CALLISTEPHUS Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 37: 491. 1825.

翠菊属 cui ju shu

Callistema Cassini, l.c. 6. Suppl. 45. 1875, not R. Brown (1810).

Herbs annual. Leaves alternate, dentate or lobed. Capitula large, radiate, solitary on stem and at ends of branches. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series large, herbaceous or foliaceous and leaflike, inner series shorter, membranous or scarious. Receptacle flat or subconvex, alveolate, sometimes with short palea. Ray florets 1- or 2-seriate, rays usually red-purple, entire or shallowly 2-toothed at apex; disc florets bisexual, multi-seriate, yellow tubular, with widened limb, shallowly 5-toothed at apex. Anthers obtuse and entire; style arms flattened, with triangular-lanceolate appendages. Cypselas elliptic-lanceolate, slightly compressed, many-ribbed, apically pubescent. Pappus double, outer a short membranous crown, inner of long scabrid, deciduous bristles.

One species: China, Japan, Korea; widely cultivated.

1. Callistephus chinensis (Linnaeus) Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 222. 1832.

翠菊 cui ju

Aster chinensis Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 877. 1753; Callistemma chinense (Linnaeus) Skeels; C. hortense Cassini; Callistephus hortensis Cassini; Diplopappus chinensis (Linnaeus) Lessing.

Herbs annual or biennial. Stems rigid, to 100 cm tall, erect, solitary, simple or sparingly branched, with spreading branches, longitudinally sulcate covered with spreading slightly curved hairs, sometimes reddish. Lower leaves shed by anthesis or persistent, middle leaves ovate, rhombic-ovate, or subrounded, 2.5–6 × 2–4 cm, sparsely strigose on both surfaces, base truncate, cuneate, or rounded, margin irregularly largely toothed-serrate, apex acuminate; petioles 2–4 cm, white strigulose, narrowly winged; upper leaves gradually smaller, elliptic or oblanceolate, 1- or 2-serrate or linear, entire. Capitula solitary, at apex of stem and branches, 6–8 cm in diam., long pedunculate. Involucre hemispherical, 2–5 mm wide; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal, outer series elliptic-lanceolate, foliaceous, 1–2.4 × 0.2–0.4 cm, obtuse, white ciliate, middle series shorter, thin, purple-tinged, inner series elliptic, membranous, subhyaline, obtuse. Ray florets 1-seriate, red, pink, blue, purple, violet, lilac, or white, rays 2.5–3.5 × 0.2–0.7 cm, tube 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, tube 1–1.5 mm, limb 4–7 mm. Cypselas grayish, elliptic-oblanceolate, slightly compressed, 3–3.5 mm, shortly pilose. Pappus double, outer persistent, inner white, 3–4.5 mm, unequal, easily deciduous. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

Grasslands on slopes, watersides, shady places or lax forests; 300–2700 m. Hebei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea].

A beautifully blossoming decorative plant as an ornamental, this species is widely cultivated in parks and gardens in Russia and Europe.

22. HETEROPAPPUS Lessing, Syn. Gen. Compos. 189. 1832.

狗娃花属 gou wa hua shu

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, entire or remotely obtuse-dentate. Capitula in corymbiform-panicles or solitary, heterogamous. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or slightly imbricate, linear-lanceolate, herbaceous, at least inner series with membranous bordered margins. Receptacle slightly convex or flat, alveolate, pistillate florets ligulate. Rays blue or purple, apically minutely toothed, rarely rays absent; disc florets numerous, bisexual, yellow, unequally lobed, and zygomorphic, with 1 lobe longer; marginal florets 1-seriate, female, radiate; all florets fertile, sometimes with homomorphic hermaphrodite florets; female florets absent. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arm appendages triangular. Cypselas obovate, compressed, sericeous, with marginal ribs. Pappus either of subequal, brownish or reddish, slender bristles or double, with an additional crown of short scales; in ray pappus floret sometimes absent.

About 30 species: C and E Asia; 12 species in China.

1a.       Perennial herbs; pappus in all florets identical.

2a.       Capitula without ray florets .....................................................................  5. H. eligulatus

2b.       Capitula with ray florets.

3a.       Plant dwarf, with robust terete erect roots  ...............................................  4. H. bowerii

3b.       Plant tall, without terete roots.

4a.       Phyllaries with herbaceous margins  ........................................................  2. H. ciliosus

4b.       Phyllaries with membranous margins or at least inner series margins membranous.

5a.       Phyllaries with membranous margins; stems erect; ray florets ca. 20
                                                                                                             1. H. altaicus

5b.       Phyllaries with membranous margins at least in inner series; stems ascending or subprostrate; ray florets 25–35  .........................................................................  3. H. semiprostratus

1b.       Annual or biennial herbs; florets homomorphic; pappus or marginal florets with short pappus or pappus absent.

6a.       Stems procumbent; leaves glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces, conspicuously ciliate.

7a.       Cauline leaves subglabrous on both surfaces  .........................................  10. H. oldhami

7b.       Cauline leaves glabrous on both surfaces or sometimes sparsely appressed hairy  9. H. arenarius

6b.       Stems erect, ± branched; leaves hairy on both surfaces.

8a.       Plant dwarf, prostrately branched from base  ...........................................  12. H. gouldii

8b.       Plant tall.

9a.       Ray florets with long pappus ................................................................  8. H. tataricus

9b.       Pappus in ray florets absent or of short bristles only.

10a.     Cypselas fully developing only in disc florets  ...............................  7. H. meyendorffii

10b.     Cypselas in ray florets narrow, sterile, sometimes pappus absent.

11a.     Cypselas in ray florets with scaly crown; cauline leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear, entire      6. H. hispidus

11b.     Cypselas in ray florets with few pappi or pappus very short, not scaly; cauline leaves spatulate-oblong, crenate  ......................................................................  11. H. crenatifolius

1. Heteropappus altaicus (Willdenow) Novopokrovsky, Herb. Fl. Ross. 56: no. 2769; Fl. Ross. 8: 193. 1922.

阿尔泰狗娃花 a er tai gou wa hua

Herbs perennial, with procumbent or vertical roots. Stems usually many in number, erect, 20–60(–100) cm, covered with closely-set thin hairs directed upward and often glandular in upper part, branched. Basal leaves withered by anthesis, lower leaves linear or oblong-lanceolate, oblanceolate, or subspatulate, 25–6(–10) × 0.7–1.5 cm, margin entire or remotely shallowly toothed, upper leaves gradually diminished, pubescent on both surfaces with closely-set thin hairs and numerous very fine shining glands, midrib abaxially slightly convex. Capitula numerous, together with rays 2–3.5(–4) cm in diam., solitary and terminal or arranged in corymbiform-paniculate inflorescences. Involucre hemispherical, 0.8–1.8 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or outer series rather short, oblong-lanceolate or linear, 4–8 × 0.5–1.8 mm, acuminate, abaxially or all outer series grassy, short rough pilose and short glandular, outermost phyllaries linear and shorter than those of inner seriess, with membranous margins. Ray florets ca. 20, tube 1.5–2.8 mm, puberulent, rays bluish purple or lilac, oblong-linear, 10–15 × 1.5–2.5 mm; disc florets 5–6 mm, yellow, tube 1.5–2.2 unequally lobed, lobes 0.6–1 × 1–1.4 mm, puberulent. Cypselas compressed, obovate-oblong, 2–3 mm, pilose and glandular. Pappus sordid-white or pallid brown, 4–6 mm, with almost equal bristly hairs. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug.

Steppes, salt marshes, grasslands, open slopes, stony slopes of hills, seasides, metaled roads; 2200–4000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, Xinjiang, NW Yunnan [C and N Asia, W Himalayan region, NW India, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia); SW Asia (Iran)].

Here and elsewhere: “C and N Asia” (or variants) needs to be replaced by whichever countries apply for this taxon.

1a. Phyllary inner series with narrowly membranous margins ....................................  1f. var. taitoensis

1b. Phyllary inner series with narrowly or broadly membranous margins.

2a. Stems and leaves covered with ca. 1 mm spreading white coarse hairs ...........  1e. var. hirsutus

2b. Stems and leaves covered with upwardly curved ± appressed hairs.

3a. Plants often gray-green, virgate-branched; leaves, especially upper leaves, adnate to stems or peduncles ...........................................................................................  1b. var. canescens

3b. Plants green, procumbent-branched; leaves not always appressed at stems.

4a. Stems 10–30 cm tall, usually branched from base, ascending, ± procumbent at base; capitula solitary on branches or more branched  .................................  1a. var. altaicus

4b. Stems 20–60 cm tall, always branched in upper part, or multi-branched and short subequal; capitula solitary at top of branches.

5a. Leaves lanceolate, ca. 3 × 0.4 cm; inflorescences few branched; stems erect  1c. var. scaber

5b. Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow; inflorescences multi-branched; stems erect or ascending ...............................................................................  1d. var. millefolius

1a. Heteropappus altaicus var. altaicus

阿尔泰狗娃花(原变种) a er tai gou wa hua (yuan bian zhong)

Aster altacus Willdenow, Enum. Hort. Berol., 2: 880. 1809; A. angustipolius Lindley ex Royle; A. gmelini Tausch; Calimeris altaica (Willdenow) Nees; C. altaica var. subincana Avé-Lallemant; Heteropappus altaicus (Willdenow) Novopokrovsky.

Plants green. Stems ascending or erect, about 20–60 cm tall, covered with upwardly curved appressed short hairs, branched from base, bearing few branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate or spatulate, 3–7(–10) × 0.2–0.7 cm, spreading. Capitula solitary, terminal on branches. Involucre 5–15 mm in diam.; outer phyllaries margin narrowly membranous, inner series with broadly membranous margin, glandular and hairy.

Steppes, meadows, salt marshes, stony slope of lower hills, metaled roads, roadsides by riverbanks. NW, W, NE China, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, NW Sichuan, Xinjiang [C and N Asia, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia)].

1b. Heteropappus altaicus var. canescens (Nees) Sergievskaja, in Krilov, Fl. W. Sibiria 11: 226. 1949.

灰白 hui bai

Calimaris canescens Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster, 229. 1932; Aster altaicus var. canescens (Nees) Sergievskaja; A. pyropappus Boissier; A. spatioides C. B. Clarke; Heteropappus albertii (Regel) Novopokrovsky; H. canescens (Nees) Novopokrovsky.

Plants gray-white. Stems erect or ascending, 30–60 cm tall, covered with upwardly curved appressed hairs, glandular branched from base, virgate-branched in upper part. Broader leaves subspatulate, 0.5–0.6 cm, upper leaves linear, ca. 1 × 0.1–0.2 cm, or oblong-linear, always adnate to branches and peduncles. Involucre 0.9–1.1 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries herbaceous, inner series margin membranous, glandular and puberulent.

Dry stony mountains. N Xinjiang [C Asia, NW India, Russia (W Siberia); SW Asia (Iran)].

1c. Heteropappus altaicus var. scaber (Avé-Lallemant) Wang, Clav. Pl. Chin. Bor-Orient. 377. 1959.

糙毛 cao mao

Calimeria altaicus Nees var. scabra Avé-Lallemant, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 52. 1841; Aster altaicus var. scaber (Avé-Lallemant) Handel-Mazzetti.

Plants green. Stems erect, 20–60 cm, usually branched from middle part, sparsely strigulose. Leaves remote, lanceolate, ca. 3 × 0.4 cm. Inflorescences few branched.

NE, N China.

1d. Heteropappus altaicus var. millefolius (Vaniot) Wang, Clav. Pl. Chin. Bor-Orient 377. 1959.

千叶 qian ye

Aster millefolius Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 12: 496. 1903; A. altaicus var. millefolius (Vaniot) Handel-Mazzetti.

Plants green. Stems erect or ascending, covered with upwardly curved appressed short hairs, glandular, bearing many subequal and spreading branches. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.1–0.25 cm, spreading. Inflorescences multi-branched, densely leafy. Involucre 0.5–8 mm in diam.; phyllaries with narrow or broad margins, outer series herbaceous, hairy or subglabrous and glandular. Rays 5–6 mm.

* Stony or soil slopes, roadsides; very common. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi.

The stems with many subequal long branches, leaves smaller, and capitula smaller are much different from other varieties.

1e. Heteropappus altaicus var. hirsutus (Handel-Mazzetti) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 116. 1985.

糙毛 cao mao

Aster altaicus var. hirsutus Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 221. 1938.

Plants green. Stems ascending or erect, covered, especially upper part and phyllaries, with spreading ca. 1 mm or more white coarse hairs, branched from base, bearing few branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate or spatulate, with spreading ca. 1 mm or more white coarse hairs. Capitula solitary, terminal on branches. Involucre 5–15 mm in diam.; outer phyllaries margin narrowly membranous, inner series with broadly membranous margin, glandular and hairy.

* Grasslands, open slopes; 2200–3500 m. W Sichuan (Garzê, Jinchuan, Kangding), NW Yunnan.

This variety is similar to var. altaicus but differs in having stems white hirsute.

1f. Heteropappus altaicus var. taitoensis (Kitamura)) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 116. 1985.

台东 tai dong

Aster altaicus Willdenow var. taitoensis Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. L: 289. 1932.

Plants green, ca. 50 cm tall. Stems branched from base, densely appressed hairy, spreading and ascending. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, oblanceolate-linear or linear, 3–6 × 0.1–0.2(–0.4) mm, margin entire or remotely toothed, middle leaves 2–3 × ca. 0.1 cm, upper leaves small, similar to phyllaries. Involucre 1.5–1.8 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries herbaceous, inner series with narrowly membranous margins, densely hairy.

* Sandy places by river bank. Taiwan (Taitong).

2. Heteropappus ciliosus (Turczaninow) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 116. 1985.

华南狗娃花 hua nan gou wa hua

Calimeris ciliosa Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 24: 61. 1851; Calimeris ciliate A. Gray; Aster ciliatus (Turczaninow) Handel-Mazzetti.

Herbs perennial, with vertical root. Stems ascending or subprostrate, 15–35 cm tall, with sparsely upwardly curved short hairs or glabrate, few-branched in upper part, sterile stems shortened, apically with rosulate-leaves. Leaves sessile, glabrous on both surfaces or adaxially sparsely puberulent on veins, midrib abaxially slightly prominent, margin entire, ciliate, leaves in sterile stems spatulate, 1–1.5 × 0.3–0.4 cm, base gradually attenuate, apex rounded, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves spatulate-oblong, 1.5–2.5 × 0.15–0.4 cm, base gradually attenuate, apex rounded, upper leaves smaller and similar to phyllaries. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., solitary at apex of branches or corymbose. Involucre hemispherical, 0.8–1 cm in diam.; phyllaries green, 2-seriate, equal or outer series rather short, lanceolate, 4–5 × 0.5–0.7 mm, acuminate, herbaceous, short pubescent. Ray florets 1-seriate, 15–20, tube ca. 1.5 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4 mm, tube 1–1.1 mm, lobes unequal, puberulent. Style appendages 8, lanceolate, acute. Cypselas brownish, compressed, obovoid, 2–2.5 × 0.8–l.2 mm, pilose, glandular in upper part. Pappus red-brown, 2.5–3 mm with unequal bristles. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Sandy areas by seasides, grassland by riversides. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan [Japan].

3. Heteropappus semiprostratus Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 151. 1964.

半卧狗娃花 ban wo gou wa hua

Herbs perennial, rhizome short, many branched from base. Stems and branches decumbent or ascending, stems 5–15 cm tall, appressed and rigid pubescent, branched from base, sometimes with densely leaved undeveloped branches in leaf axil. Leaves linear or spatulate, 1–3 × 0.2–0.4 cm, appressed pubescent on both surfaces or adaxially subglabrous with remotely shiny glands, midvein abaxially convex, slightly concave adaxially, sometimes basally tri-veined, base gradually attenuate, entire, apex broadly cuspidate. Capitula solitary at apex of branches, 1.5–3 cm wide. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 1.3 cm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, lanceolate, acuminate, 6–8 × 0.8–1.8 mm, green, hairy and glandular, inner series with broadly membranous margins. Ray florets 25–35, tube ca. 2 mm, rays blue or purplish, 1.2–1.5 × ca. 0.2 cm; disc florets yellow, 4–6 mm, tube 1.5–2.3 mm, with 1 lobe long and 4 lobes short. Style arm appendages triangular. Cypselas obovate, 1.8–2 × 0.7–0.9 mm, sparsely sericeous, apically glandular. Pappus brown-red, 4–5 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug.

Dry slopes in stony or sandy grounds; 3200–4600 m. Qinghai, Xizang [Kashmir, Nepal].

4. Heteropappus bowerii (Hemsley) Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 155. 1964.

青藏狗娃花 qing zang gou wa hua

Aster bowerii Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 30: 113. 1894.

Dwarf biennial or perennial herbs with thick cylindrical tap-roots, rhizome ca. 5 mm in diam., clad by leaf-base remains. Stems solitary or 3–6 on each plant, simple or branching near base, 2.5–7 cm tall, slender, white hispidulous pubescent, glandular in upper parts. Basal leaves crowded, linear-spatulate, ca. 3 × 0.4 cm, base broad and amplexicaul, apex acute or obtuse, upper leaves linear 0.5–0.8 × ca. 0.2 cm, leaves covered with fine whitish ± appressed hairs on both sides or adaxially glabrescent, margins ciliate. Capitula terminal, solitary, 2.5–3 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 1–1.5(–2)cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear or linear-lanceolate, subequal, herbaceous with narrow, lacerate margins scarious, especially on inner series. Ray florets ca. 40, tubes 2–3 mm, rays lilac, 9–13 × 1.5–1.7 mm; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5 mm, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, lobes finely pubescent on outside, unequal, 4 lobes 0.5–0.6 mm, 1 lobe 1–1.2 mm. Style arm appendages lanceolate, 0.3–0.5 mm. Cypselas pale brown with blackish streaks, narrowly obovate, 2.8–3 mm, with sparsely fine hairs. Pappus white or brownish, ca. 4 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug.

* Alpine stony and sandy grounds; 5000–5200 m. W Gansu, Qinghai, Xizang.

5. Heteropappus eligulatus Ling, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(1): 85. 1981.

无舌狗娃花 wu she gou wa hua

Herbs perennial, with woody cylindrical tap-roots, rhizome short, many branched from base. Stems ascending or nearly decumbent, rigid, 5–15 cm tall, green or tinged purple covered with appressed or spreading white pubescence, usually branched from base. Leaves linear, 0.4–2 × 0.1–0.2(–0.4) cm, both surfaces sparsely appressed pubescent, midvein abaxially slightly convex, sometimes base with 2 inconspicuously lateral veins, sessile, margin entire, apex obtuse mucronulate, uppermost leaves small. Capitula terminal, solitary, 0.8–1.3 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, green or tinged purple, lanceolate, 5.5–6.5 × 1.2–2 mm, pubescent, margins membranous, apex acuminate. All florets tubular, yellow, 4.5–5 mm, tubes ca. 1.3 mm, lobes 0.8–l.2 mm, finely pubescent on outside. Style arm appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.4 mm. Cypselas pale yellow-brown, obovate, ca. 2 × 1 mm compressed, sericeous, marginally ribbed. Pappus pale yellow-brown, 3–3.5 mm, of 35–45 unequal bristles. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Stony grounds; 3200–3900 m. Xizang.

This species is similar to Heteropappus holohermaphroditus Grierson, described from India, Kashmir, and Pakistan, but differs in having stems fascicled and branched from base and capitula terminal, solitary.

6. Heteropappus hispidus (Thunberg) Lessing, Syn. Gen. Compos. 189. 1832.

狗娃花 gou wa hua

Aster hispidus Thunberg, fl. Jap. 315. 1784; A. batakensis Hayata; A. fusanensis H. Léveillé & Vaniot; A. hispidus var. decipiens (Maximowicz) Ling; A. hispidus var. heterochaeta Franchet & Savatier; A. hispidus var. mesochaeta Franchet & Savatier; A. hispidus var. microphyllus Pampanini; A. omerophyllus Hayata; A. rufopappus Hayata; Calimeris hispida (Thunberg) Nees; Heteropappus decipiens Maximowicz; H. hispidus Lessing var. decipiens (Maximowicz) Komarov; H. hispidus var. elongates Novopokrovsky; H. incisus Siebold & Zuccarini; H. pinetorum Komarov.

Annual or biennial herbs with vertical fusiform roots. Stems 30–50(–150) cm tall, solitary or sometimes several fascicled with curved or spreading long hairs, glabrescent in lower part, branched. Leaves thin, sparsely hairy on both surfaces or glabrous, midvein and lateral veins prominent, margins ciliate, radical and lower leaves withered by anthesis, obovate, 4–13 × 0.5–1.5 cm, gradually narrowed into long petiole, margin entire or remotely toothed, apex obtuse or rounded, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear, 3–7 × 0.3–1.5 cm, often entire, upper leaves diminishing in size, linear. Capitula arranged in broad cymes, on long peduncles, 3–5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 7–8 × 10–20 mm; phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm wide, or inner rhombic-lanceolate, with membranous, externally and marginally ± curved rough hairs, often glandular. Ray florets ca. 30, tubes ca. 2 mm, rays reddish or white, linear-oblong, 12–20 × 2.5–4 mm; disc florets 5–7 mm, tubes 1.5–2 mm, lobes 1–1.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, compressed, 2.5–3 × ca. 1.5 mm, finely marginally ribbed, with appressed rough hairs. Pappus white, in marginal florets ca. 0.5 mm, coronet-shaped, but bristles in disc florets, white, tinged red later, subequal to corolla. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Forest margins, grasslands, roadsides; ca. 2400 m. Anhui, Hubei, Jiangxi, N, NW, and NE Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia) ].

7. Heteropappus meyendorffii (Regel & Maack) Komarov & Alissova-Klobukova, Key Pl. Far E. Reg. USSR 2: 1010. 1932.

砂狗娃花 sha gou wa hua

Galatella meyendorffii Regel & Maack, Mem. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Ser. 7, 4; Tent Fl. -Ussur. 81. 1861; Aster ciliosus Kitamura; A. depauperatus H. Léveillé & Vaniot; A. meyendorffii (Regel & Maack) Voss; Heteropappus hispidus Lessing var. longiradiatus Komarov; H. magnicalathinus J. Q. Fu syn. nov.; H. meyendorffii var. hirsutus Ling & Wang.

Annual herbs, 35–50 cm tall. Stems erect, striate, covered with curved or spreading rough long hairs and finely appressed hairs, usually branching from middle part. Radical and lower leaves withered by anthesis, ovate or obovate-oblong, 5–6 × 2.5–3.5 cm, 3-veined, base narrowed into long petiole, margins roughly crenate, apex obtuse or acute, middle cauline leaves narrowly oblong, 6–8 × 1–2 cm, abaxially pale green, adaxially green, appressed strigose on both surfaces or margin and abaxially along veins strigose, midvein and lateral veins slightly conspicuous on both sides, base gradually narrowed, sessile, roughly toothed in upper margin or entire, apex obtuse or acute; upper leaves gradually smaller, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1–1.5 × 0.3 cm, entire, 1-veined. Capitula terminal, solitary on branches, 3–5 cm in diam., base with bract-like leaflet. Involucre hemispherical, 13–18 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, 7–8 mm, apex acuminate, rough long hair and glandular, inner series with membranous margins in lower part. Ray florets with ca. 1.8 mm tube, rays blue-purple, linear-oblong, 14–17 mm, rarely ca. 27 × 2–2.5 mm, apex 3-lobed or entire; disc florets yellow, ca. 5 mm, tube 1–1.5 mm, sparsely strigulose, 5-lobed, unequal 0.8–1.2 mm. Style arm appendages triangular. Cypselas fully developing only in disc florets, oblong-obovate, densely silky pubescent. Pappus reddish brown, 2–4.45 mm, with 25–35 unequal bristles, pappus in ray florets few and shorter or sometimes absent. Fl. Aug–Sep.

Sandy soils by riverbanks, sandy hills of forest understories, grasslands on slopes; above 800 m. NE China, NE Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia].

This species is a very decorative plant due to the presence of large and numerous flowers.

8. Heteropappus tataricus (Lindley) Tamamschjan, Fl. URSS 25: 71. 1959.

鞑靼狗娃花 da da gou wa hua

Calimeris tatarica Lindley ex Candolle, Prodr. 5: 259. 1836; Aster biennis (Lindley) Ledebour; C. biennis (Lindley) Ledebour; Callistephus bienis Lindley ex Candolle; Heteropappus hispidus (Thunberg) Lessing var. sibiricus Komarov; H. meyendorffii (Regel & Maack) Komarov & Alissova-Klobukova var. tataricus Ling & Wang.

Herbs biennial. Stems erect, 20–40 cm tall, usually solitary, rarely 2- or 3-fascicled, striate, multi-branched in upper part, violet or reddish, especially, covered with ascending and spreading multicellular hairs and glands. Leaves linear or oblong-linear, 2–5 × 0.2–0.5 cm, appressed pubescent, without glands or with sparse inconspicuous glands on both surfaces, midrib abaxially convex, adaxially concave, apex acuminate, lower leaves withered and caducous by anthesis, uppermost leaves small, densely bract-like. Capitula terminal, solitary on branches, several arranged in corymbs, 2.5–3.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 1.5–2 cm in diam., outer involucral bracts narrowly linear, inner ones lanceolate, with membranous margins, 8–11 mm, acuminate, sparsely villous and inconspicuous glands in lower half. Ray florets intensely blue or blue-lilac, 14–20 × 2–2.2 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 5.5 mm, tube ca. 1.8 mm, 5-lobes unequal, 1–1.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, pilose. Pappus reddish brown or whitish, equal or subequal in all cypselas, 3–3.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Aug.

Sandy hills of forest understories or sandy soils by riverbanks. NE and N China [Mongolia, Russia].

9. Heteropappus arenarius Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 2: 43. 1933.

普陀狗娃花 pu tuo gou wa hua

Aster arenarius (Kitamura) Nemoto; Heteropappus hispidus Lessing subsp. arenarius (Kitamura) Kitamura.

Herbs biennial or perennial, with rough and woody axial root. Stems procumbent or ascending, 15–70 cm tall, branching from base, subglabrous. Basal leaves spatulate, 3–6 × 1–l.5 cm, subglabrous or sparsely villous on both surfaces, base gradually narrowed 1.5–3 cm petiole, margin entire or sometimes remotely roughly toothed, ciliate, thick, apex rounded or slightly acute, lower cauline leaves withered by anthesis, middle and upper leaves spatulate or spatulate-oblong, 1–2.5 × 0.2–0.6 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, or sometimes sparsely appressed hairy, base attenuate, margin ciliate, apex rounded or slightly acute. Capitula solitary at apex of branches, 2.5–3 cm in diam., base dilate, with bract-like small leaves. Involucre hemispherical, 1.2–l.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, narrowly lanceolate, 7–8 × 1–l.5 mm, apex acuminate, ciliate. Ray florets 1-seriate, tube ca. 1.5 mm, rays bluish or whitish, linear-oblong, ca. 1.2 × 0.25 cm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.3 mm, 5-lobes unequal. Style appendages triangular. Cypselas yellowish brown, obovate, ca. 3 mm, compressed, silky pubescent. Pappus in ray florets scaly, ca. 1 mm, sordid, connate in lower part, pappus in disc florets of numerous bristles, brownish, 3–3.5 mm.

Sandy soil by seashores. Zhejiang (Pu tuo) [Japan].

10. Heteropappus oldhami (Hemsley) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 146. 1932.

台北狗娃花 tai bei gou wa hua

Aster oldhami Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 414. 1888.

Herbs biennial, with roughly curved fusiform roots. Stems 50–60 cm tall, striate, remotely upwardly curved pubescent, branching from middle and upper part. Leaves thick, midvein convex abaxially, concave adaxially, basal leaves rosulate, spatulate-oblong, 8–15 × 3–6 cm, both surfaces glabrous or subglabrous, withered by anthesis, base rather narrow, margin entire, ciliate, apex rounded, cauline leaves spatulate-oblong or oblong, 2.5–4.5 × 0.8–l.7 cm, subglabrous on both surfaces, base gradually narrowed, margin entire, strigulose-ciliate, apex rounded, uppermost leaves small, 0.5–l.2 × 0.2–0.4 cm. Capitula terminal, solitary on branches, ca. 2.5 cm in diam., laxly corymbose. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 6 × 1.3 mm; phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, lanceolate, 5–6 mm, apex acute or acuminate, sparsely strigulose, ciliate, rather thick. Ray florets 1-seriate, rays whitish, ca. 10 × 3 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, puberulent; disc florets 4–4.5 mm, 1 lobe long, others short, 0.9–1.3 mm, tube 1.2–1.5 mm. Style appendages triangular. Cypselas compressed, obovate ca. 2.5 mm, white silky hairs. Pappus in ray florets coroniform, 0.5–l.5 mm, lacerate, whitish, in disc florets of bristles, reddish, 3–3.5 mm.

* Stony places by seashores. N Taiwan (Taibei).

According to literature, there is one form, f. discoidus Kitamura (Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Univ. Ser. B. 13: 321. 1937; 盘状变型 pan zhuang bian xing): capitula without ray florets; pappus of marginal florets coroniform, whitish with numerous reddish bristles.

11. Heteropappus crenatifolius (Handel-Mazzetti) Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 152. 1964.

圆齿狗娃花 yuan chi gou wa hua

Aster crenatifolius Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Syn. 7: 1092. 1936.

Herbs annual or biennial, with erect roots. Stems erect, 10–60 cm tall, solitary, branching only above, ± spreading hispidulous pubescent and glandular puberulent. Leaves remote on stem, covered with stiff appressed pubescence on both surfaces intermixed with glistening sessile glands, basal leaves rosulate, withered by anthesis, lower leaves oblanceolate, oblong or spatulate, 2–10 × 0.5–1.6 cm, base attenuate, margin entire or crenately toothed, apex obtuse or subrounded, middle leaves smaller, base rather narrow or subrounded, often entire, sessile, upper leaves small, linear. Capitula solitary on short branches, 2–2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 1–1.5 cm diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, linear or linear-lanceolate, 5–8 × 0.6–l.5 mm, outer series herbaceous, glandular puberulent, intermediate, inner scarious margined. Ray florets 35–40, tubes 1.2–1.8 mm, rays mauve or blue, 8–12 × 1.6–2.4 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4.2 mm, tubes 1.4–1.6 mm, lobes unequal, 0.8–1.2 mm, puberulent. Cypselas obovate, 2–2.8 mm, pale brownish streaked with black, sparsely sericeous with a few glands at apex. Pappus straw colored or brownish, of unequal bristles, on rays often few and very short, sometimes absent or as long as disc cypselas. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

Open slopes, fields, roadsides; 1900–3900 m. Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, NW Yunnan, E Xizang [Nepal].

12. Heteropappus gouldii (C. E. C. Fischer) Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 152. 1964.

拉萨狗娃花 la sa gou wa hua

Aster gouldii C. E. C. Fischer, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1938: 286. 1938; A. crenatifolius Handel-Mazzetti, p.p. quod syn.

Decumbent spreading annul herbs. Stems 8–30 cm tall, branched from base, covered with appressed strigose or spreading hispidulous hairs intermixed with subsessile glandular hairs, especially above. Radical leaves withered by anthesis, cauline leaves linear, oblanceolate, or spatulate 0.7–3.5 × 0.2–0.5 cm, sessile or attenuate and indistinctly petiolate at base, margin entire, covered with fine appressed strigose hairs with interpressed glistening glands, apex obtuse or acute. Capitula solitary or several at ends of branches, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispherical, 1–1.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, linear or lanceolate, 5–7 × 0.8–1.8 mm, green, herbaceous, acuminate, glandular puberulent with whitish scarious margins. Ray florets 25–40, tubes 1.5–2.1 mm, rays purplish or bluish, ca. 11 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets yellow, 3.5–4 mm, tubes 1–1.2 mm, 5 lobes unequal, 4 lobes short, 0.6–0.9 mm, 1 lobe long, 1.1–1.3 mm. Cypselas obovate, 2–2.5 × 1–1.2 mm, compressed, pale olive green with black mottling, moderately sericeous with a few glands at apex. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep.

Open grassy slopes, sometimes on sandy soils and on riverbanks, field sides; 2900–5600 m. Xizang [India (Sikkim)].

23. DOELLINGERIA Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 177. 1833, p.p.

东风菜属 dong feng cai shu

Aster sect. Doelligeria (Nees) Kitamura, non A. Gray; A. sect. Teretiachaerium Kitamura.

Perennial herbs with alternate or rarely opposite, elliptic-ovate, sessile or petiolate leaves. Stems erect. Leaves serrate or rarely subentire. Capitula smaller, corymbose, radiate. Involucre hemispheric or subequal, linear-lanceolate, thick or foliaceous, with scarious margins. Receptacle rather convex, alveolate or lacerate. Ray florets 1-seriate, female, white; disc florets numerous, yellow, hermaphrodite, fertile. Female florets ligulate, rays often white, oblong-lanceolate, apex, denticulate; hermaphrodite florets yellow, campanulate 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arm appendages triangular or lanceolate. Cypselas ellipsoid-oblong, ± compressed, few-ribbed, glabrous or hispid-serious. Pappus double, inner series of many scabrid apically thickened bristles, outer series of much shorter bristles, sordid-white.

About seven species: E Asia, North America; two species (one endemic) in China.

1a.       Phyllaries unequal, remotely imbricate, narrowly herbaceous on back, margin broadly membranous; pappus of many, unequal bristles as long as disc florets; cypselas glabrous ...................  1. D. scabra

1b.       Phyllaries subequal, sometimes outer series rather shorter herbaceous and green, inner series with membranous margins only; pappus of a few, unequal bristles shorter than tube of corolla; cypselas with rough appressed hairs .............................................................................  2. D. marchandii

1. Doellingeria scabra (Thunberg) Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 183. 1833.

东风菜 dong feng cai

Aster scaber Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 316. 1784; A. corymbosus Solander ex Aiton; A. komarovii H. Léveillé; Biotia corymbosa (Solander ex Aiton) Candolle var. discolor Regel; Biotia discolor Maximowicz.

Rhizome shortly thickened. Stems 100–150 cm tall, erect, firm, obliquely branched, puberulent. Leaves abaxially pale green, rough pubescent on both surfaces, 3- or 5-veined distinctly reticulate, radical leaves withered by anthesis, cordate, 9–15 × 6–15 cm, base abruptly narrowed into 10–15 cm petioles, margin mucronate toothed, apex acute, middle leaves smaller, ovate-triangular, base rounded or slightly cuneate, with winged short petioles, upper leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear, diminished on short petioles. Capitula 1.8–2.4 cm in diam., paniculate-corymbose; peduncles 9–30 mm. Involucre hemispherical, 4–5 mm wide; phyllaries 3-seriate, glabrous, with broadly membranous margins, ciliate, apex acute or obtuse, imbricate, outer series ca. 1.5 mm Ray floret tube 3–3.5 mm; disc florets ca. 5.5 mm, with campanulate limb; lobes linear-lanceolate, tube abruptly narrowed, ca. 3 mm. Cypselas obovate or elliptic, 3–4 mm, 2-ribbed on one side, 1- or 2-ribbed on other side, except marginal rib, glabrous. Pappus of many scabrid bristles, 3.5–4 mm, sordid-white. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Aug–Oct.

Open slopes in valleys, grasslands, thickets; very common; below 2000 m. Widely distributed in China, except W China [Japan, Korea, Russia (E Siberia)].

This plant is used medicinally for treating venomous snake bites.

2. Doellingeria marchandii (H. Léveillé) Ling, Iconogr. Cormophytorum Sin. 4: 423. 1975.

短冠东风菜 duan guan dong feng cai

Aster marchandii H. Léveillé.

Rhizomes robust. Stems erect, 60–130 cm tall, robust, puberulent in upper part, branching from lower part. Leaves thick, abaxially pale, adaxially sparsely hispidulous, pilose along veins, 3 or 5-veined and lateral 3–4 paired, slightly prominent on both surfaces, reticulate veins conspicuous, lower leaves withered at anthesis, cordate, 7–10 × 7–10 cm, base abruptly attenuate into ca. 17 cm petiole, margin mucronate-serrate, apex acute or subrounded, middle leaves smaller, broadly ovate, base subtruncate, decurrent into winged short petioles, upper leaves small, ovate, base cuneate, with decurrent winged short petioles. Capitula 2.5–4 cm in diam., remotely paniculate-corymbose; peduncles 1–5 cm, with oblong to linear-lanceolate bracteole leaf. Involucre broadly campanulate, 6–7 mm wide; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, apex rounded or obtuse, rarely rather acute, herbaceous, subglabrous, inner series with narrowly membranous margins, and ciliate. Ray florets 10, rays white, 9–11 mm, oblong-linear, tube ca. 3 mm; disc florets 6–7 mm, deeply lobed, linear-lanceolate, tube 2–3 mm, glabrous. Cypselas obovate or oblong-elliptic, 3–3.5 mm, 2-ribbed on one side, 1-ribbed on other side, except marginal rib, rough appressed hairs. Pappus brownish, 0.5–1.5 mm, with few unequal bristles. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Valleys, watersides, fields, roadsides; 500–1100 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang.

The roots, leaves, and flowers are used medicinally.

24. TURCZANINOWIA Candolle, Prodr. 5: 277. 1836.

女菀属 nv wan shu

Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate. Capitula small, numerous, densely corymbose, heterogamous, radiate. Involucre tubular-campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, herbaceous, with membranous margins, obtuse, much shorter than disc florets. Receptacle with lacerate-membranous margin. Ray florets pistillate, 1-seriate, usually 7–10, white, rays elliptic, apically 2–3 denticulate or entire; disc florets several, bisexual, tubular, corolla yellow, partly sterile, with campanulate limb, 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arm appendages triangular or style undeveloped. Cypselas ovate-cylindrical, sometimes weakly compressed, margin with nerves below, but not above, dark brownish-blackish, densely pubescent. Pappus identical, dark white or pink, with subidentical, numerous, thin bristly hairs.

One species: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, in addition to Russia.

1. Turczaninowia fastigiata (Fischer) Candolle, Prodr. 5: 238. 1836.

女菀 nv wan

Aster fastigiatus Fischer, Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 3: 74. 1812; A. flabellum Vaniot; A. micranthus H. Léveillé & Vaniot; Calimmeris japonica Schultz Bipontinus var. achilleiformes H. Léveillé.

Perennial herbs, rootstock short and thick. Stems erect, 30–80(–100) cm tall, terete and glabrous below, thinly roughly hairy upward. Lower leaves withered at anthesis, linear-lanceolate, 3–12 × 0.3–1.5 cm, base gradually narrowed into short petioles, margin entire, apex acuminate, middle and upper leaves gradually diminishing in size upward, lanceolate or linear, abaxially gray-green, densely appressed pubescent and glandular, adaxially glabrous, margin slightly reflexed, and with ± hamate bristles; midrib and trinerves abaxially prominent. Capitula small, 5–7 mm, numerous, terminal, densely corymbose; peduncles slender, with 2–3 terminal fine leaflets, sometimes gradually transforming into involucral bracts. Involucre tubular-campanulate, or broadly campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, outer series oblong, 1–1.5 mm, dilated above, blunt and densely puberulent, inner series oblanceolate oblong, apex and midrib green, florets more than 10. Ray florets white, tube 2–3 mm; disc florets 3–4 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1 mm, at first densely pubescent, subglabrous at maturity. Pappus dirty white, ca. as long as corolla of disc florets. Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct.

Dry slopes, moist-grassy meadows on riverbanks, roadsides; below 100–200 m. Anhui, NE China, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, E Russia].

25. ASTER Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 872. 1753.

紫菀属 zi wan shu

Perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs, root stock generally rhizomatous, herbaceous or somewhat woody, rarely tuberous. Stems erect. Leaves alternate, entire or dentate. Capitula solitary or in simple or compound corymbs, heterogamous, radiate, only rarely discoid. Florets fertile. Ray florets pistillate, female, 1- or 2-seriate, ligules narrow, white, pink, purplish, or blue, apically inconspicuously 2- or 3-denticulate; disc florets numerous, hermaphrodite, rarely without female florets, yellow or purple-brown, ± equally 5-lobed. Involucre hemispherical, campanulate or obconic; phyllaries 2- to many-seriate, imbricate or equal, herbaceous or coriaceous, margin dry membranous and sometimes colored at apex. Receptacle flat or subconvex, foveolate or fimbriate. Anthers obtuse at base, entire-rounded; style arms with lanceolate or triangular appendages. Cypselas oblong or obovate, compressed or subconvex, with 2 marginal ribs or with 1 or sometimes 2 additional ribs on each face, usually with ascending or appressed hairs or glandular. Pappus setose, persistent, white or brownish, with numerous subequal bristles or outer series with very short bristles or scales.

Between 250 and 1000 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 95 species (67 endemic) in China.

Aster is the largest genus in the tribe Astereae, although opinions differ with regard to the number of species assigned to it. Burges and Alexander (1933) and Cronquist (1933) each attribute to it 250 species, 600 species (Core, 1955), or 1000 species (Phillips, 1950); such differences are partly explained by different interpretations in delimitation of taxa of the genus Aster.

This treatment is only a draft. Aster as traditionally treated here needs to be split up in line with the FNA treatment. Which genera are in China?

Key to sections

1a.       Phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, equal or sometimes outer series slightly shorter, not imbricate; pappus 1- or 2-seriate, outer series of short bristles, or shortly scarious; capitula solitary or 1–3 in corymbs  3. A. sect. Alpigenia

1b.       Phyllaries (2 or)3- to many-seriate, imbricate, outer series gradually shorter, very few and as long as inner; pappus 1(or 2)-seriate, outer series of short bristles, rarely scaly; capitula numerous, or rarely few, corymbose, rarely terminal, solitary on stem.

2a.       Phyllaries above or outer series herbaceous, margins sometimes narrowly membranous  1. A. sect. Aster

2b.       Phyllaries dry or thickly scarious or sometimes herbaceous in upper part
....................................................................................................  2. A. sect. Orthomeris

1. Aster sect. Aster

紫菀组 zi wan zu

Medium-sized herbs, sometimes small shrubs, branched. Capitula medium or smaller, several or numerous in corymbs, rarely solitary. Involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 3- or 4- or many-seriate imbricate, outer series shorter or subequal, ± subcoriaceous at base, foliaceous at apex or outer series herbaceous, sometimes with membranous margins. Cypselas compressed, without rib on surface. Pappus simple, rarely outer series shortly setose or scaly.

About ?? species: Asia, Europe; 18 species (12 endemic) in China.

1a.       Pappus as long as tube of disc corollas or nearly up to base of lobes, white or reddish.

2a.       Woody herbs or subshrubs; leaves triplinerved, appressed pubescent on both surfaces; pappus absent in ray florets  ..........................................................................................  17. A. smithianus

2b.       Herbs; leaves pinnately veined, strigose on both surfaces; pappus present in ray florets.

3a.       Leaves cuneate at base, gradually narrowed into short petiole; ray florets ca. 20, white  16. A. procerus

3b.       Leaves rounded at base, often amplexicaul; ray florets ca. 40, rays blue-purplish  18. A. dolichopodus

1b.       Pappus ± as long as disc corollas, white, reddish, or red-brown.

4a.       Outer phyllaries foliaceous, conspicuously veined, inner phyllaries often red-purple at apex  1. A. indamellus

4b.       Phyllaries apically or outer phyllaries herbaceous, inconspicuously nerved.

5a.       Pappus red-brown, yellowish at base; phyllaries subequal, apically long acute
                                                                                                              5. A. fuscescens

5b.       Pappus white or reddish, rarely red-brown; phyllaries outer series gradually short, rarely subequal, obtuse or slightly acute.

6a.       Ray florets 50–60 .................................................................  15. A. taliangshanensis

6b.       Ray florets 10–30.

7a.       Involucre often large, 10–25 mm in diam.; phyllaries acute or rounded at apex, margins often red-purple; perennial herbs.

8a.       Stem base without fibrous withered segments of leaf remains; involucre 10–13 mm in diam.; phyllaries acute or acuminate  ...........................................................  3. A. sibiricus

8b.       Stem base clad with fibrous segments of leaf remains; involucre 10–25 mm in diam.; phyllaries acute or rounded at apex.

9a.       Leaves with 6–10-paired pinnate veins; phyllaries acute or rounded at apex  2. A. tataricus

9b.       Leaves triplinerved; phyllaries rounded at apex  ..............................  4. A. maackii

7b.       Involucre often smaller, 5–10(–12) mm in diam.; phyllaries acute or acuminate or obtuse at apex, sometimes tinged purple-red; perennial herbs or subshrubs.

10a.     Cypselas densely sericeous; perennial herbs or subshrubs.

11a.     Perennial herbs covered with densely crisped or spreading long hairs; phyllaries 3-seriate    12. A. vestitus

11b.     Subshrubs in fascicles; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate.

12a.     Leaves and phyllaries strigose and villous on both surfaces, leaves pinnately veined, lateral veins inconspicuous; phyllaries completely or upper part herbaceous  13. A. poliothamnus

12b.     Leaves and phyllaries densely velutinous on both surfaces, leaves conspicuously triplinerved, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired; phyllaries inconspicuously herbaceous  14. A. sikuensis

10b.     Cypselas sparsely shortly hairy; perennial herbs.

13a.     Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, sessile or base attenuate into short petioles (less than ca. 2.5 mm), apex rounded  .........................................................  11. A. mangshanensis

13b.     Leaves oblong or ligulate, wing-shaped or lanceolate-oblong, base rounded auriculate, apex acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse.

14a.     Leaves rounded or attenuate, semiamplexicaul at base, distinctly triplinerved  10. A. trichoneurus

14b.     Leaves expanded in cordate or amplexicaul auricles, not triplinerved.

15a.     Involucre ca. 5 mm, 6–8 mm in diam.  ..................................  9. A. panduratus

15b.     Involucre 6–10 mm, 6–10 mm in diam.

16a.     Leaves thick, densely conferted on middle of stem  .............  8. A. sphaerotus

16b.     Leaves thin, not densely conferted on middle of stem.

17a.     Lower cauline leaves withered by anthesis, leaves adaxially and phyllaries glandular with densely rough hairs  .........................................................  6. A. auriculatus

17b.     Lower cauline leaves present by anthesis, leaves and phyllaries without glands  7. A. veitchianus

1. Aster indamellus Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 87. 1964.

叶苞紫菀 ye bao zi wan

Aster pseudamellus J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 3: 249. 1881.

Perennial rhizomatous herbs, rootstock somewhat woody. Stems erect or ascending, 30–50 cm tall, striate, covered with fine crisped ascending pubescence, sometimes glandular. Basal leaves withered by anthesis. Cauline leaves elliptic or oblanceolate, 1.8–6 × 0.5–2 cm, covered with fine appressed hairs on both surfaces intermixed with sessile glistening glands, especially adaxially, sometimes glabrous, midrib fine, adaxially slightly prominent, lateral and reticular veins inconspicuous on both surfaces, base gradually attenuate or cuneate, sessile, margin entire or with 3–4 small teeth on each side, apex acute or obtuse and mucronulate, gradually smaller in upper part. Capitula 4–10, rarely in corymbs, sometimes numerous, corymbose-paniculate, rarely solitary. Involucre 1.2–1.6 cm in diam., 5–6 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or sometimes somewhat imbricate, outer ones oblanceolate or obovate, 1.5–2.5 mm wide, foliaceous, distinctly veined, acute at apex, finely appressed pubescent and glandular, intermediate phyllaries 1–l.5 mm broad, indurate at base with soft, green or purplish tips, often glandular or finely hairs, inner ones somewhat membranous, purplish at apex. Ray florets 20–30, basal tubes 2–3.5 mm, ligule blue, mauve, or pink, 1.3–l.8 × 1.7–3 mm; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5.5 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, 1 lobe ca. 1 mm, puberulent. Style appendages ca. 0.75 mm, lanceolate. Cypselas ca. 3 × 1.5 mm, pale brown, with 2 marginal ribs, finely and sparsely white pubescent, often glandular near apex. Pappus simple, sordid-white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Alpine and subalpine forests on grassy slopes among shrubs and trees, sometimes in rock crevices and on screes; 1900–4200 m. W Xizang (Yang-si) [NW India, Kashmir, Nepal].

This species is most closely related to Amelli amellus Linnaeus but differs in having outer phyllaries foliaceous, distinctly veined, acute at apex, with broader tips, and plants often glandular. Amelli amellus, native in Europe to W Siberia, is sometimes cultivated in China.

2. Aster tataricus Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 373. 1782.

紫菀 zi wan

Aster nakai H. Léveillé & Vaniot; A. tataricus Linnaeus var. nakaii (H. Léveillé & Vaniot) Kitamura; A. trinervius Roxburgh ex D. Don var. longifolius Franchet & Savatier.

Perennial herbs, rhizome ascending. Stems erect, robust, 40–50 cm tall, base with fibrous withered leaf segment remains and adventive roots, straight ribbed, simple and glabrous below, branched above and covered with sparse rigid hairs. Leaves thickly papyraceous, abaxially with sparse and densely rigid hairs along veins, adaxially with rigid hairs, midribs rough, lateral veins 5–10-paired, abaxially prominent, distinctly reticulate, radical leaves marcescent by anthesis, oblong or elliptic-spatulate, 20–50 × 3–13 cm, narrowed below into long-winged petiole, mucronate-dentate at margins, apex acute or acuminate, lower cauline leaves smaller, gradually narrowed below into broad petiole, margin densely serrate, apex acuminate, middle leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, sessile or petiolate, margin entire or shallowly dentate, upper leaves gradually diminishing, lanceolate or elongated lanceolate, subsessile, apex acuminate, but linear, 3–5 mm, below inflorescences. Capitula numerous, 2.5–4.5 cm in diam., arranged in compound corymbs on long slender peduncles; peduncles bearing linear bracteole leaves. Involucre hemispheric, 7–9 × 10–25 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear or linear-lanceolate, apex acute or rounded, outer ones 3–4 × 1 mm, completely or upper part herbaceous, densely pubescent, inner ones 8 × 1.5 mm, margin membranous and reddish. Ray florets ca. 20, tube ca. 3 mm, ligule blue or pinkish purple, 15–17 × 2.5–3.5 mm; disc florets 6–7 mm, somewhat hairy, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages lanceolate. Cypselas obovate-oblong, dark purple, 2.5–3 mm, with 1–3 ribs on both surfaces, strongly pilose. Pappus dirty white or reddish, 6–7 mm, bristles numerous, unequal, rough, tapered upward. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Shady moist places, meadows and damp riverbanks; 400–2000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia].

The roots are used medicinally to relieve cough and reduce sputum.

3. Aster sibiricus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 872. 1753.

西伯利亚紫菀 xi bo li ya zi wan

Aster ircutianus Candolle; A. sachalinensis Kudo.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thin, horizontal. Stem 7–35 cm tall, ascending slightly from base, often reddish, simple or sometimes branched above, densely covered with appressed shorter curly hairs. Radical leaves small, scaly, deciduous at anthesis, middle cauline leaves oblong-lanceolate, 5–8 × 1–l.7 cm, gradually narrowed toward base, sessile and semiamplexicaul, margin sharp-toothed, apex acute, upper leaves gradually diminishing, linear-oblong, thinly papyraceous, adaxially with sparsely appressed short hairs or subglabrous, abaxially sparsely appressed hairy but with densely appressed hairs on veins, midrib and 6- or 7-paired lateral veins abaxially convex and connected distantly from margin, reticulate veins slightly conspicuous. Capitula solitary or 2–5 or more arranged in dense corymbs; peduncle 2–7 mm. Involucre hemispheric, 10–13 in diam., ca. 8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer ones slightly shorter, lanceolate, 4–5 × ca. 1 mm, apex acute, 1-nerved, densely pubescent, apex and margin membranous, reddish at tip, inner ones linear-lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, acuminate, reddish at tip, densely hairy. Ray florets ca. 20, tube 3–4 mm, ligule linear, purplish, ca. 12 × 1 mm, 4-veined; disc florets 6.5–7 mm, tube ca. 3 mm, lobes reddish purple, ca. 1.5 mm. Cypselas hairy, sometimes with glands. Pappus reddish, slightly longer than disc corollas or subequal. Fl. Jul–Aug.

Grasslands on hills; ca. 250 m. Heilongjiang [Japan, Mongolia, E Russia; N Europe].

This species is closely related to Aster tataricus but differs mainly by its leaf shape, densely hairy involucre, and smaller capitula.

4. Aster maackii Regel, Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. Ser. VII. 4, 81. 1861.

圆苞紫菀 yuan bao zi wan

Aster horridifolius H. Léveillé & Vaniot; A. koidzumianus Makino.

Perennial herbs, rhizome robust, creeping with densely fibrous roots. Stem erect, 40–85 cm tall, base clad with withered leaf segment remains and densely rigid short hairs, densely leaved or somewhat lax above. Leaves papyraceous, with dense or sparse rough hairs on both surfaces, triplinerved with nerves adaxially convex, lateral and reticulate veins ± prominent, radical and lower cauline leaves deciduous after anthesis, middle and upper leaves long elliptic-lanceolate, 4–11 × 0.7–2 cm, gradually narrowed, sessile or shortly petiolate, margin mucronate-serrate, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves gradually diminishing, oblong-lanceolate, margin entire, apex acute or somewhat obtuse. Capitula 3.5–4.5 cm in diam., 2 or several arranged in lax corymbs on long peduncles, sometimes solitary; peduncles 2–8 cm, with oblong or ovate bracteole leaf at apex. Involucre hemispheric, 1.2–2 cm in diam., 7–9 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, oblong to linear-oblong, apex rounded, outer ones 3–4 × ca. 1.5 mm, apically herbaceous, inner ones ca. 8 × 2 mm, apically reddish purple and puberulent, margin scarious. Ray florets ca. 20, tube 2.5–3 mm, puberulent, ligule reddish purple, oblong-lanceolate 15–18 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 6 mm, tube ca. 3 mm, slightly hairy outside, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas obovate, ca. 2 × 1 mm, 1- or 2-ribbed on both surfaces, densely hairy. Pappus white or reddish at base. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

Misty forests, damp grasslands and mountain meadows; 900–1000 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin [Korea, E Russia].

5. Aster fuscescens Burret & Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 5: 49. 1891.

褐毛紫菀宛 he mao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizome elongate. Stems erect, 15–60 cm tall, densely leafy or with majority of leaves aggregate at base, glandular and pubescent, sometimes glabrescent in lower part, branched above. Radical leaves withered by anthesis. Lower cauline leaves broadly ovate, 5–12 × 2.5–10 cm, base rounded or cordate, margins repand-dentate, teeth mucronate, apex obtuse or acute, middle and upper leaves gradually diminishing, ovate or lanceolate, shortly petiolate or sessile, subpapyraceous or coriaceous in texture, abaxially sparsely or densely villous, adaxially sparsely appressed hairy, or subglabrous on both surfaces, villous along veins, lateral veins 4–7-paired, basal veins slightly palmate, reticulate veins ± prominent. Capitula ca. 3 cm in diam., as many as 30 in terminal corymbs; peduncles 1–8 cm, with linear or oblong-lanceolate bracteole leaves. Involucre hemispheric, 7–9 mm, 10–15 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or outer series shorter, linear-lanceolate, 6–10 × 1.5–2 mm, long acute, densely glandular or subglabrous, margins ± membranous, coriaceous at base, ciliate. Ray florets 20–25, tube 1.5–2 mm, ligules bluish or purple, 8–13 × 1.3–2.5 mm. Disc florets yellow or orange, 5.5–7.5 mm, tube 1.7–2 mm, lobes 0.7–1 mm, 5–7.5 mm subequal. Cypselas obovate, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, slightly compressed, ribbed on both or one side, except marginal rib, glandular and shortly hairy or glabrescent. Fl. Jul–Oct, fr. Aug–Dec.

Alpine and subalpine meadows and grassy slopes among shrubs, rocky slopes; 2900–4200 m. Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [NE Myanmar].

This species is clearly divided into three varieties as follows:

1a. Basal and lower cauline leaves oblong or lanceolate, ± densely villous and glandular ...........  5c. var. oblongifolius

1b. Basal and lower cauline leaves broadly ovate, cordate at base, sparsely or moderately villous and glandular.

2a. Leaves thin and soft, veins hardly prominent  .............................................  5a. var. fuscescens

2b. Leaves rough, veins prominent on both surfaces  .....................................  5b. var. scaberoides

5a. Aster fuscescens var. fuscescens Burret & Franchet

褐毛紫菀(原变种) he mao zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster doronicifolius H. Léveillé.

Stems to 60 cm tall, robust, 4–6 mm thick at base, pubescent and glandular. Leaves broadly ovate, basal leaves (withered by anthesis) 7–12 × 6.5–10 cm, with petioles to 12 cm, middle cauline leaves smaller, similar in shape, borne on petioles to 12 cm, uppermost leaves among inflorescence branches narrower, ovate lanceolate, sessile, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces or subglabrous, glandular, reticulate veins hardly prominent. Phyllaries covered with villous and short stalked glands.

W Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [NE Myanmar].

5b. Aster fuscescens var. scaberoides Chang, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Bot. 6: 46. 1935.

少毛 shao mao

Stems ca. 45 cm tall, slender, ca. 4 mm thick at base, glabrescent below, brownish pubescent above, sometimes intermixed with short stalked glands. Basal and lower cauline leaves broadly ovate, 3–6.5 × 3–6 cm, cordate at base, borne on petioles to 15 cm, upper cauline leaves narrower, ovate or lanceolate, sessile, adaxially sparsely villous with glistening glands, reticulate veins prominent on both surfaces. Phyllaries glabrous.

* E Xizang, NW Yunnan.

5c. Aster fuscescens var. oblongifolius Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 93. 1964.

长圆叶 chang yuan ye

Stems to 35 cm tall, slender, to 4 mm thick at base, villous and glandular pubescent. Basal and lower cauline leaves oblong or lanceolate, 5–8.5 × 2.5–3.5 cm, margins repand dentate, teeth mucronate, upper cauline leaves few, lanceolate, 3–7 × 1.5–3 cm, sessile, densely villous and intermixed with subsessile glistening glands, reticulate veins hardly prominent on both surfaces. Phyllaries villous and glandular puberulent.

E Xizang (Chengdu) [N Myanmar].

6. Aster auriculatus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 376. 1896.

耳叶紫菀 er ye zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems solitary, rarely fascicled, erect, 40–70 cm tall, branched in upper part, covered with spreading rough hairs, often glandular, densely leafy in lower part. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, obovate to oblong, base gradually narrowed, middle leaves oblong or narrowly elliptic, 3–6 × 0.5–1.2 cm, base expanded in rounded amplexicaul auricles, with shallowly or rounded teeth, or entire, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, upper leaves small, linear-lanceolate or oblong, densely strigose adaxially or on both surfaces, glandular abaxially and with long rough hairs on margins, midrib and 3- or 4-paired lateral veins slightly prominent, finely reticulate. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., terminal, paniculate-corymbose or corymbose; peduncles 1–8 cm, with linear bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, 6–8 × 6–8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, outer series herbaceous above, densely glandular, or mixed with rough hairs, 3–4 × 0.7–1 mm, inner series 6–7 × ca. 1.5 mm, glandular on midrib, margin membranous, often lacerate, often purplish and long acute. Ray florets ca. 30, tube 2.5–3 mm, rays white, 8–10 × 1–1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas narrow obovate, ca. 3 mm, sparsely pilose. Pappus simple, white or reddish. Fl. and fr. Apr–Aug.

* Lax forests, thickets, grasslands; 1500–3000 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan.

Two forms have been recognized in China, f. auriculatus and f. crenatus Ling (Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 144. 1985). The latter has capitula few (1–3) and leaves deeply crenate-serrate, long rough hairy on both surfaces (Salwan Valley in NW Yunnan).

This species, especially the roots, are used medicinally to reduce phlegm and treat snakebites.

7. Aster veitchianus Hutchinson & Drummond ex Ling, Contrib. Inst. Bot. Acad. Peiping 3: 214. 1935.

峨眉紫菀 e mei zi wan

Aster auriculatus Franchet var. oligocephalus Ling, in Shed.

Perennial herbs with slender long stolon. Stems erect, 6–40 cm, simple or branched above, covered with spreading long rough hairs, or pilose, eglandular. Leaves abaxially without glands, lower leaves present at anthesis, midrib and 3- or 4-paired lateral veins slightly prominent abaxially, reticulate veins prominent. Capitula 1–4, sometimes to 10, corymbose, conferted at base or in lower part; peduncles slender; 2–10 cm. Involucre hemispheric, 6–8 mm, 8–12 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3(or 4)-seriate, linear-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, outer series to 4 mm, upper part or completely herbaceous, glabrous, without glands, inner series ca. 7 × 1.5 mm, margin membranous, tinged purple. Ray florets ca. 40, tube ca. 3 mm, puberulent, rays violet-purple, ca. 10 × 1 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm. Cypselas narrow oblong, ca. 3 mm, ribbed on one side, sparsely pilose. Pappus white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug.

* Shady moist places, canal sides on slopes; 800–2400 m. C and W Sichuan.

This species is distinctly similar to Aster auriculatus but differs in having lower leaves live at anthesis, leaves abaxially and phyllaries without glands, and capitula often few, often conferted at base or in lower part. It may be a variety of A. auriculatus.

This species can be divided into two forms: f. veitchianus with leaves lax, upper leaves linear; capitula 2–4, sometimes to 10; involucre 6–8 × 8–10 mm, bracteole leaflike (C and W Sichuan) and f. yamatzutae (Matsuda) Ling (FRPS 74: 144. 1985) with leaves densely conferted at base, middle and upper leaves linear; capitula solitary at apex; involucre 7–8 × 10–12 mm, bracteole leaflike (Mt. Emei in C Sichuan).

8. Aster sphaerotus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 145. 1985.

紫菀 yuan er zi wan

Erigeron panduratus Chang, Sunyatsenia 6: 17. 1941, not Aster panduratus Nees ex Walpers, 1843.

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous, with slender long stolons. Stems erect, ca. 40 cm tall, covered with spreading long hairs. Leaves densely conferted in middle part, thicker, abaxially purplish red, adaxially and abaxially along veins long hairy, without glands, midrib prominent abaxially, lateral veins 4- or 5-paired, curved, reticulate veins conspicuous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, ovate-oblong, abruptly narrowed into winged long petiole, middle leaves oblong or pandurate, 3–4.5 × 1–2 cm, base expanded in rounded-amplexicaul auricles, margin subentire, shallowly or roughly serrate above middle, apex obtuse or slightly acute, mucronulate, upper leaves smaller, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base expanded and amplexicaul, margin serrate, apex acute. Capitula few (3), ca. 3 cm in diam., corymbose; peduncle 2–4 cm, slightly glandular, with linear-lanceolate or linear bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, 8–10 × 10 mm; phyllaries 3(or 4)-seriate, outer series linear or oblanceolate, 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute, coriaceous in lower part, upper part or completely herbaceous, purple tinged, puberulent, inner series lanceolate-linear, 7–9 × 1.5, broadly membranous, glabrous, often purplish mucronulate. Ray florets ca. 30, tube ca. 3 mm, appressed puberulent, rays purplish, ca. 15 × 1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.7 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Ovary narrowly oblong, 2.5–3 mm, 1-veined on both sides, puberulent. Pappus simple, white, ca. 4 mm, somewhat unequal, pilose Fl. Jul–Aug.

* Mountain forests; ca. 2700 m. W Guangxi.

9. Aster panduratus Nees ex Walper, Nov. Act. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 258. 1843.

琴叶紫菀 qin ye zi wan

Aster argyi H. Léveillé; A. candelabrum Vaniot.

Perennial herbs; rhizomes robust. Stems erect, 50–100 cm tall, solitary or fascicled, slender or thick, covered with spreading long rough hairs, often glandular, branched above, densely leafy. , Leaves covered with appressed long hairs and densely pilose on both surfaces, glandular, abaxially along veins and margin with long hairs, midrib prominent abaxially, lateral veins inconspicuous, lower leaves withered or present by anthesis, spatulate-oblong, ca. 12 × 2.5 cm, base gradually attenuate in long petioles, middle leaves oblong-spatulate, 4–9 × 1.5–2.5 cm, base expanded cordate or in rounded auricles, semiamplexicaul, margin entire or laxly dentate, apex acute or obtuse-mucronulate, upper leaves gradually smaller ovate-oblong, base amplexicaul, margin often entire. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., solitary or laxly corymbose; peduncles 0.5–3 cm, or to 5 cm, with linear-lanceolate or ovate bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 5 × 6–8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, outer series herbaceous, 2–3 × ca. 0.7 mm, acute or slightly obtuse, densely pilose and glandular, inner series herbaceous above, ca. 4 × 1 mm, margin membranous, glabrous. Ray florets ca. 30, tube ca. 1.5 mm, rays purplish, ca. 8 × 1–2 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, densely puberulent, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.4 mm. Cypselas ovate-oblong, ca. 2 mm, ribbed on both sides, puberulent. Pappus white or reddish, ca. as long as disc corollas. Fl. Feb–Sep, fr. Jun–Oct.

* Thickets, grasslands on slopes, canal sides, roadsides; 100–1400 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, W Sichuan, Zhejiang.

10. Aster trichoneurus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 355. 1985.

毛脉紫菀 mao mai zi wan

Aster hispidulus Chang, in Shed., non Kuntze.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems erect, 30–50 cm tall, thick, slightly woody in lower part, covered with rough long hairs, appressed strigose or short hairs above, branched in upper part. Leaves thin, abaxially with short hairs and glandular, adaxially with densely rough long hairs, midrib prominent on both surfaces, triplinerved, basal and lateral veins conspicuous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, with long winged petioles, middle leaves oblong or ligulate-oblong, 6–10 × 1–2.3 cm, base abruptly narrowed or subrounded and often semiamplexicaul, but without conspicuous auricles, margin subentire, apex obtuse or subrounded, mucronulate, upper leaves gradually smaller, oblong or oblong-linear, acute or acuminate. Capitula ca. 3 cm in diam., corymbose or solitary; peduncles 3–5 cm, with linear bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 7 × 10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear lanceolate, acuminate, outer series 3–4 × 0.5–0.8 mm, sparsely pubescent and glandular, inner series ca. 7 × 1 mm, sparsely hairy, lower margin broadly membranous, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 20, tube ca. 4 mm, puberulent; disc florets ca. 6 mm. Cypselas obovate-oblong, slightly compressed, 2.5–2.8 mm, with densely short rough hairs. Pappus sordid-white, ca. as long as disc floret. Fr. Sep.

* Mountain canals; ca. 2700 m. NW Yunnan (Deqian).

This species is similar to Aster auriculatus but differs in having leaves broader and large, without amplexicaul auricles, triplinerved and phyllaries narrow, sparsely hairy.

11. Aster mangshanensis Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 355. 1985.

莽山紫菀 mang shan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slightly robust. Stems erect, ca. 25 cm tall or higher, slightly slender, shallowly canaliculate, covered with crisped short rough hairs. Leaves abaxially with sparsely short hairs often glandular, adaxially densely strigose, midrib abaxially hardly prominent, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, obscure, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, 2.2–2.5 × 0.3–1.1 cm, base rounded, sessile or abruptly narrowed into short petiole (less than ca. 2 mm), margin entire, apex obtuse, mucronulate, upper leaves ovate, 0.8–1 × 0.4–0.6 cm. Capitula ca. 1.5 cm in diam., paniculate-corymbose; peduncles 1–3 cm; bracteole leaf subspatulate and gradually becoming phyllaries. Involucre hemispheric (broadly obconic), 4–5 × ca. 7 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, subequal, spatulate-oblong, outer series ca. 4 × 1–1.5 mm, completely or upper part herbaceous, reflexed above, apex obtuse, inner series 4–4.5 × ca. 1 mm, slightly acute, densely hairy and glandular, margin membranous, long ciliate. Ray florets ca. 15, tube ca. 1 mm, rays white, 6–7 × 1.5–1.8 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.5; lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.4 mm. Ovary oblong, ca. 2.2 mm pilose. Pappus reddish tinged, as long as corolla of disc florets.

* S Hunan (Yizhang: Mang Shan).

12. Aster vestitus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 373. 1896.

密毛紫菀 mi mao zi wan

Aster mairei H. Léveillé, A. sherriffianus Handel-Mazzetti.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, rarely with short stolons. Stems erect, 50–130 cm tall, solitary, rarely fascicled, thick, branched above, angled and canaliculate, covered with crisped or spreading long hairs, mixed with glandular above. Leaves conferted, densely glandular, abaxially gray-green, crisped or spreading villous, midrib abaxially prominent, triplinerved and lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–11 × 1–1.3 cm, base cuneate or subrounded, sessile, margin entire or with 2- or 3-paired shallow serrae in upper part, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves small, linear-lanceolate, oblong or ovate. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., few to many, compound-corymbose; peduncles 1–5 cm. Involucre hemispheric, 5–6 mm, 8–10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, 4.5–5.5 × 0.6–1.2 mm, imbricate, outer series acute, completely or upper part herbaceous, apex often purplish red, coriaceous in lower part, glandular and densely hairy, ciliate, inner series narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, upper part herbaceous, lower part and margin scarious, glandular, ciliate. Ray florets 20–30, tube ca. 1.5 mm, rays white or pale purple-red, 10–12 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.6 mm. Cypselas obovate, 2.5–3 mm, compressed, 1-ribbed on both surfaces, white sericeous, sometimes glandular. Pappus simple, dirty white or slightly red. Fl. and fr. Sep–Dec.

Alpine and subalpine forest margins, grasses, slopes, riverbanks, sandy places; 2200–3200 m. SW Sichuan, N, NW Yunnan, S Xizang [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), N Myanmar].

13. Aster poliothamnus Diels, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 503. 1922.

枝紫菀 hui zhi zi wan

Aster ramsbottomi Handel-Mazzetti.

Fascicled subshrub, 40–100 cm tall. Stems multi-branched, virgate, ca. 1 cm in diam., bak gray-brown, lacerate; branches erect, 15–40 cm, slender, densely scabrid or pubescent, glandular, densely leafy. Leaves abaxially pubescent, adaxially strigose, glandular on both surfaces, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins inconspicuous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong or linear-oblong, 1–2(–3) × 0.2–0.5(–0.8) cm, base attenuate or abruptly narrowed, margin entire, apex obtuse or acute, upper leaves small, elliptic. Capitula conferted in corymbs or solitary; peduncles slender, 1–2.5 cm, with remote bracteole leaves. Involucre broadly campanulate, 5–7 × 5–7 mm; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 mm, completely or upper part herbaceous, apex acute, densely pubescent and glandular, inner series ca. 7 × 0.7 mm, subcoriaceous, upper part herbaceous and purplish red tinged, ciliate. Ray florets 10–20, purplish, tube ca. 2 mm, rays oblong, 7–10 × 1.2–2 mm, 4-veined; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, tube 1.6–2 mm, lobes ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas oblong, 2–2.5 mm, 1-ribbed on one side, densely white sericeous. Pappus dirty white, ca. 5 mm, with subequal bristles or few short hairs in outer series. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Slopes, riverbanks; 1800–3300 m. S Gansu, E Qinghai, W Sichuan, E Xizang.

14. Aster sikuensis W. W. Smith & Farrer, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 9: 80. 1916.

西固紫菀 xi gu zi wan

Fascicled subshrubs. Stems numerous, fascicled, erect or ascending, 30–40 cm, slender, slightly canaliculate, densely velutinous, branched above, densely leafy. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–2.5 × 0.5–0.8 cm, base subrounded or broadly cuneate, subsessile, margin entire, reflexed, apex obtuse or rounded, mucronulate, upper leaves small, 0.4–0.6 × 0.2–0.3 cm, thickly papyraceous, abaxially gray-green, densely velutinous, adaxially deep green, densely velutinous, midrib and 3- or 4-paired lateral veins prominent abaxially. Capitula ca. 1.5 cm in diam., solitary or corymbose; peduncles short or to 3 cm. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 1.5 × 5 mm, 6–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 × 0.8 mm, shortly velutinous, acute, somewhat purple-red, inner series linear-lanceolate, 4.5 × 1 mm, acute or slightly obtuse, with white long hairs, abaxially densely hairy, margin membranous, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10, tube ca. 2 mm, rays white or reddish, linear-oblong, ca. 10 × 1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous, lobes ca. 0.6 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas ca. 2 mm, obovate-elliptic, slightly compressed, ribbed on both surfaces. Pappus white or reddish, ca. 4 mm, simple, with many bristles. Fr. Oct.

* Dry slopes or stony places, 800–2300 m. S Gansu (Siku), NW Sichuan.

15. Aster taliangshanensis Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 356. 1985.

凉山紫菀 liang shan zi wan

Annual herbs, rhizome vertical or procumbent. Stems erect, 50–80 cm, thick, multi-branched, angled and finely sulcate crisped or spreading villous. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6–11 × 1.5–2.5 cm, base gradually or abruptly narrowed, rarely subrounded, sessile or shortly petiolate, upper part narrower, margins with 5–6 pairs of mucronate teeth or shallowly toothed, apex acute, upper leaves upper leaves oblong or linear-lanceolate, 3–5 × 0.5–1 cm, margin repand, slightly dentate or subentire, subpapyraceous, abaxially shortly appressed hairy, adaxially densely strigose, glandular or villous on veins and margin, midrib and 5- or 6-paired lateral veins abaxially prominent, conspicuously reticulate. Capitula 3–4 cm in diam., laxly terminal corymbose; peduncles 2–10 cm, with linear bract leaf. Involucre hemispheric, 10–12 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2(or 3)-seriate, subequal, 5–6 × 1.5–1.8 mm, outer series herbaceous, subleathery at nearly base, oblong-lanceolate, apex obtuse or slightly acute, margin purple-red, abaxially with short hairs and glandular, inner series apically herbaceous, margin membranous, ciliate. Ray florets 50–60, tube ca. 1 mm, rays blue-purple, ca. 15 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets 3–4 mm, yellow, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages lanceolate. Cypselas obovate ca. 2 mm, ribbed on one side, sparsely hairy. Pappus dirty white or red-brown tinged, ca. 4 mm, somewhat unequal. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.

* Lower mountains and alpine forests, grasslands, roadsides; 2500–3100 m. SW and W Sichuan.

The involucre and the number of ray florets of this species are very special in the section. It is easily distinguished from other species.

16. Aster procerus Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 415. 1888.

高茎紫菀 gao jing zi wan

Asteromaea procera (Hemsley) Ling; Kalimeris procera (Hemsley) S. Y. Hu.

Perennial herbs. Stems erect, 70–100 cm, thick, angled, strigose, or ± glabrescent in lower part, spreading branched from middle part. Leaves thin, abaxially pale green, strigose on both surfaces, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins connected far from margin, lower leaves not seen, middle leaves ovate-lanceolate, 7–11 × 3–5.5 cm, base cuneate, gradually narrowed into short petiole, margin sparsely or slightly densely mucronate-serrate, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves small, sessile, with fine teeth or subentire. Capitula 3–4 cm in diam.; peduncles 3–4 cm, solitary at apex of branch and arranged in corymbs. Involucre hemispheric, 12–15 in diam., 6–7 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer series herbaceous, shorter than inner or slightly longer, 1–1.5 mm wide, apex acute, densely scabrous hairs, most inner narrower, subglabrous. Ray florets ca. 20, white, tube ca. 1.5 mm, puberulent, rays oblong-linear, ca. 15 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets to 5 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm. Cypselas obovate, 3.5–4 × 2–2.5 mm, brown, very compressed, marginal rib thick, both surfaces flattened or finely 1–3-ribbed on one side. Pappus dirty white, unequal, 1–1.5(–2) mm, palealike. Fl. May–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Forest margins, mountain slopes. S Anhui, W Hubei, N Zhejiang.

17. Aster smithianus Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 216. 1938.

甘川紫菀 gan chuan zi wan

Kalimeris smithiana (Handel-Mazzetti) S. Y. Hu.

Woody herbs or subshrubs. Stems erect, 60–150 cm tall, multi-branched, thick in lower part, shallowly sulcate, gray purple-brown, ± appressed pubescent, densely leafy and developed buds in lower part. Lower leaves withered and fallen by anthesis, middle leaves narrowly ovate or lanceolate, 5–10 × 1–2 cm, base narrow and subrounded, margin entire, rarely shallowly serrate above middle, apex acute, upper leaves gradually smaller, ovate or linear-lanceolate, densely appressed puberulent on both surfaces, abaxially glandular, often bearing rough hairs on veins, midrib abaxially prominent, triplinerved and lateral veins 2–4 pairs. Capitula numerous, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam., corymbose; peduncles to 4 cm, with bract leaf gradually becoming phyllaries. Involucre hemispheric, 4–6 × 6–9 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer series oblong or spatulate-linear, ca. 3.5 × 1.2 mm, apex obtuse or acute, herbaceous, densely puberulent, inner series ovate-lanceolate, leathery in lower part, 4.5–5 × ca. 1.2 mm, apically densely puberulent, often shortly ciliate. Ray florets ca. 30, tube ca. 1.5 mm, rays white or pale purple-red, 6–10 × 1–2 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm, sparsely puberulent. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, black, slightly compressed 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, ribbed on one side, with densely appressed hairs. Pappus white or somewhat reddish, with a few ca. as long as tube bristles, pappus often absent in ray florets. Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Lower mountains, subalpine grasslands, stony riverbanks, 1300–3400 m. S Gansu, W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

18. Aster dolichopodus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 356. 1985.

长梗紫菀 chang geng zi wan

?Aster smithianus var. pilosior Handel-Mazzetti.

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous, with long fibrous roots. Stems erect, 50–85 cm tall, branched in upper part, covered with spreading or appressed long hairs, densely leafy in lower part. Lower leaves withered and fallen by anthesis, smaller, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–7.5 × 0.5–1 cm, base nearly equilateral, broad, rounded, often amplexicaul or subauriculate, margin expanded, entire or with 1–2 pairs of mucronate teeth or shallowly toothed, apex falcate acuminate, upper leaves smaller, linear-lanceolate, thick, abaxially pale with longer rough hairs, adaxially appressed scabrous hairy, ciliate, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins inconspicuous. Capitula 3–4 cm in diam., 4–10, terminal, solitary or arranged in corymbs; peduncles 4–15 cm, with linear bract leaf: Involucre hemispheric, ca. 5 mm, 7–10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, densely glandular, outer series oblong-lanceolate, herbaceous, leathery at base only, shortly ciliate, inner series obovate-lanceolate, leathery except upper and midrib, shortly ciliate. Ray florets ca. 40, rays bluish purple, 1.5–2 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, puberulent. Style arm appendages linear-lanceolate. Cypselas obovate, ca. 3 × 2 mm, ribbed on one surface, except marginal thickening rib, with shortly rough hairs. Pappus reddish or white at base, up to base of lobes or as long as tube, with unequal bristles. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Grasslands on slopes, canal sides, roadsides; 2400–3200 m. NW and W Sichuan.

2. Aster sect. Orthomeris A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 158. 1841.

正菀组 zheng wan zu

Aster sect. Ageraton Tamamschjan.

Herbs or shrubs, medium sized or larger, rarely small. Capitula usually smaller or medium sized, numerous or a few in corymbs or solitary on top of branches. Involucre hemispheric, obconic or tubular; phyllaries multi-seriate or 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series gradually shorter or as long as inner, membranous or scarious, sometimes papery in upper part or outer series. Cypselas compressed, ribbed on one or both surfaces, sometimes multi-angular. Pappus simple, subequal, or with short hairs or palea.

About ?? species: C and NE Asia; 33 species (25 endemic) in China.

1a.       Phyllaries 4–5(or 7)-seriate, scarious or thickly membranous, apex often brown, not herbaceous; limb of disc florets often deeply lobed.

2a.       Phyllaries linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate  ..........................................  51. A. sampsonii

2b.       Phyllaries ovate or oblong, apex obtuse or acute or rounded.

3a.       Capitula large; involucre 10–12 mm, 10–18 mm in diam.; phyllaries thick, subglabrous; middle leaves amplexicaul-auriculate at base  ...........................................................  46. A. turbinatus

3b.       Capitula small; involucre 4–7 mm, 5–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries thin, densely pilose; middle leaves attenuate or abruptly narrowed at base.

4a.       Peduncles short, bracteole leaf often tapering into phyllaries  ........  47. A. baccharoides

4b.       Peduncles short or longer, without conferted bracteole leaf.

5a.       Middle leaves ovate; involucre to 7 mm; pappus tinged reddish  .....  50. A. ovalifolius

5b.       Middle leaves oblong-lanceolate to elliptic; involucre 4–5 mm; pappus white.

6a.       Stems, leaves abaxially, and phyllaries covered with sparsely or densely rough hairs  48. A. sinianus

6b.       Stems, leaves abaxially, and phyllaries densely velutinous  ..........  49. A. velutinosus

1b.       Phyllaries 2–4-seriate, sometimes 5-seriate, membranous or scarious, sometimes apex or outer series herbaceous; limb of disc florets shallowly lobate.

7a.       Involucre obconic, phyllaries with 3–5 black striae on vein, outer series gradually becoming bract leaf  45. A. falcifolius

7b.       Involucre hemispheric or obconic, sometimes tubular, phyllaries abaxially without black striae, outer series not becoming bract leaf.

8a.       Ray florets with 2-veined rays; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, long acute.

9a.       Ray florets 40–60 .........................................................................  42. A. sikkimensis

9b.       Ray florets 10–30.

10a.     Middle leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, attenuate or abruptly narrowed, cuneate or rounded at base, sessile or to 2 mm short petiole
                                                                                               44. A. nigromontanus

10b.     Middle leaves ovate-lanceolate, truncate, rounded, or somewhat cordate at base, with 1–2 cm or to 4 cm long petiole  .....................................................................  43. A. pycnophyllus

8b.       Ray florets with 4-veined rays; phyllaries obtuse or acute, 2–4-seriate, rarely 5-seriate.

11a.     Shrubs, often multi-branched.

12a.     Capitula axillary on short branches.

13a.     Capitula several, corymbose; leaves ovate-lanceolate, triplinerved; involucre obconic 35. A. nitidus

13b.     Capitula solitary at apex of branches; leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrow lanceolate, pinninerved; involucre hemispheric  ..............................................................  34. A. hersileoides

12b.     Capitula terminal at top of stem and branches.

14a.     Leaves narrowly linear ........................................................  41. A. lavandulifolius

14b.     Leaves ovate, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, or oblanceolate.

15a.     Capitula corymbose or solitary on lateral branches.

16a.     Leaves adaxially subglabrous, abaxially white tomentose, entire or shallowly toothed; capitula 1–3 on branches  ......................................................................  39. A. hypoleucus

16b.     Leaves adaxially with verruculose hairs, abaxially with white arachnoid hairs, entire; capitula corymbose  ..................................................................................  40. A. polius

15b.     Capitula terminally compound-corymbose.

17a.     Pappus simple; leaves entire or shallowly toothed  ....................  36. A. albescens

17b.     Pappus double, outer series very short, capillary or paleaceous; leaves entire.

18a.     Leaves large, (4)6–9 cm, subglabrous on both surfaces, abaxially nitid between minor veins ............................................................................................  37. A. fulgidulus

18b.     Leaves small, 1–4 cm, adaxially puberulent-hispidulous, abaxially white tomentose or cottony  ........................................................................................  38. A. argyropholis

11b.     Herbs, stems sometimes woody in lower part.

19a.     Basal or lower leaves scaly, smaller; pappus 2-seriate or simple with a few outer short hairs     33. A. mollicisculus

19b.     Basal and lower cauline leaves ± broad, not scaly; pappus simple, or with outer short hairs.

20a.     Dwarf scapose herbs, few cm tall; basal leaves rosulate; capitula 1–2; phyllaries 2-seriate      32. A. itsunboshi

20b.     Larger herbs, with cauline leaves; capitula numerous; phyllaries 3–5-seriate, rarely 2-seriate.

21a.     Capitula solitary on branches; leaves narrow, linear-lanceolate; pappus white  31. A. gracilicaulis

21b.     Capitula in corymbs or paniculate corymbs; leaves ± broad, ovate, lanceolate or cordate; pappus white or tinged reddish brown, with outer short hairs or short scales.

22a.     Pappus subequal to corolla of disc florets.

23a.     Leaves glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely puberulent on veins abaxially, base abruptly narrowed into a broadly winged, equal to blade petiole .......  29. A. hunanensis

23b.     Leaves with sparsely scabrid hairs on both surfaces, base acuminate, gradually narrowed into subequal to blade petiole  .........................................................  30. A. menelii

22b.     Pappus as long as or slightly shorter than corolla of disc florets.

24a.     Lobes of disc florets unequal  .........................................  28. A. morrisonensis

24b.     Lobes of disc florets equal.

25a.     Leaves cordate, reniform, or subrounded.

26a.     Phyllaries 3-seriate, oblong or linear-lanceolate; leaves rounded or somewhat cordate, abruptly narrowed in a winged petiole, 3- or 4-paired pinninerved; involucre hemispheric, 4–5 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam. .................................................  26. A. alatipes

26b.     Phyllaries ca. 4-seriate, linear; leaves reniform, cordate, or subrounded, with unwinged petiole, triplinerved or nearly basally palmativeined; involucre campanulate, 6–7 mm, ca. 8 mm in diam. ........................................................................  27. A. limosus

25b.     Leaves oblong to ovate-lanceolate or linear to spatulate-lanceolate.

27a.     Phyllaries subequal, 2- or 3-seriate  .....................  25. A. homochlamydeus

27b.     Phyllaries imbricate, outer series gradually shorter.

28a.     Involucre tubular, campanulate when dry; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, apex rounded, scarious  ....................................................................  24. A. taiwanensis

28b.     Involucre hemispheric, obconic, sometimes tubular, phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate.

29a.     Leaves 2- or 3-paired pinninerved; pappus white  ...  23. A. moupinensis

29b.     Leaves with 3 or 5 basal nerves or triplinerved; pappus dirty white or tinged red-brown.

30a.     Leaves spatulate to linear-lanceolate  .................  22. A. dolichophyllus

30b.     Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate.

31a.     Involucre tubular or campanulate, ca. 5 mm in diam.; leaves with 3–5 basal nerves, glabrous on both surfaces
...........................................................................  21. A. formosanus

31b.     Involucre obconic or hemispheric; leaves ± hairy on both surfaces or often glandular.

32a.     Leaves triplinerved; involucre 4–10 mm in diam.
.........................................................................  19. A. ageratoides

32b.     Leaves basally trinerved; involucre 8–15 mm in diam.
............................................................................  20. A. trinervius

19. Aster ageratoides Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 17: 154. 1837.

三脉紫菀 san mai zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes thick. Stems erect, 40–100 cm, slender or thick, angled and canaliculate, pubescent or strigose, fallen by anthesis. Leaves broadly ovate, abruptly in long petiole, papyraceous, abaxially puberulent, adaxially strigose, often glandular, or tomentulose on both surfaces, abaxially with rough hairs on veins, basally trinerved, lateral veins 3–4 pairs, reticulate veins conspicuous, middle leaves elliptic or oblong-lanceolate 5–15 × 1–5 cm, abruptly narrowed in broadly winged petiole, margin with shallow or deep 3–7-paired serrae, apex acuminate, upper leaves gradually smaller, shallowly dentate or entire. Capitula 1.5–2 cm in diam., corymbose or paniculate-corymbose; peduncles 0.5–3 cm. Involucre obconic or hemispheric, 4–10 mm in diam., 3–7 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, linear-oblong, subcoriaceous or scarious in lower part, apically green or purple-brown, outer series to 2 mm, inner series ca. 4 mm, shortly ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10 more, tube ca. 2 mm, rays linear-oblong, ca. 11 × 2 mm, purple, reddish or white; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5.5 mm, tube 1.5 mm, lobes 1–2 mm. Style appendages to 1 mm. Cypselas obovate oblong, gray-brown, 2–2.5 mm, marginally ribbed, ribbed on one side, with shortly rough hairs. Pappus reddish brown or dirty white. Fl. and fr. Jul–Dec.

Forests, forest margins, thickets, wet places in valleys; 100–3400 m. Xizang [widely distributed in NE Asia, S Himalayan region, Japan, Korea].

Grierson (1964) mentioned that there are two intermediate forms and referred it with Aster trinervius as a subspecies of the latter. It is suitable due to the fact that the name of this species has been used in Eastern Asia for a long time and there are many varieties. In order to avoid confusion, it is still conserved as an independent species.

Aster ageratoides is a widely distributed polymorphic species. Kitamura (1937) and Handel-Mazzetti (1938) separately divided it into many varieties or subspecies. The indumentum, leaf shape, capitula, and shape and size of the involucre, however, are variable, so the difference between some varieties is not distinct.

1a. Capitula smaller; involucre 4–6 mm in diam., 3–4 mm.

2a. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, adaxially strigose, abaxially with short roughly hairs on veins  19j. var. leiophyllus

2b. Leaves linear-lanceolate, adaxially sparsely shortly strigose or subglabrous on both surfaces  19k. var. micranthus

1b. Capitula large; involucre 6–8 mm in diam., sometimes up to 10 mm in diam., 5–7 mm.

3a. Stems yellow-brown or gray-white tomentose  ........................................  19f. var. lasiocladus

3b. Stems and leaves without yellow-brown or gray tomentose.

4a. Leaf veins abaxially, stems, and peduncles with spreading long stout hairs, leaves often abaxially puberulent and with glands ......................................................................  19c. var. pilosus

4b. Leaf veins abaxially, stems, and peduncles sparsely puberulent or subglabrous, or leaves abaxially densely puberulent or with glands, or abaxially villous on veins.

5a. Leaves lanceolate (5–8 × 0.7–1 cm), thick, shallowly serrate  ........  19g. var. gerlachii

5b. Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, shallowly or deeply serrate.

6a. Leaves abaxially densely puberulent, densely glandular  .........  19d. var. scaberulus

6b. Leaves abaxially sparsely hairy or subglabrous and glandular or eglandular.

7a. Leaves papyraceous, conspicuously reticulate veined, insula adaxially spumose  19e. var. firmus

7b. Leaves thick or papyraceous, reticulate veined, insula adaxially not spumose.

8a. Phyllaries broader (1–2 mm wide), apex rather obtuse, densely ciliate, or somewhat acute, shortly ciliate, margin fimbriate serrulate.

9a. Middle cauline leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate (3–8 × as long as broad); phyllaries apically purple-brown or purple-red, sometimes foliaceous; leaves often coarsely serrate at margin, base often abruptly narrowed into a long broadly winged petiole ......  19a. var. ageratoides

9b. Middle cauline leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate (2–3 × as long as broad); phyllaries apically often with a small purple-red mucro; leaves often shallowly serrate at margin, base often gradually narrowed into a short petiole .................................................................  19b. var. oophyllus

8b. Phyllaries narrower (1 mm wide), apex slightly acute, margin glabrous or shortly ciliate, often entire.

10a.. Inflorescence branches with lanceolate entire leaves, smaller than upper leaves; phyllaries apex sometimes purple-red   19i. var. heterophyllus

10b.. Inflorescence branches with ovate toothed leaves, much smaller than upper leaves; phyllaries apex often green  ...............  19h. var. laticorymbus

19a. Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides

三脉紫菀(原变种) san mai zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster trinervius Roxburgh ex D. Don subsp. ageratoides (Turczaninow) Grierson; A. adustus Koidzumi ex Nakai; A. guelpaertensis H. Léveillé & Vaniot; A. trinervius var. adustus Komarov; A. trinervius var. potaninii Diels; A. trinervius var. rosthornii Diels.

Leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, papyraceous, adaxially densely strigose, abaxially sparsely hairy or glabrous except on veins, slightly glandular, base narrowed, margin roughly serrate. Involucre large, 6–10 mm in diam., 5–7 mm, apex purple-brown. Ray florets purple or red.

S Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Korea, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, E Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, W Sichuan, NW Yunnan [Russia (E Siberia)].

19b. Aster ageratoides var. oophyllus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 161. 1985.

卵叶 luan ye

Aster ageratoides var. ovatus Handel-Mazzetti; A. blinii H. Léveillé; A. trinervius var. ovatus Franchet & Savatier (1875) nec subsp. ovatus (Franchet & Savatier) Kitamura.

Leaves ovate and ovate-lanceolate, rather thick, adaxially strigose, abaxially sparsely hairy, base gradually narrowed into short petiole, margin shallowly serrate. Phyllaries apex reddish. Ray florets reddish or white.

* Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan; rarely seen in N China.

19c. Aster ageratoides var. pilosus (Diels) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 214. 1938.

长毛 chang mao

Aster trinervius var. pilosus Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 610. 1901.

Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, rather thick, abaxially with dense short hairs and glandular, adaxially shortly strigose, adaxially on veins and stem with ca. 1 mm spreading white or gray long hairs, base gradually or abruptly narrowed, margin shallowly serrate. Phyllaries apex purple-brown.

* W Hubei, S Shaanxi, E to C Sichuan.

19d. Aster ageratoides var. scaberulus (Miquel) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 162. 1985.

微糙 wei cao

Aster scaberulus Miquel, J. Bot. Nearl. 1: 100. 1861; A. ageratoides var. ovatus Handel-Mazzetti, p.p., non. A. trinervius var. ovatus Franchet & Savatier; A. trinervius f. pubescens O. Kuntze.

Leaves usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate, thicker, adaxially densely strigose, abaxially densely puberulent and conspicuously glandular, often villous on veins, or abaxially glabrescent, base gradually or abruptly narrowed into narrowly winged or unwinged short petiole, margin with 6–9-paired shallow serrae. Involucre large, 6–10 mm in diam., 5–7 mm. Phyllaries apically green. Ray florets white or tinged red.

Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, E Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Vietnam].

19e. Aster ageratoides var. firmus (Diels) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 215. 1938.

坚叶 jian ye

Aster trinervius var. firmus Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 610. 1907.

Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, thickly papyraceous, adaxially densely strigose, subglabrous later, often lucid, abaxially with long rough hairs on veins, conspicuously reticulate veins, insula adaxially spumose. Ray florets white or tinged red.

N Anhui, W Hunan, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, N Yunnan [S Himalayan region].

19f. Aster ageratoides var. lasiocladus (Hayata) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 215. 1938.

毛枝 mao zhi

Aster lasiocladus Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8: 49. 1919; A. ageratoides subsp. lasiocladus (Hayata) Kitamura; A. trinervius var. lasiocladus (Hayata) Yamomoto.

Stems yellow-brown or gray tomentose. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, often smaller, 4–8 × 1–3 cm, thick, adaxially densely strigose, or densely tomentose, often with rough hairs on veins, margin shallowly dentate, apex obtuse or acute. Phyllaries thick, densely tomentose. Ray florets white.

* Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, SE Yunnan.

This variety is very easy to distinguish from other varieties of this species and is much closer to Aster trinervius, but the latter has thicker leaves and is more densely tomentose.

This plant is used medicinally for treating common colds and headaches, osteodynia, and snakebites.

19g. Aster ageratoides var. gerlachii (Hance) Chang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 163. 1985.

狭叶 xia ye

Aster gerlachii Hance, J. Bot. 262. 1880; A. curvatus Vaniot.

Stems strigose in upper part. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 5–8 × 0.7–1 cm, abaxially subglabrous, adaxially with sparsely rough hairs, acuminate at both ends, margin shallowly serrate. Phyllaries apically green. Ray florets white.

* Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei.

19h. Aster ageratoides var. laticorymbus (Vaniot) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 214. 1938.

宽伞 kuan san

Aster laticorymbus Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 12: 494. 1903.

Stems multi-branched. Middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, abaxially often glabrescent, base narrowed, margin with 7- or 8-paired serrae, upper leaves small, ovate or lanceolate, margin entire or toothed. Phyllaries narrower, apically green. Ray florets often white.

* Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan.

19i. Aster ageratoides var. heterophyllus Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 9: 144 [Sphalm “holophyllus”], 472. 1859.

异叶 yi ye

Aster nigrescens Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 12: 433. 1903.

Stems multi-branched. Middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, margin roughly serrate, upper leaves smaller, often entire. Phyllaries narrower, apically green, often brown mucronate(?).

* S Gansu, Hebei, NW Hubei, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, N Yunnan.

19j. Aster ageratoides var. leiophyllus (Franchet & Savatier) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 164. 1985.

光叶 guang ye

Aster leiophyllus Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 223. 1875; A. ageratoides f. leucanthus Kitamura; A. ageratoides subsp. leiophyllus (Franchet & Savatier) Kitamura.

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long acuminate, adaxially ± strigose, abaxially with short rough hairs on veins, base abruptly narrowed, sessile or shortly petiolate, margin densely acute-serrate. Capitula small, slender pedunculate. Involucre obconic when dry, ca. 4 mm, 5–6 mm in diam.; phyllaries apex obtuse, apically brown. Ray florets white. Pappus white or red-brown.

Taiwan [Japan].

Specimens not seen.

19k. Aster ageratoides var. micranthus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 356. 1985.

小花 xiao hua

Stems 60–100 cm tall, slender, multi-branched. Leaves linear-lanceolate, thinly papyraceous, subglabrous on both surfaces, insula adaxially ± spumose, middle leaves 6–17 × 0.4–1.5 cm, margin sparsely shallowly toothed or subentire. Capitula small, in axillary and terminal corymbs; peduncle slender. Involucre 3–4 mm, 4–5 mm in diam.; phyllaries thin, apex purple-brown or green. Rays linear, white, 4–5 mm; disc florets and pappus ca. 4 mm.

* Forests, thickets. Sichuan.

20. Aster trinervius Roxburgh ex D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 177. 1825 [??possible earlier homonym in IPNI: “Aster trinervius Gilib. Fl. Lithuan. iii. 214”].

三基脉紫菀 san ji mai zi wan

Aster ageratoides Turczaninow subsp. trinervius (Roxburgh ex D. Don) Grierson; A. scabridus C. B. Clarke; Diplopappus asperrimus Candolle; Galatella asperrima Nees.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, often woody. Stems erect, 60–205 cm tall, thick, angled and finely canaliculate, covered with fine hairs or dense rough hairs in all parts, sometimes reflexed, branched. Leaves thick or subcoriaceous, sometimes thin, adaxially strigose, abaxially pale, with fine or rough hairs and glandular, or subglabrous, 3 basal veins and 2–4-paired lateral veins, conspicuously reticulate veined, cauline leaves ovate-lanceolate, 4.5–11 × 1.5–4.5 cm, base subrounded, abruptly narrowed into a short petiole, margin with 4–7-paired shallow serrae, apex acuminate, lower leaves withered by anthesis, upper leaves ovate or lanceolate, sessile, margin toothed or entire. Capitula ca. 2 cm in diam., in corymbs or paniculate corymbs, long pedunculate. Involucre obconic or hemispheric, 8–15 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, spatulate, coriaceous in lower part, apex green, sometimes tinged red, puberulent or glabrous, 4–7.5 mm, margin membranous, often ciliate. Receptacle pseudo-paleaceous, palea ca. 0.5 mm, or sparsely shortly scabrid pubescent. Ray florets ca. 10 or more, tube 2–3 mm, rays white, sometimes yellowish, linear-oblong, ca. 10 × 3 mm; disc florets yellow, 4–6.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes 1.2–2 mm. Style arm appendages ca. 1 mm. Cypselas obovate, gray-brown, 2.5–4 mm, marginally 2-ribbed, sometimes 1-ribbed on one side, with sparsely rough hairs, sometimes glandular. Pappus dirty white or tinged red-brown, 4.5–6 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Dec.

Pinus forests; ca. 3100 m. S Xizang [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar, Nepal].

This species is easy to distinguish from Aster ageratoides by its leaves thick, ovate-lanceolate, basally 3-veined, base subrounded or gradually narrowed, and phyllaries sometimes broader.

Only Aster trinervius var. trinervius occurs in China.

21. Aster formosanus Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8: 46. 1919.

台岩紫菀 tai yan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender. Stems erect, 30–80 cm tall, slightly fine, reflexed, clad with fibrous leaf remains, in lower part, subglabrous, spreading branched above, puberulent. Leaves abaxially pale, adaxially green, glabrous on both surfaces, thickly papyraceous, basally 3–5-nerved and reticulate veined, basal leaves withered by anthesis, oblong, acuminate, smaller than lower leaves, long petiolate, lower and middle leaves ovate-lanceolate, 7–16 × 3–7 cm, base subrounded, abruptly narrowed into 2.5–7 cm petiole, apex caudate to long acuminate, upper leaves smaller, lanceolate, petiolate. Capitula numerous, 10–12 mm in diam.; peduncles 7–10 mm, with linear bract leaves (2–3 mm). Involucre “tubular,” campanulate when dry, 3–5 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, laxly imbricate, lanceolate, obtuse, puberulent, apically purple-red, outer series 1–1.5 mm. Receptacle without raised alveola. Ray florets 1-seriate, rays ca. 6.5 × 1.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, hairy in upper part; disc florets ca. 6 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, lobes ca. 3 mm. Style appendages triangular. Cypselas narrowly oblong, ca. 0.8 mm wide, 1-ribbed on both surfaces, except marginal rib, sparsely hairy. Pappus dirty white, ca. 5 mm, unequal scabrid hairs. Fl. and fr. May–Dec.

* On rocks of alpines. Taiwan.

22. Aster dolichophyllus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 357. 1985.

叶紫菀 chang ye zi wan

Perennial herbs, with fibrous and adventitious roots, rhizomes, and long creeping branches. Stems ascending, ca. 45 cm tall, relatively slender, very densely leafy in lower part, sparsely leafy in upper part, glabrous or sparsely hairy in upper part. Leaves slightly thick, glabrous on both surfaces, with 3 or 4 pairs of lateral veins joining to form a submarginal vein on each side and raised on abaxial surface, reticulate veins ± conspicuous; basal and lower leaves present at anthesis, spatulate or linear-lanceolate, 10–17 × 1–2 cm, base gradually narrowed into a long petiole itself enlarged and semiamplexicaul at base, margin distally sparsely undulate-dentate or mucronate-dentate, apex falcate-acuminate or acuminate; middle leaves linear, 5–9 × 0.5–0.8 cm, base with a short petiole, margin subentire; upper leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, small. Capitula ca. 8 in a sparsely arranged corymb, ca. 2.5 cm in diam.; peduncles thickly hairy and with leaflike linear bracts. Involucre hemispheric or broadly funnelform, 6–7 × 6–7 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear or linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate; outer series ca. 2.5 mm, sparsely stoutly hairy, apex herbaceous; inner series broadly membranous except midrib and apex, margin ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10; ligules white, linear, up to 10 × 1 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 1.7 mm, densely puberulent. Style appendages nearly lanceolate. Pappus hairs light reddish brown, as long as disc floret, predominantly appressed pubescent, to a lesser extent puberulent. Ovary narrowly oblong, with 2 ribs on each side, densely stoutly hairy. Fl. Oct.

*  Together with mosses on rocks along riverbanks in forests. N Guangxi (Longsheng).

23. Aster moupinensis (Franchet) Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 613. 1937.

川鄂紫菀 chuan e zi wan

Erigeron moupinensis Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Ser. 2, 10: 16. 1888; A. henryi Hemsley.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, ± woody. Stems erect, 12–40 cm tall, slender, clad with withered leaf remains at base, 3–9 erect or ascending virgate-corymbose branched in upper part, canaliculate, glabrous or sparsely hairy in lower part, appressed hairy in upper part. Leaves thick, glabrous on both surfaces, margin scabrid hairy only, midrib conspicuously raised on both surfaces, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, nearly parallel to margin and inconspicuous, basal leaves present at anthesis, homomorphic with rosulate leaves, narrowly spatulate or linear, 4–12 × 0.2–0.7 cm, gradually narrowed into a long petiole, entire or with 1- or 2-paired shallow serrae, apex acute or acuminate and mucronulate, margin plane or somewhat revolute, lower and middle leaves linear, 2–4 × 0.2–0.4 cm, ± erect, upper leaves small, linear, abaxially sparsely appressed hairy, 1-veined. Capitula solitary at end of branches, 3–4 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 7–8 × 10–12 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear or linear-oblong, slightly acute, apex tinged purple, outer series herbaceous, broadly membranous except midrib, ca. 7 × 1.5 mm, margin lacerate or ciliate. Ray florets ca. 20, tube ca. 3 mm, puberulent, rays white, long elliptic, ca. 15 × 1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 1 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, lobes ca. 2 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas oblong, to 3 mm, without ribs on both surfaces, appressed pubescent. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Riverbanks, grassy slopes, sandy areas, on rocks; 100–200 m. W Hubei, E Sichuan.

24. Aster taiwanensis Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 145. 1932.

台湾紫菀 tai wan zi wan

Aster scaberrimus Hayata; A. trinervius Roxburgh ex D. Don var. hayata Yamamoto; A. trinervius var. scandens Hayata; A. baccharoides Steetz var. kanehirae Yamamoto.

Perennial herbs. Stems 30–100 cm, finely canaliculate, with short rough hairs or subglabrous in lower part, multi-branched in upper part. Leaves thickly papyraceous, adaxially green, lucid, puberulent or subglabrous, abaxially pale, subglabrous, sometimes with fine points on veins, puberulent or subglabrous, triplinerved, lateral veins 3-paired, basal leaves withered by anthesis, lower and middle leaves usually lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 8–14 × 1.5–3 cm, base gradually narrowed into a 3–5 mm short petiole, margin roughly or finely serrate, apex acuminate, upper leaves smaller, base rounded, shortly petiolate, apex acuminate. Capitula numerous, paniculate-corymbose; peduncle 3–6 mm. Involucre tubular-campanulate when dry, ca. 5 mm, 5–6 mm in diam.; phyllaries imbricate, scarious, 4- or 5-seriate, apex rounded, eroded-ciliate, abaxially under apex with short hairs, outer series ovate, ca. 1 mm, middle series 2–3 × ca. 1 mm, inner 4–5 mm. Ray florets 1-seriate, tube 2.5–3 mm, puberulent, rays white, 4.5–7 × 1.5–2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 6 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, lobes ca. 2.5 mm. Cypselas slightly compressed, oblong, 2–2.5 × ca. 1.5 mm, 1-ribbed on both surfaces. Pappus white or somewhat reddish, ca. 4 mm. Fl. and fr. May–Dec.

* Grassy slopes. Taiwan.

25. Aster homochlamydeus Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1901. 1936.

等苞紫菀 deng bao zi wan

Aster homolepis Chang in Shed.; Aster trinervius Roxburgh ex D. Don var. grossedentatus Franchet ex Diels.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes long. Stems erect, 20–50 cm, slender, fascicled or solitary, covered with spreading short hairs in lower part, often glabrescent later, densely appressed hairs in upper part. Leaves often thin, abaxially appressed short hairs, adaxially with scabrid hairs, veins and margin slightly with hairs, midrib and 4-paired lateral veins abaxially prominent, basal leaves withered by anthesis, rarely present, ovate, 2–7 × 1–4.5 cm, homomorphic with lower leaves, abruptly narrowed into 3–10 cm narrowly winged petiole, sparsely toothed in upper part, apex obtuse, middle leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 6–15 × 2–4 cm, middle or lower leaves abruptly narrowed into a cuneate short petiole, sparsely toothed in upper part, apex acuminate, upper leaves small, sessile. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., 2 to 10 or more, corymbose; peduncle slender, 1–7 cm. Involucre obconic, 5–8 mm, 5–10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, often equal, linear-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, ca. 8 × 1–1.5 mm, outer series ± herbaceous puberulent, inner series herbaceous in upper part, margin broadly membranous, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10 more, tube ca. 2 mm, rays white or purple, 10–15 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets 4–5 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, puberulent, lobes to 2 mm. Cypselas oblong or obovate, brown, 3–4 mm. Pappus 4–5 mm, slightly red and with unequal bristles. Fl. Apr–Aug, fr. Jul–Sep.

* Alpine and subalpine mixed forests; 3000–3300 m. S Gansu, SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

26. Aster alatipes Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 407. 1888.

翼柄紫菀 yi bing zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous and with long stolons. Stems erect, 50–100 cm tall, slender, solitary or a few fascicled, covered with spreading rough hairs, with reflexed branches in upper part. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, often small, rounded or cordate, ca. 3.5 × 2 cm, abruptly narrowed into a narrowly winged petiole, middle leaves ovate-lanceolate, 5–10 × ca. 4 cm, abruptly narrowed into a 1.5–2 cm broadly winged petiole, upper margin with 7–10-paired sparsely mucronate serrae, upper leaves gradually smaller, with broadly winged short petiole, adaxially with dense short scabrid hairs, abaxially with short hairs, ± glandular, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, inconspicuously reticulate veined. Capitula ca. 1.5 cm in diam., terminally corymbose; peduncles 5–25 mm, densely appressed hairs. Involucre hemispheric, 4–5 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer series oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, ± herbaceous, with short hairs, inner series linear-lanceolate, ca. 4 × 1 mm, apex green, broadly membranous, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10 or more, tube ca. 2 mm, rays purplish, ca. 9 × 1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas oblong, 2.5–3 mm, slightly compressed, ribbed on one side, with short rough hairs. Pappus dirty white or reddish, ca. as long as disc florets and with subequal bristles. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

* Shady places in valleys of lower mountains or canal banks; 800–1600 m. NW Hubei, S Shaanxi.

This species is closely related to Aster ageratoides, but the shape of leaves is different.

27. Aster limosus Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 413. 1888.

湿生紫菀 shi sheng zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizome thick. Stems often solitary, erect, 22–70 cm tall, finely canaliculate, covered with densely appressed hairs, simple or branched in middle part. Leaves thick, adaxially densely strigose, abaxially with sparse short hairs and dense hairs on veins, midrib or nearly palmate veins abaxially raised, lateral veins 3-paired, conspicuous, lower leaves withered by anthesis, cordate, reniform, or subrounded, 2–5 × 2.2–4.5 cm, villous, with 2–6 cm petiole, middle leaves cordate-ovate, margin sparsely mucronulate dentate, apex obtuse or slightly acute, upper leaves gradually smaller, ovate-rounded, subsessile. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., 4–8 terminally corymbose; peduncles 7–12 cm, with oblong or linear bracteole leaves. Involucre subcampanulate, 6–7 mm, ca. 8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4-seriate, laxly imbricate, linear, apex obtuse, outer series ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, herbaceous in upper part, densely shortly hairy, with dark midrib, inner series ca. 5 × 0.7 mm, slightly acute, with apically dark midrib, inner series ca. 5 × 0.7 mm slightly acute, apically often purple-red, scarious, glabrous. Ray florets ca. 10, rays purple-red, oblong 8–9 × 1.5–2 mm, tube ca. 2 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 mm, ribbed at margin and on one side, densely pubescent. Pappus dirty white or somewhat reddish, with numerous subequal bristles.

* Dirty-water fields. W Hubei (Yichang).

The shape of leaves is distinct. It is easy to distinguish from the other species.

28. Aster morrisonensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8: 48. 1919.

玉山紫菀 yu shan zi wan

Rhizomes procumbent, slender, with laxly lanceolate scales. Stems 10–24 cm tall, ca. 1 mm in diam., puberulent, ascending branched in upper part. Basal leaves withered by anthesis or present, subrosulate, oblong, 1.5–2.5 × 0.8–1 cm, roughly hairy on both surfaces, base rounded-cuneate, with 3.5–5.5 cm long petioles, margin a few mucronulate serrae, apex acute, middle leaves numerous, lanceolate, 3–4 × 0.7–0.8 cm, base abruptly narrowed, margin sparsely toothed, apex acuminate, upper leaves gradually smaller, 0.7–1 cm. Capitula ca. 14 mm in diam., corymbose or paniculate-corymbose; peduncles slender, 5–15 mm, densely puberulent. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 2.5 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, outer series rather shorter than inner, narrowly oblong, apex obtuse, scabrid hairs, scarious, ciliate, apically purple. Receptacle small alveolate, raised at margin. Ray florets 1-seriate, rays ca. 7 × 1–1.5 mm, glabrous, tube ca. 2 mm; disc florets ca. 4.5 mm, tube 1.5–1.8 mm, lobes unequal, 1–1.8 mm. Style arm appendages triangular. Cypselas narrow oblong, ca. 2 mm, densely roughly hairy. Pappus ca. 3 mm, tinged red, with numerous unequal bristles.

* Alpine; ca. 3000 m. Taiwan.

The specimen was not seen; the above description was translated from Kitamura. This species has 2-seriate phyllaries and disc floret corollas with unequal lobes. It seems to be close to the genus Heteropappus.

29. Aster hunanensis Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 611. 1937.

湖南紫菀 hu nan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous and with short stolons. Stems erect, solitary, ca. 35 cm tall, slender, subglabrous, multi-branched in upper part, laxly leafy. Leaves thick, glabrous on both surfaces, or adaxially nearly puberulent on margin and abaxially sparsely puberulent on veins, triplinerved, 2- or 3-paired lateral veins abaxially prominent, conspicuously reticulate veined, lower leaves present at anthesis, ovate or subelliptic, 6–7 × 3–4 cm, abruptly narrowed into an equal to blade and broadly winged long petiole, margin laxly serrate or subentire, apex acute or obtuse, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 4–7 × 1.5–2.5 cm, abruptly narrowed into a broadly winged and slightly amplexicaul short petiole, margin mucronate-serrate, apex acuminate, upper leaves gradually smaller, base ± amplexicaul, margin shallowly toothed or entire. Capitula 2–3.5 cm in diam., solitary and arranged in paniculate corymbs; peduncles 0.5–2.5 cm, with linear lanceolate bracteole leaf. Involucre subhemispheric, 5–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal, 3–4 × ca. 1 mm, linear-lanceolate, apex acute, herbaceous or inner series apically herbaceous, abaxially glabrous, ciliate. Ray florets 3.5–4 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 0.8 mm. Cypselas obovate, ca. 2 mm, slightly compressed, 2–4-ribbed, with white short hairs. Pappus dirty white, 1.5–2 mm, with more than 10 unequal bristles. Fr. Aug.

* About 800 m. SW Hunan (Anhua).

The stems and leaves nearly glabrous and lower leaves present at anthesis are distinct in this species.

30. Aster menelii H. Léveillé, Fl. Kouy-Tcheou, 87. 1964.

黔中紫菀 qian zhong zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes procumbent, with long fibrous roots. Stems erect, ca. 70 cm tall, multi-branched in middle part, slender, finely canaliculate, appressed scabrid hairs, densely leafy. Leaves abaxially pale, adaxially brownish when dry, sparsely scabrid hairs on both surfaces, triplinerved, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins parallel with margin, basal leaves few, rosulate, ovate lanceolate, ca. 4.5 × 2.5 cm, gradually narrowed into acuminate and subequal to blade petiole, margin sparsely shallowly toothed or subentire, apex acute, lower and middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–10 × 1.5–2 cm, base gradually attenuate, subentire, with 4- or 5-paired shallow teeth or subentire, apex acuminate, upper leaves narrowed. Capitula ca. 2 cm in diam., solitary and arranged in racemose corymbs; peduncles 2–3 cm, with linear-lanceolate bract leaf. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal, oblong-lanceolate, acute or slightly acute, subscarious, brown, midrib herbaceous, puberulent. Ray florets ca. 10 or more, tube ca. 1.3 mm, rays white, ca. 10 × 1.2 mm; disc florets 3–3.5 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, lobes ca. 0.5 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.3 mm. Ovary oblong, ca. 2 mm, with rough short hairs. Pappus white, 1–1.5 mm, with 10–20 unequal bristles. Fl. Jun.

* C Guizhou (Anshun).

This species is similar to Kalimeris indica in outline but differs by its phyllaries equal, oblong-lanceolate, and pappus subequal to tube. It is probably closely related to Aster hunanensis. The structure of the phyllaries and pappus are similar, but the leaf shape in both species is different.

31. Aster gracilicaulis Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 357. 1985.

细茎紫菀 xi jing zi wan

Perennial herbs, with vertical and finely branched roots. Stems 3–5-fascicled on collar, erect or curved at base, 40–60 cm tall, slender, shallowly canaliculate, red-brown in lower part, ± hairy or glabrescent, crisped hairs in upper part, 3–5 corymbose-branched in upper part, laxly leafy in upper part. Lower leaves withered by anthesis, linear, middle leaves linear-lanceolate, 5–9 × 0.4–0.7 cm, base gradually narrowed, margin often slightly revolute, entire or sometimes shallowly toothed, teeth 1–3-paired, apex long acuminate, upper leaves small, linear to subulate, adaxially strigose at nearly margin, abaxially pale, glandular, sparsely puberulent on midrib only, subparallel trinerved and 1-paired lateral veins, midrib abaxially prominent and laxly reticulate veined, apex finely acute. Capitula solitary, 2–2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 5 mm, 8–10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, with membranous margin and green midrib, apex obtuse, shortly ciliate, outer series linear-oblong, 2–2.5 × ca. 0.7 mm, apically herbaceous, inner series ca. 4.5 × 1 mm, apically purple-red. Ray florets to 20, tube ca. 2.5 mm, rays blue-purple, oblong, ca. 9 × 2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm. Cypselas black, obovate ca. 2 × 1.5 mm, inconspicuously ribbed on one side, white puberulent. Pappus white, 3.5–4 mm. Fl. Jul.

* About 1200 m. Gansu (Qingyan).

32. Aster itsunboshi Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 130. 1934.

大埔紫菀 dab u zi wan

Rhizomes slender and long, woody, with sparse scales and sparse roots. Stems subscapose, usually simple, erect, sometimes reflexed, ca. 3 cm tall, laxly leafy. Basal leaves rosulate, present at anthesis, obovate or oblong, 1.5–2 × ca. 0.7 cm, thick, base gradually narrowed into a winged petiole, margin mucronulate-serrate, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, cauline leaves gradually smaller, spatulate or lanceolate, densely roughly hairy on both surfaces, base attenuate, with short petiole or subsessile, apex acute. Capitula 1–2, shortly pedunculate, erect, ca. 8 mm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 4–7 mm, tinged purple-red; phyllaries 2-seriate, outer series lanceolate, shorter, apex acuminate, lacerate-ciliate, with rough hairs. Ray florets 1-seriate, white, disc florets numerous, lobes ca. 2 mm, glabrous. Ovary with densely rough hairs. Pappus dirty white, often tinged yellow, ca. 2 mm.

* Stony mountains. Taiwan.

The material of this species was not seen;, the description is translated from Kitamura.

33. Aster mollicisculus (Candolle) C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 45. 1875.

软毛紫菀 ruan mao zi wan

Diplopappus molliusculus Lindley ex Candolle, Psodr. 5: 277. 1836; D. roylei Lindley ex Candolle.

Perennial herbs, with thick, somewhat woody rootstocks. Stems 12–25, rarely to 40 cm tall, sparsely pubescent or covered with soft white hispidulous hairs, eglandular. Leaves thick, abaxially pubescent or subglabrous on both surfaces, 3-nerved, basal and lower cauline leaves scalelike, usually withered by anthesis, middle leaves elliptic, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1–5 × 0.3–0.9 cm, base cuneate, sessile, margin entire or with 2–3 shallow teeth on each side, somewhat involute, apex acute, upper leaves smaller. Capitula 1–5, borne on naked peduncles from axils of upper leaves and arranged in lax corymbs. Involucre hemispheric, 1.2–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat purple-red or brown, ± coriaceous, margins narrowly membranous, outer series 2–4 × ca. 0.5 mm, puberulent on midrib, inner series 6–7(–9) × 0.7–1 mm, glabrous. Ray florets 15–25, tubes 2–3 mm, rays white or pink, 7–12 × 1.5–2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, tubes 1–2 mm, lobes 0.8–1 mm. Style appendage triangular, 0.8–l mm. Cypselas 2.7–4 mm, linear, pale brownish, 4-ribbed, densely or sometimes sparsely covered with silky hairs. Pappus dirty, 3.5–5.5 mm, double or simple with a few outer bristles, setae of inner series sometimes unequal in thickness. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep.

Alpine and subalpine stony slopes; 2000–3500 m. W Xizang [NW India, Kashmir, Pakistan].

34. Aster hersileoides C. K. Schneider in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 3: 460. 1917.

横斜紫菀 heng xie zi wan

Shrubs many branched, 60–120 cm tall, old branches erect, procumbent or ascending, gray-brown, bark ramous, canaliculate, biennial branches yellow-brown, subglabrous, with prominent leaf scars and axillary buds, present year branches 6–10 cm, purple-red, slender, covered with somewhat sparse or dense shortly curved hairs, clad with scales, densely leafy. Leaves oblong-oblanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 1–3 × 0.2–0.7 cm, green on both surfaces, thin, glabrous or adaxially sparsely pubescent on midrib, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins 2-paired, conspicuous, base attenuate, sessile, margins curved-ciliate, entire, apex obtuse or rounded, mucronulate. Capitula 2.5–3 cm in diam., solitary at apex of branches; peduncles slender, with finely acute bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, 5–6 mm, ca. 10 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, outer series 3–4 × ca. 0.6 mm, green, glabrous or puberulent, with narrow margins, inner 2 series, subequal, ca. 5.5 × 1 mm, apically green, margins broadly membranous and lacerate-ciliate. Ray florets ca. 30, tube 2.5–3 mm, rays green-purple, 9–10 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tubes ca. 1 mm. Style appendage ca. 0.3 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, ribbed on one side, densely puberulent. Pappus white or reddish, up to base of lobes, with unequal bristles and a few very short hairs. Fl. and fr. Apr–Jul.

* Dry slopes on hills or rocky walls; 1300–2800 m. W Sichuan (Maowen).

35. Aster nitidus Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. 6: 47. 1935.

亮叶紫菀 liang ye zi wan

Shrubs, many branched, curved-pendulous or oblique, 50–120 cm tall, angled and canaliculate, with prominent leaf scars and axillary buds, biennial or triennial branches purple-brown or ferruginous, glabrous, present, covered with sparse hairs, upper part densely mixed hairs, densely leafy in lower part. Leaves ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2.5–4.5(–7) × 0.5–1.5 cm, subcoriaceous, nitid and glabrous on both surfaces, hispidulous on veins and at margins, triplinerved with nerves abaxially prominent, reticulate veins conspicuous, base abruptly narrowed into a 1.5–3 mm petiole, margin entire or subentire, apex acute and mucronulate, upper leaves gradually smaller, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. Capitula 2.5–3 cm in diam., 3–6 in corymbs; peduncles slender, 2.5–4 cm, with linear bracteole leaf. Involucre obconic, 6–7 mm, 7–8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series 4–5 × ca. 0.5 mm, inner 2 series subequal, ca. 6 × 1.5 mm, entire or lacerate, with green midrib and broadly membranous margins. Ray florets ca. 30, tube 2–2.5, sparsely puberulent, rays purple, ca. 13 × 1–1.8 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, puberulent, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendage ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, ca. 2 mm, sparsely puberulent. Pappus dirty white, shorter than disc florets, with setae and a few outer bristles. Fl. and fr. Apr–May.

* Forests on hills; 500–1100 m. Sichuan (Nanchuan).

36. Aster albescens (Candolle) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 205. 1938.

小舌紫菀 xiao she zi wan

Erect shrubs. Stems 30–180 cm tall, multi-branched, old branches brownish, glabrous, with rounded lenticels, present branches yellow-brown or sometimes covered with gray-white pubescence intermixed with stipitate glands, densely or laxly leafy. Leaves ovate, elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, 3–17 × 1–3(–7) cm, subpapyraceous, subglabrous, or adaxially pubescent, abaxially with gray arachnoid hairs or tomentose, often intermixed with glandular or rough hairs on veins, midrib and lateral veins abaxially prominent, lateral veins several, 10-paired to more and connected far from margin, reticulate veins ± conspicuous, base cuneate or subrounded, margin entire or shallowly toothed, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves small, ± lanceolate. Capitula 5–7 mm in diam., in numerous terminal compound corymbs; peduncles 5–10 mm, with subulate bracteole leaf. Involucre obconic, ca. 5 mm, 4–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, sparsely pubescent or tomentose or subglabrous, outer series narrowly lanceolate, ca. 1 mm, inner series linear-lanceolate, 3.5–4.8 × 0.6–0.8 mm, apex somewhat acute, tinged reddish, midrib herbaceous, margin broadly membranous or somewhat coriaceous at base. Ray florets 15–30, tube ca. 2.5 mm, rays white, pink or purple-red, 4–5 × 0.6–1.2 mm; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes ca. 0.5 mm, often glandular. Style appendage broadly triangular, ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas oblong, 1.7–2.5 × ca. 0.5 mm, 4–6-ribbed, with white silky hairs. Pappus dirty white, red-brown later, simple, ca. 4 mm, with numerous subequal bristles. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Forests and thickets from hills to alpine regions; 500–4100 m. Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, W Himalayan region, N India, Myanmar, Nepal].

Leaf shape, size, and indumentum are variable in this species, thus there are many distinct and sometimes difficult to divide varieties.

1a. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially tomentose.

2a. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 2–3.5 cm; outer phyllaries ovate  .........................  36c. var. discolor

2b. Leaves narrowly or broadly lanceolate, 5–12 cm; outer phyllaries oblong or narrowly lanceolate.

3a. Leaves abaxially appressed white thickly tomentose; phyllaries abaxially with sparse hairs or subglabrous .......................................................................................  36a. var. albescens

3b. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially thinly tomentose on midrib only; phyllaries often glabrous ...........................................................................................  36b. var. levissimus

1b. Leaves adaxially hairy or glabrous and abaxially brown pubescent, pilose, tomentose, or cottony.

4a. Leaves abaxially on veins or sometimes totally brown pubescent, distinctly glandular.

5a. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, usually 7–17 cm, abaxially on veins or sometimes totally brown pubescent  ......................................................  36d. var. salignus

5b. Leaves ovate or ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 4–10 cm, abaxially brown pubescent on veins only  36e. var. glandulosus

4b. Leaves abaxially pilose, tomentose, or cottony, sometimes with long white hairs on veins abaxially, often glandular.

6a. Leaves abaxially white pilose, adaxially sparsely or densely hispidulous.

7a. Leaves adaxially sparsely hispidulous, plane laevigate on upper surface  36f. var. pilosus

7b. Leaves adaxially densely hispidulous, spumose process between veins on upper surface        36g. var. rugosus

6b. Leaves abaxially arachnoid pilose, tomentose, or cottony, adaxially sparsely pilose or glabrous.

8a. Leaves abaxially arachnoid pilose, adaxially sparsely pilose, long pilose on midrib, 10–15 × 5–7.5 cm .................................................................................  36j. var. megaphyllus

8b. Leaves abaxially white or gray-white tomentose or cottony, adaxially glabrous, long hairs absent on veins, 3–20 × 1–5 cm.

9a. Leaves elliptic or oblong, rounded or broadly cuneate at base; outer phyllaries ovate       36h. var. limprichtii

9b. Leaves lanceolate, narrowed at base; outer phyllaries oblong or lanceolate  36i. var. gracilior

36a. Aster albescens var. albescens

小舌紫菀(原变种) xiao she zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Amphirhapis albescens Candolle, Prodr. 5: 343. 1836; Aster cabulicus Lindley; A. ferugineus Edgeworth; A. ignoratus Kunth & Bouche; Homostylium cabulicum Nees; Microglossa albescens (Candolle) C. B. Clarke; M. cabulica (Lindley) C. B. Clarke; M. griffithii C. B. Clarke; M. salicifolia Wallich.

Leaves elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 5–12 × 1–12.5 cm, abaxially gray-white appressed tomentulose. Outer phyllaries puberulent.

500–3000 m. Gansu, Guizhou, W Hubei, S Sichuan, E and N Xizang, NW Yunnan [S and W Himalayan region].

This variety is very common.

36b. Aster albescens var. levissimus Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 208. 1938.

无毛 wu mao

Aster harrowianus Diels var. glabratus Diels.

Leaves glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes young leaves abaxially thinly tomentose on midrib only. Phyllaries glabrous.

* 800–3000 m. Hubei, W Sichuan, N Yunnan.

The leaves are rather similar in shape to Aster albescens var. albescens but are often shorter and narrower.

36c. Aster albescens var. discolor Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 358. 1985.

白背 bai bei

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 2–3.5 × 0.5–1 cm, abaxially white appressed tomentose, adaxially glabrous. Outer phyllaries ovate, puberulent or subglabrous, inner series to 1 mm wide.

* About 2400 m. NW Sichuan (Song pan).

This taxon is similar to Aster argyropholis, but the latter has pappus double. Aster albescens var. discolor may be an intermediate form between A. argyropholis and A. polius.

36d. Aster albescens var. salignus Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 207. 1938.

柳叶 liu ye

Inula cuspidata C. B. Clarke var. saligna Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, 10: 37. 1888; Aster harrowianus Diels var. glabratus Diels, p.p.

Stems often robust. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 7–17 × 1.5–4.5 cm, abaxially on veins or sometimes totally with brown pubescence, glandular, base attenuate, apex acuminate. Outer phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, puberulent.

1900–3900 m. Sichuan, NW, W Yunnan [N India].

36e. Aster albescens var. glandulosus Handel-Mazzetti, J. Bot. 79: 284. 1938.

腺点 xian dian

Leaves ovate or ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 4–10 × 1–2.5 cm, abaxially densely glandular, with brown fine pubescence on veins only.

* 1900–3900 m. SW and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan, E and S Xizang.

36f. Aster albescens var. pilosus Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 207. 1933.

长毛 chang mao

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–9 × 1–2 cm, abaxially on midrib or totally white pilose, adaxially sparsely hispidulous, plane. Outer phyllaries sparsely hairy. Cypselas densely pilose.

* 2800–4000 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan, E Xizang; common.

36g. Aster albescens var. rugosus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 358. 1985.

糙毛 cao mao

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, adaxially hispidulous, reticulate veins conspicuously prominent, insula of reticulate veins with spumose process.

* W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

36h. Aster albescens var. limprichtii (Diels) Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 206. 1938.

椭叶 tuo ye

Aster limprichtii Diels, Fedde, Sp. Nov. Beih. 12: 503. 1922.

Leaves elliptic or oblong, 3–7 × 1–3 cm, abaxially densely white or gray-white tomentose or cottony, base broadly cuneate or rounded. Outer phyllaries ovate, sparsely tomentose.

* 2400–3100 m. W Gansu, NW, W Sichuan.

36i. Aster albescens var. gracilior Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 206. 1938.

狭叶 xia ye

Aster limprichtii Diels var. gracilior Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1093. 1936; A. harrowianus Diels.

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 7–20 × 1–5 cm, abaxially densely white or gray-white tomentose or cottony, base attenuate, apex acuminate. Outer phyllaries oblong or lanceolate.

* Gansu, S Shaanxi, S and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

36j. Aster albescens var. megaphyllus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 358. 1985.

大叶 da ye

Stems yellow-brown pilose and white arachnoid. Leaves elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 10–15 × 5–7 cm, abaxially arachnoid pilose, adaxially sparsely pilose, midrib with white villous, reticulate veins abaxially prominent, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin subentire, apex acute or subrounded. Outer phyllaries ovate, sparsely puberulent.

* Sichuan (Maowen).

37. Aster fulgidulus Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 24: 110. 1964.

辉叶紫菀 hui ye zi wan

Small shrubs, roots unknown. Stems 1.2–2 m tall, brown puberulent and mixed glandular. Basal leaves not seen. Cauline leaves ovate, (4–)6–9 × (2–)2.5–4.5 cm, abaxially nitid between reticulate veins, adaxially glabrous or somewhat puberulent on midrib, pinnately veined, base rounded, petioles ca. 5 mm, margin entire, apex acute. Capitula numerous, 0.7–0.8 cm, laxly terminal corymbose. Phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, 1.6–3.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm, coriaceous, ribbed on back, viscid-glandular, with scarious margin, lacerate, apex purple and ciliate. Ray florets ca. 16, tubes ca. 2.4 mm, rays yellow (according to record by collector but externally somewhat purple when dry), ca. 5 × 1.6–1.8 mm; disc florets yellow (but externally somewhat purple), 4.8–5.2 mm, tubes 1.6–1.8 mm, lobes 0.8–1 mm. Style appendages triangular. Cypselas (immature) oblong, ca. 1.4 mm, with silky hairs. Pappus dirty white, double, inner series 4–4.4 mm, outer series ca. 1 mm, as broad as inner.

* About 2200 m. SE Xizang (Bomi).

38. Aster argyropholis Handel-Mazzetti, Acta Horti Gothob. 12: 208. 1938.

银鳞紫菀 yin lin zi wan

Shrubs, ca. 100 cm tall, multi-branched, old branches gray-brown, shallowly canaliculated, glabrescent, sometimes with rounded lenticels, present branches slender, white arachnoid or cottony tomentose, densely leafy in lower part. Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 1–4 × 0.5–1.5 cm, green, puberulent-hispidulous, often glandular, abaxially gray-white arachnoid-tomentose or thickly cottony, midrib abaxially prominent, sometimes rather glabrescent, lateral veins 5 pairs, base rounded or subcuneate, petiole 1–3 mm, margin entire or subundulate, apex acute or abruptly acute, or subrounded, upper leaves smaller, elliptic or elliptic-linear. Capitula few, 1.5–2 mm in diam., corymbose; peduncles slender, 0.5–5 mm, with linear bracteole leaf. Involucre obconic or campanulate, 4–5 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, imbricate, puberulent or glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, outer series 1 × 0.5 mm, inner series ca. 4 × 1 mm, midrib-green, apically green or purple-red, apex slightly acute, margin membranous, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 20, tubes ca. 2.2 mm, rays white; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tubes ca. 2.2 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas compressed or subcylindric, 2–2.7 mm, hispidulous. Pappus double, outer series very short, with a few bristles, inner series dirty white to reddish, ca. 4.5 mm and with numerous bristles. Fl. May–Oct, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Alpine and subalpine slopes, forests, grasslands, and riverbanks; 2000–2800 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

1a. Involucre 5–6 mm, phyllaries 5-seriate; leaves abaxially thinly tomentose, lateral veins abaxially prominent .....................................................................................................  38c. var. paradoxus

1b. Involucre 4–5 mm, phyllaries 4-seriate; leaves abaxially densely puberulent or cottony, lateral veins abaxially not prominent.

2a. Leaves apex acute or abruptly acute, rarely rounded, abaxially and peduncles densely tomentulose    38a. var. argyropholis

2b. Leaves apex obtuse or rounded, abaxially and peduncles thickly white cottony  38b. var. niveus

38a. Aster argyropholis var. argyropholis

银鳞紫菀(原变种) yin ling ai wan (yuan bian zhong)

Leaves variable, apex acute or abruptly acute, rarely rounded, abaxially densely tomentulose. Peduncles densely tomentulose. Involucre 4–5 mm; phyllaries 4-seriate.

* W Sichuan (Dajin, Xiaojin, Markan, Mouven); very common.

38b. Aster argyropholis var. niveus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 358. 1985.

白雪 bai xue

Leaves abaxially thickly white cottony, apex obtuse or rounded. Peduncles thickly white cottony. Involucre 4–5 mm; phyllaries 4-seriate.

* W Sichuan (Yan Yuan), NW Yunnan (Lijiang).

38c. Aster argyropholis var. paradoxus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 358. 1985.

奇形 qi xing

Leaves abaxially thinly tomentose, lateral veins abaxially prominent. Involucre 5–6 mm; phyllaries 5-seriate.

* W Sichuan (Marken).

39. Aster hypoleucus Handel-Mazzetti, J. Bot. 76: 285. 1938.

白背紫菀 bai bei zi wan

Dwarf shrubs, fascicled, ca. 15 cm tall. Stems numerous, woody, subprocumbent, densely branched, present branches unbranched or divaricate-branched, to 10 cm, erect, slender, strict, angled, white tomentose, densely leafy, terminal branches and pedicels hard and persistent by anthesis. Leaves elliptic or oblanceolate, 5–15 × 2–3.5 mm, coriaceous, abaxially white tomentose, adaxially dark green, subglabrous or somewhat silky hairs, base narrowed into a petiole-like tip, margin reflexed, entire or with 1–2 undulate-mucronulate teeth, nearly erect, apex acute or somewhat obtuse, long mucronulate. Capitula 1–3 on branches; peduncles 2–3 cm, subcampanulate, 4–5 mm in diam. Phyllaries 4-seriate, imbricate, “coriaceous,” outer series ovate-lanceolate, short, apex bract-like, inner series linear-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 0.6 mm, 4–5 times longer than outer, purple-brown, margin stramineous, narrowly scarious, lacerate-ciliate, midrib, fine. Ray florets ca. 13, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, rays white when dry, ca. 4.5 × 1 mm; disc florets slightly longer than involucre, tubes ca. 1 mm, limb ca. 1.25 mm, narrowly funnel-shaped, hairy at base, lobes ca. 0.4 mm. Cypselas (immature) oblong-obovate, with densely silky hairs. Pappus white, simple, 4.5–5 mm. Fl. Jul.

* 3000–3700 m. S Xizang (Zangpu Valley).

40. Aster polius C. K. Schneider, Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 3: 460. 1917 [“polia”].

灰毛紫菀 hui mao zi wan

Subshrubs. Stems erect, multi-branched, 0.6–1.2 m, present branches and biennial branches terete, red-purple sparsely arachnoid-pubescent, subglabrous later, old branches not seen. Leaves on inflorescence branches thickly membranous, narrowly lanceolate, 7–12 × 2–3.4 mm, abaxially with white arachnoid hairs, adaxially green, covered with verrucose short hairs, base cuneate, petioles 1–2 mm, margin entire, apex obtuse. Inflorescences on present lateral branches corymbose, opening capitula nearly to 1.5 cm in diam.. Phyllaries 3-seriate, narrowly lanceolate, acute, margin membranous, sublacerate-ciliate, abaxially puberulent, outer series ca. 1 mm, receptacle flat with areola. Ray florets 9–10 mm, white, tinged red; disc florets ca. 7 mm. Ovary narrowly elliptic, pilose. Cypselas not seen. Pappus simple, white (or reddish), slightly longer than tube of corolla.

* 2200–2700 m. W Sichuan (Xiaojin, Maowen).

41. Aster lavandulifolius Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 609. 1937.

线叶紫菀 xian ye zi wan

Shrubs, 60–100 cm tall, multi-branched, old branches brown, ca. 7 mm in diam, shallowly canaliculate and with a few elliptic lenticels, present branches slender, yellow-brown, white tomentulose, densely leafy in lower part. Leaves narrowly linear, 2–4(–5) × 0.1–0.2(–0.5) mm, herbaceous, abaxially gray-white or white tomentose except on midrib, adaxially green, finely papillose, glabrous, base attenuate, sessile, margin entire, reflexed, apex acute or very acute, upper leaves smaller. Capitula ca. 8 mm in diam., ± densely corymbose or 3–5 at apex of branches; peduncles slender, 2–6 mm, with subulate bracteole leaf. Involucre subcampanulate or obconic, 5–6 mm, ca. 4 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate, ca. 1 mm, slightly acute, sparsely tomentose, inner series longer, 4–5 × 0.7–0.8 mm, with narrowly membranous margins, abaxially yellow-brown, carinate, somewhat acute. Ray florets ca. 10, tubes ca. 2 mm, rays white, ca. 4 × 0.5–0.7 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 4 mm, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, puberulent in upper part, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Cypselas cylindric, to 2 mm, many-ribbed, with densely silky hairs. Pappus pale brown, simple, ca. 4 mm with subequal bristles. Fl. Jun, fr. Aug–Sep.

* Subalpine stony slopes or riverbanks; 2000–2900 m. SW and W Sichuan.

This species differs from other species in its linear leaves and cylindrical cypselas.

42. Aster sikkimensis Hooker, Bot. Mag. t. 4557. 1851.

锡金紫菀 sikkim zi wan

Perennial herbs. Stems erect 50–80 cm tall, purplish, flexuous, densely pubescent above, glabrescent and somewhat woody at base. Leaves sometimes glabrescent, usually sparsely pubescent on both surfaces with scattered glistening glands abaxially, radical leaves lanceolate, ca. 22 cm (fide Hooker), tapering below into a broad indistinct petiole, apex acuminate, lower cauline leaves absent at anthesis, upper ones lanceolate, 5–12 × 1.5–5 cm, base semiamplexicaul, auriculate, or attenuate, sessile or subpetiolate, margin distinctly denticulate, apex acuminate. Capitula numerous in terminal corymbs, 1–12 cm in diam. Involucre ca. 4 mm; phyllaries 3–4 × 0.5–0.6 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, 2- or 3-seriate, finely pubescent, margin somewhat membranous, lacerate and often purplish. Ray florets 40–60, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, ligule white, rose, blue, or purple, 6.5–7 × 0.7–1 mm; disc florets apparently pale at first then purplish on opening, corolla 3.5–4 mm, lobes 0.7–1 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, 0.75–1 mm. Cypselas obovate, brownish, ca. 2 × 0.75–1 mm, sparsely silky pilose, 4- or 5-ribbed. Pappus buff to brownish, simple, 3–3.5 mm. Fl. Aug–Oct.

2400–3600 m. S Xizang [India (Sikkim), Nepal].

This species is distinctly related to Aster nigromontanus but its finely pubescent phyllaries and leaf shape are different from latter.

43. Aster pycnophyllus W. W. Smith, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 3: 332. 1915.

密叶紫菀 mi ye zi wan

Aster harrowianus var. pycnophyllus (Franchet) H. Léveillé.

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 30–60 cm tall, somewhat slender, flexuous above, reddish, glabrescent below, densely villous above, usually branched only at inflorescence, more densely leafy above. Leaves thin, sparsely pilose and glandular on both surfaces, abaxially often glabrescent except venation and margin, midrib abaxially slightly prominent, lateral veins 4–5 pairs, distinct, lower leaves absent at anthesis, middle and upper cauline leaves ovate-lanceolate, 7–13 × 2–2.5 cm, base truncate, rounded, or somewhat cordate, petiolate, petioles 1–2 cm or to 4 cm long, rarely subsessile, margins repand dentate to 7 mucronate teeth, apex attenuate and caudate-long acuminate, uppermost leaves smaller, linear-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, smaller. Capitula 1.5–2 cm in diam., numerous in paniculate corymbs; peduncles 1–1.5 cm, with linear bracteole leaf. Involucre broadly campanulate, 4–5, 6–8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, linear-lanceolate, 2.8–4 × 0.6–0.8 mm, acuminate, outer series purple-brownish, inner series scarious, ciliate. Ray florets 10–30, tubes 1.8–2 mm, ligules purplish blue or nearly white, 4–7 × 0.7–1.2 mm; disc florets yellow (or sometimes purplish tinged), ca. 5 mm, tubes 1.2–1.4 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.4 mm. Cypselas oblong, 1.7–1.8 × ca. 0.7 mm, 2-ribbed on both sides, sparsely pubescent. Pappus dirty white, ca. as long as corolla of disc florets, with numerous equal bristles. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Sep–Dec.

Subalpine slopes, grasslands, and thickets; 1800–3800 m. E, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [India, N Myanmar].

44. Aster nigromontanus Dunn, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 35: 501. 1903.

黑山紫菀 hei shan zi wan

Perennial rhizomatous herbs. Stems erect, 40–50 cm tall, somewhat slender, often flexuous above, finely canaliculate and angled, densely hispidulous, solitary, rarely fascicled, with short branches and scattered leaves. Radical leaves conferted, before stems borne, oblong, 4–6 × 1.5–2.5 cm, abruptly narrowed into winged or 1–5 lobules long (to 2.5 cm) or short petiole, margin sparsely dentate, apex acute or abruptly acute, lower cauline leaves absent at anthesis, middle leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 9–13 × 2.5–4.5 cm, attenuate or abruptly narrowed, base cuneate or rounded, sessile or with ca. 2 mm petiole, margin serrate and with mucronate teeth except lower part, apex caudate-acuminate, upper leaves oblong, shallowly dentate, thick, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces, and often glandular, abaxially midrib prominent, with lateral veins 7–9 pairs, distinctly reticulate. Capitula 1.5–1.8 cm in diam., numerous in terminal compound-corymbs. Involucre campanulate, 4–5.5 mm, 6–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, 4–5.5 × 0.8–l mm, acuminate, outer series green, densely pilose and glandular, inner ones scarious except midrib, apical margin often purplish and ciliate. Ray florets ca. 30, tubes ca. 2.5 mm, ligules white, 5–6 × 0.8–1 mm, conspicuously 2-veined; disc florets yellow, ca. 5 mm, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 1.3 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.3 mm. Cypselas obovate-oblong, ca. 2 × 0.8 mm, 1-ribbed on both surfaces. Pappus dirty white, ca. 3.5 mm, with numerous subequal bristles. Fr. Nov.

* Grasslands on slopes; 1500–2100 m. Yunnan (Jindong, Mengtze).

45. Aster falcifolius Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 610. 1937.

镰叶紫菀 lian ye zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, woody. Stems erect or ascending, 30–50 cm tall or more, slender, firm, sparsely puberulent, often branched, with axillary short flowering branches, densely leafy. Leaves somewhat glistening, adaxially glabrous, sparsely pilose on veins, ciliate, midrib and trinerved veins prominent abaxially, lateral veins and reticulate veins distinct, lower leaves withered by anthesis, middle leaves narrowly lanceolate, 4–10 × 0.5–1.5 cm, base rounded or cuneate, sessile or attenuate into 2 mm petiole, margin entire or with a few mucronate serrae in middle part, apex acuminate or falcate-acuminate, upper leaves narrow and small, linear-lanceolate. Capitula 2.5–3 cm in diam., terminal at top of branches or axillary, pedunculate or sessile, bracteole leaves linear-lanceolate, often densely conferted and tapering into phyllaries. Involucre subobconic, 7–10 mm, 8–12 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer series herbaceous, lanceolate, ca. 4 × 1 mm, densely puberulent and ciliate, inner ones ca. 8 × 1.5 mm, distinctly 3–5 striate, margin broadly membranous, ciliate, apex herbaceous, rarely hairy. Ray florets 10–20, ligule linear, reddish purple or white, apex acute or rounded, ca. 10 × 1–2 mm, tubes ca. 3 mm, puberulent; disc florets 6–6.5 mm, tubes 2–2.5 mm, lobes ca. 0.7 mm. Style appendages ca. 1 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, compressed, ribbed on one side, puberulent. Pappus somewhat reddish purple, sometimes white, as long as disc florets, and with numerous bristles, often with a few short hairs in outer series. Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Slopes, roadsides, small riversides; 800–1500 m. S Gansu, W Hubei, S Shaanxi, NW, W Sichuan.

46. Aster turbinatus S. Moore, J. Bot. n.s. 7: 132. 1878.

陀螺紫菀 tuo luo zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 60–100 cm tall, robust, often simple, sometimes long branched, hispidulous or with long rough hairs, densely leafy below. Leaves thickly papyraceous, hispidulous on both surfaces, midrib abaxially prominent, triplinerved, lower leaves absent at anthesis, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4–10 × 3–7 cm, or petiole-shaped below middle, base truncate or rounded, attenuate into 4–8(–12) cm broadly winged petiole, or base deeply auriculate-amplexicaul, margin sparsely toothed, apex acute, middle leaves oblong or elliptic-lanceolate 3–12(–15) × 1–3 cm, base amplexicaul-auriculate, sessile, margin shallowly dentate, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves gradually smaller, ovate or lanceolate. Capitula 2–3-fascicled in axil of upper part; peduncles 1.5–5 cm, with bracteole leaf conferted and tapering into phyllaries. Involucre obconic, 10–12 mm, 10–18 mm in diam.; phyllaries 5-seriate (excluding bracteole leaf) imbricate, thickly scarious, subglabrous, with membranous margins, often tinged purple-red, ciliate, outer series ovate, 2–3 mm, apex rounded or acute, inner ones oblong-linear, ca. 10 × 2 mm, apex rounded. Ray florets ca. 20, tubes ca. 2.5 mm, ligules purple or white, ca. 14 × 2.5–3 mm or smaller; disc florets ca. 6.5 mm, tubes ca. 3 mm, lobes ca. 1.7 mm. Style appendages ca. 1 mm. Cypselas obovate-oblong, ca. 3 mm, ribbed on both surfaces, hispidulous. Pappus white, ca. 6.5 mm, and with subequal bristles. Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Lax forests, thickets, grasslands, valleys on hills, small riverbanks, shady places; 200–800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.

1a. Lower leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base truncate or rounded; ligules purple; capitula larger in diam. .....................................................................................................................  46a. var. turbinatus

1b. Lower leaves petiole-shaped below middle, base deeply auriculate-amplexicaul; ligules white; capitula smaller in diam. .......................................................................................  46b. var. chekiangensis

46a. Aster turbinatus var. turbinatus

陀螺紫菀(原变种) tuo luo zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Lower leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base truncate or rounded. Ligules purple, ca. 14 × 2.5–3 mm

* Valleys on hills, small riverbanks, shady places; 200–800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.

46b. Aster turbinatus var. chekiangensis C. Ling ex Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 359. 1985.

仙白草案 xin bai cao

Stem multi-branched above. Lower leaves petiole-shaped below middle, base deeply auriculate-amplexicaul. Capitula smaller in diam. Ligules white, small.

* Lax forests, thickets, grasslands. Zhejiang.

This plant is used medicinally for treating snakebites.

47. Aster baccharoides (Bentham) Steetz, Bot. Voy. Herald, 385. 1856–57.

白舌紫菀 bai she zi wan

Diplopappus baccharoides Bentham, Hook., J. Bot. 4: 133. 1845; Aster brevipes Bentham.

Woody herbs or subshrubs, with robust flexuous roots. Stems erect, 50–100 cm tall, multi-branched, old branches gray-brown, angled, glabrescent, young branches densely ± crisped puberulent, clad with scales of withered leaf remains at base of branches and stems, ovate axillary buds present after lower leaves fallen, densely leafy. Leaves abaxially with short hairs and glandular, or rarely hispidulous on veins, adaxially hispidulous, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins 3–4 pairs, lower leaves spatulate-oblong, ca. 10 × 1.8 cm, sparsely dentate above, middle leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2–5.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, base attenuate or abruptly narrowed, sessile or shortly petiolate, margin entire or sparsely serrate with mucronate teeth, upper leaves gradually smaller, margin subentire. Capitula 1.5–2 cm in diam., in terminal paniculate corymbs, or solitary on short branches; peduncles short, or to 1 cm, bracteole leaf small, conferted at pedicel and tapering into phyllaries. Involucre obconic, 5–7 mm, ca. 7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4–7-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate, ca. 1.5 mm, acute, inner ones oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, densely pubescent, margin scarious, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10, tubes ca. 3 mm, ligule white, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm; disc florets ca. 6 mm, tubes ca. 3 mm, puberulent, lobes ca. 2 mm, style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm, somewhat compressed, sometimes ribbed on both surfaces, densely pilose. Pappus white, simple, with numerous subequal or a few shorter bristles, ca. 6 mm. Fl. Jul–Oct, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Slopes, grasslands, sandy places, roadsides; below 100–900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.

This species is closely related to Aster turbinatus but differs in having capitula and florets small, ligule white, leaves narrowed, and stems woody in lower part.

48. Aster sinianus Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 609. 1937.

岳麓紫菀 you lu zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 40–60 cm tall, slender, canaliculate, woody at base, covered with spreading or crisped short hairs, shortly branched in middle part, with scattered leaves. Leaves abaxially sparsely hispidulous, rarely sparsely hispidulous on veins, adaxially sparsely puberulent, subglabrous later, sometimes glandular, ciliate, midrib abaxially prominent, lateral veins indistinct, radical leaves absent at anthesis, lower leaves oblong or long elliptic, 3–7 × 0.7–1.5 cm, base attenuate into broadly winged petiole, margin entire or sparsely dentate with mucronate teeth, apex obtuse or acute, upper leaves small, 0.5–2.5 mm, often sessile, margin entire, apex rounded. Capitula ca. 1.5 cm in diam., 1–3 axillary at short branches and arranged in paniculate corymbs; peduncles short or to 2 cm, with a few lanceolate bracteole leaves. Involucre campanulate or obconic, 4–5 mm, 5–6 mm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 4-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate, 1–2 × ca. 1 mm, pubescent, dark brown, mucronate, inner ones oblong, ca. 4 × 1.2 mm, apex hairy, shortly ciliate. Ray florets ca. 10, tubes ca. 3 mm, ligule white, ca. 4 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, sparsely puberulent, lobes ca. 1.5 mm, style appendages ca. 0.25 mm. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, 1.5–2 mm, with rough hairs. Pappus simple, white, to 4 mm, with numerous bristles. Fr. Jul–Sep.

* Roadsides on slopes; 600–900 m. Hunan, Jiangxi.

49. Aster velutinosus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 359. 1985.

毡毛紫菀 zhan mao zi wan

Perennial herbs. Stems ca. 50 cm tall, (lower part not seen) above middle part slender, canaliculate, shortly velutinous, upper part white longer velutinous, branched, densely or laxly leafy in upper part. Middle leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–7.5 × 0.9–1.6 cm, papyraceous, abaxially gray-green, more densely gray-white velutinous, adaxially glabrous and somewhat glistening, pubescent at base and on veins only, midrib and triplinerved veins somewhat prominent abaxially, lateral veins 6–7 pairs, inconspicuous abaxially, base slightly rounded or subcuneate, sessile or abruptly attenuate into short petiole (ca. 1.5 mm), apex mucronate-acuminate or falcate-acuminate. Capitula 2–3 at apex of branches, shortly pedunculate. Involucre subobconic, 4–5 mm; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, imbricate, outer series ovate, ca. 1.5 mm, densely velutinous, inner ones oblong, ca. 4 mm, apex rounded, thick and with membranous margins, glabrous below. Ray florets not completely developed; disc florets apically glandular. Ovary densely hairy. Pappus dirty white, ca. as long as corolla of disc florets. Fl. Jul.

* Thickets on mountains; ca. 200 m. Guangxi.

50. Aster ovalifolius Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 289. 1932.

卵叶紫菀 luan ye zi wan

Perennial herbs. Stems ca. 100 cm tall, branched, canaliculate, densely pubescent above. Cauline leaves conferted, ovate, 3.5–5.5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, adaxially pale green, papyraceous, hispidulous on both surfaces, scattered glandular, sub-basally trinerved, base rounded, petiole ca. 2 mm, margin subentire or dentate at middle part, apex acute, upper leaves smaller, a few leaves nearly in inflorescence, 0.8–1.5 cm. Capitula ca. 1.5 cm in diam., numerous in paniculate corymbs; peduncles 0.8–1.6 cm, somewhat strict, erect or spreading, densely pubescent, sometimes bearing ca. 1 mm bracteole leaf. Involucre obconic, ca. 7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4-seriate, outer series short, inner ones gradually longer, oblong, margin ciliate, apex brown, obtuse. Ray florets 1-seriate, tubes ca. 3 mm, ligule white, ca. 1.5 mm broad; disc florets with ca. 2.5 mm tube and ca. 2.8 mm limb. Cypselas oblong ca. 2 × 0.8 mm, somewhat compressed, 1- or 2-ribbed on both sides, with scabrid hairs. Pappus tinged red-brown, ca. 4 mm, with numerous unequal bristles.

* Taiwan.

51. Aster sampsonii (Hance) Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 415. 1888.

短舌紫菀 duan she zi wan

Perennial herbs, woody at base, with stolons and adventive roots. Stems erect, 50–80 cm, strict, finely canaliculate, covered with spreading or somewhat curved tough hairs, virgate-branched, above, with scales of withered leaf remains. Leaves abaxially pubescent and glandular, adaxially with scabrid hairs, midrib abaxially prominent, triplinerved and with lateral veins, lower leaves spatulate-oblong, 2.5–7 × 0.5–2 cm, base attenuate into long petiole, margin sparsely serrate and with mucronate teeth, apex obtuse and with mucronate tip, middle leaves elliptic, 3–4 × 0.5–1.5, base attenuate, sessile or shortly petiolate, margin entire or with 1- or 2-paired serrae, upper leaves small, linear. Capitula 0.8–1.5 cm in diam., in lax corymbs; peduncles short or 1–4.5 cm, with bracteole leaf tapering into phyllaries. Involucre obconic, 4–5 mm, 5–8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4-seriate, imbricate, linear-lanceolate, outer series 2–3 × 0.3 mm, densely puberulent, apex finely acute, inner ones ca. 5 × 0.5 mm, margin broadly membranous, ciliate, apex acute. Ray florets ca. 10 or more, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, ligule white or reddish, ca. 4 × 1.2 mm; disc florets ca. 3.2 mm, tubes ca. 1.2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm, apically glandular. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, 1.5–1.7 mm, ribbed on one side, with densely short hairs. Pappus white, simple somewhat shorter than disc florets, with numerous bristles. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

* Grasslands on slopes or thickets. Guangdong, Hunan.

1a. Pappus absent in ray florets ...........................................................................  51a. var. sampsonii

1b. Pappus present in ray florets and disc florets .................................................  51b. var. isochaetus

51a. Aster sampsonii var. sampsonii

短舌紫菀(原变种) duan she zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Heteropappus sampsonii Hance, J. Bot. 5: 570. 1867; Erigeron hirsutum Loureiro.

Pappus absent in ray florets.

* Guangdong.

51b. Aster sampsonii var. isochaetus Chang, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 7: 162. 1936.

等毛 deng mao

Pappus present in both ray florets and disc florets. Capitula ca. 3 to more at apex of branches or solitary in leaf axils, all in paniculate corymbs; peduncles short, to 1 cm.

* N Guangdong, S Hunan.

3. Aster sect. Alpigenia Bentham & J. D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 172. 1873.

山菀组 shan wan zu

Small or smaller herbs, rarely rhizomes woody. Stems simple, sometimes branched. Capitula usually large, terminal, solitary, rarely numerous and solitary at top of branches. Involucre semispherical; phyllaries 2–3 serrate, subequal, sometimes outer series somewhat shorter, completely or upper part herbaceous, or coriaceous in lower part, sometimes with membranous margins. Cypselas compressed, without rib, or ribbed on one or both sides. Pappus simple, subequal, or double, outer series bristles or paleaceous.

About ?? species; C, NE, W Asia, Europe, North America: 44 species (30 endemic) in China.

This section had been divided into subsection Homochaeta Onno and subsection Heterochaeta Onno, by Onno (1932) and other authors, but there are indistinct difference between these two subsections.

1a.       Phyllaries with broadly membranous margins.

2a.       Phyllaries linear to obovate-oblong; capitula 2–8, corymbose  .............  93. A. senecioides

2b.       Phyllaries linear-lanceolate; capitula terminal, solitary.

3a.       Phyllaries 7–12 mm.......................................................................... 94. A. batangensis

3b.       Phyllaries 5–7 mm ..............................................................................  95. A. rockianus

1b.       Phyllaries herbaceous or coriaceous below, sometimes margin narrowly membranous or broadly membranous.

4a.       Pappus double, inner series setae as long as disc corollas, white or somewhat tinged red, outer series paleaceous.

5a.       Phyllaries unequal, outer ones shorter than inner; leaf margin deeply pinnatifid   92. A. bipinnatisectus

5b.       Phyllaries equal; leaf margin entire or shallowly dentate.

6a.       Ligule of ray florets linear-lanceolate; stems without fibrous leaf remains at base.

7a.       Plant with fascicled napiform tuberoid.

8a.       Involucre 0.7–1.5 cm in diam., phyllaries 1–1.5 mm wide; disc florets orange-yellow, lobes with black or uncolored glandular hairs  ..............................................  81. A. asteroides

8b.       Involucre 1–2 cm in diam., phyllaries 2–3 mm wide; disc florets purplish brown above, lobes with glandular hairs or subglabrous  ..................................................  82. A. likiangensis

7b.       Plant with long rootstock.

9a.       Involucre 2–3 cm in diam.; disc florets yellow or tinged purplish, 7.5–9 mm  85. A. tsarungensis

9b.       Involucre 1.2–2(–3) cm in diam.; disc florets yellow, 5.5–6.5 mm.

10a.     Plant densely or sparsely villous, usually intermixed with glandular hairs or leaves subglabrous on both surfaces; involucre 1.5–3 cm in diam., phyllaries 1.5–2.2 mm wide   83. A. flaccidus

10b.     Plant densely thickly tomentose; involucre ca. 1 cm in diam., phyllaries to 1 mm wide  84. A. hololachnus

6b.       Ligule of ray florets finely long linear; stems surrounded by dense collars of foliar leaf remains at base.

11a.     Stems short (5–12 cm) ........................................................................  91. A. brevis

11b.     Stems tall (20–70 cm).

12a.     Phyllaries linear, 1–1.5 mm wide, apex finely acute.

13a.     Phyllaries with membranous margins, ciliate, abaxially with brown stipitate glandular hairs    89. A. lipskyi

13b.     Phyllaries with articulate villous hairs, eglandular, inner series often glabrous  90. A. farreri

12b.     Phyllaries 2–5 mm wide, sometimes ca. 1 mm wide, apex acute or acuminate.

14a.     Phyllaries with dark colored stipitate glandular hairs, intermixed with villous hairs below; disc florets blackish or brownish purple above
.......................................................................................  86. A. diplostephioides

14b.     Phyllaries white villous, sometimes with glandular hairs; disc florets yellow.

15a.     Leaves lanceolate or nearly obovate above; involucre 1.5–2.5 cm in diam., phyllaries 0.8–4 mm wide  ..................................................................................  87. A. yunnanensis

15b.     Leaves linear-lanceolate; involucre 1–1.7 cm in diam., phyllaries 1.5–2 mm wide, apex acute or somewhat obtuse  .............................................................  88. A. setchuenensis

4b.       Pappus simple, scabrid, or sometimes with a few bristles or paleae.

16a.     Phyllaries same as cauline leaves with white cottony surface; anther often mucronate at base.

17a.     Tube and limb of disc corollas, especially lobes with gray-white articulate long hairs  79. A. prainii

17b.     Tube and limb of disc corollas without articulate long hairs  ............  80. A. lanuginosus

16b.     Phyllaries with short hairs, glandular or thinly cottony, or glabrous; anther obtuse or rounded at base, rarely somewhat acuminate.

18a.     Phyllaries herbaceous, apex acute or acuminate.

19a.     Pappus brown, yellow at base, longer than disc corollas, simple, or as long as disc corollas and with outer paleae.

20a.     Pappus as long as disc corollas or up to base of lobes; cypselas unwinged.

21a.     Pappus double, outer series with very short white setae or paleaceous, inner ones with brown setae; cypselas oblong, sparsely pilose; ray florets ca. 30, ligule to 2 cm  73. A. latibracteatus

21b.     Pappus 1- or 2-seriate, with purplish brown scabrid setae; cypselas obovate or subcordate; ray florets 70–100, ligule 3–4 cm.

22a.     Pappus ca. 1-seriate, with somewhat unequal setae, cypselas sparsely glandular hairy       75. A. bietii

22b.     Pappus 1- or 2-seriate, distinctly unequal or narrowly paleaceous, or paleaceous below, scabrid setae above; cypselas sparsely pilose
                                                                                                74. A. bulleyanus

20b.     Pappus as long as tube of disc florets, with unequal fine setae; cypselas cordate-ovate, glabrous or pilose, ray florets 30–50, rarely more.

23a.     Radical leaves present at anthesis, leaves above middle ovate-lanceolate to linear  78. A. jeffreyanus

23b.     Radical leaves withered at anthesis, smaller, middle leaves ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate.

24a.     Capitula 3.5–4 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries 5–7 mm wide, hispidulous, ligule narrower, 1.4 × 0.7 mm; pappus longer than tube of corolla ..............................  76. A. platylepis

24b.     Capitula 4–7.5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries 1–4 mm wide, villous on veins and ciliate, ligule 1–3.5 × 1–3 mm; pappus ca. 2 mm
                                                                                           77. A. brachytrichus

19b.     Pappus white or tinged reddish or dirty yellow, as long as disc corollas, simple, or outer pappus present.

25a.     Flowering stem borne from center of rosulate leaves erect  ...............  72. A. retusus

25b.     Flowering stem borne from rosulate leaves outside ascending.

26a.     Plant with long slender stolons (up to 20 cm);  ............................  71. A. stracheyi

26b.     Plant without stolons or with stout and short stolons.

27a.     Plant eglandular; pappus tinged reddish brown.

28a.     Phyllaries with conspicuous midvein, margins broadly membranous; ray florets 15–30; cypselas glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely hairy above ...............  67. A. salwinensis

28b.     Phyllaries herbaceous in outer series, inner series with broadly membranous margins; ray florets ca. 20; cypselas densely hairy
.................................................................................  68. A. tientschwanensis

27b.     Plant with glandular hairs or glandular; pappus white or tinged reddish brown.

29a.     Pappus white; phyllaries 2.5–3.5 mm wide; ray florets 50–70
...........................................................................................  69. A. himalaicus

29b.     Pappus reddish brown; phyllaries 3–5 mm wide; ray florets ca. 80
...........................................................................................  70. A. techinensis

18b.     Phyllaries in all outer series herbaceous, or inner herbaceous above, often coriaceous below, apex obtuse or somewhat acute.

30a.     Pappus white or slightly reddish brown, as long as corolla of disc florets, often with a few outer short hairs.

31a.     Pappus reddish brown; leaves covered with densely white spreading rough hairs  61. A. handelii

31b.     Pappus white or dirty white, or tinged yellow; leaves pubescent hispidulous on both surfaces.

32a.     Phyllaries linear or linear-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, 1–1.5 mm wide; involucre 0.7–1.5 cm in diam.

33a.     Phyllaries linear-oblong, acuminate, ca. 1 mm wide; lower leaves withered or present at anthesis, stems 15–35 cm tall; pappus tinged with red ...........................  58. A. lingulatus

33b.     Phyllaries linear, acute, 1–1.5 mm wide; radical leaves present at anthesis; stems 40–75, rarely to 100 cm tall; pappus white
                                                                                              60. A. neo-elegans

32b.     Phyllaries spatulate, ligulate, oblanceolate or linear, apex obtuse or rounded, or somewhat acute, 1.5–3 mm wide, involucre 1–2 cm in diam.

34a.     Cauline leaves rather similar in size and ± evenly distributed on stem, often multiplicate; involucre 2–2.8 cm in diam.; phyllaries oblanceolate, 2–3 mm wide, ciliate otherwise ± glabrous      59. A. tricephalus

34b.     Cauline leaves toward upper part of stem gradually smaller, not multiplicate; involucre 1.5–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 1.5–2.5 mm wide, densely or sparsely pubescent.

35a.     Radical leaves withered at anthesis  ....................................  57. A. ionoglossus

35b.     Radical leaves present, rarely withered at anthesis at base.

36a.     Pappus tinged reddish, barbellate above  ..........................  56. A. barbellatus

36b.     Pappus white, dirty white, or tinged reddish, not barbellate above.

37a.     Lobes of disc florets unequal  ............................  55. A. tagasagomontanus

37b.     Lobes of disc florets equal.

38a.     Phyllaries unequal ........................................................  54. A. heterolepis

38b.     Phyllaries equal, subequal, or outer series somewhat shorter.

39a.     Involucre 1.5–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries spatulate-lanceolate or linear, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, sometimes spatulate; capitula solitary at apex of stems   52. A. alpinus

39b.     Involucre 1–1.5 cm in diam.; outer phyllaries spatulate-oblong or ligulate, apex rounded or somewhat acute; capitula 3–30, inserted at apex of branches   53. A. oreophilus

30b.     Pappus purplish or reddish brown, as long as disc corollas, rarely somewhat longer, outer series pappus absent.

40a.     Pappus reddish brown, with numerous setae; capitula solitary at apex of stems, or 1–4, solitary at apex of stems and branches.

41a.     Capitula solitary at apex of stems; phyllaries densely pilosulose; ray florets 1–13(–15), ligule white; dwarf herbs  ..........................................................  65. A. fanjingshanicus

41b.     Capitula 1–4; solitary at apex of stems and branches; phyllaries glabrous, often with glandular points; ray florets 15–20, ligule blue-purple; plants with stolons ......  66. A. giraldii

40b.     Pappus purplish brown, with a few rough setae; capitula solitary at apex of stems, rarely solitary at apex of branches.

42a.     Phyllaries reflexed above, hairy on both surfaces; ray florets ca. 100
............................................................................................  64. A. megalanthus

42b.     Phyllaries erect above, ± hairy in outside; ray florets 30–60.

43a.     Rhizomes slender, often with stolons; leaves and phyllaries with densely rough hairs  62. A. tongolensis

43b.     Rhizomes stout; leaves and phyllaries sparsely hairy or subglabrous, white long ciliate, phyllaries sometimes not ciliate  ...................................................................  63. A. souliei

52. Aster alpinus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 872. 1753.

高山紫菀 gao shan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, with caespitose stems and rosulate leaves. Stems erect, 10–35 cm tall, simple, with shriveled leaf remains at base, covered with dense or sparse hairs, leaves conferted below. Leaves pubescent or somewhat glandular, midrib and trinerved veins abaxially somewhat prominent, lower leaves present at anthesis, spatulate or linear oblong, 1–10 × 0.4–1.5 cm, base attenuate into winged petiole, sometimes to 11 cm slender petiole, margin entire, apex rounded, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or sublinear, attenuate below, sessile, upper leaves narrow and small, erect or somewhat spreading. Capitula terminal, solitary, 3–3.5 or to 5 cm. Involucre hemispheric, 15–20 mm, 6–8(–10) mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, equal or outer series somewhat shorter, herbaceous or subcoriaceous below, inner series with membranous margin, apex rounded or obtuse, or somewhat acute, margin often purple-red, 6–8 × 1.5–2.5 mm, densely or sparsely pubescent. Ray florets 35–40, tubes ca. 2.5 mm, ligule purple, blue, or reddish, 10–15 × 2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, 5.5–6 mm, tubes ca. 2.5 m, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages 0.5–0.6 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 × 1–1.2 mm, brown, with densely silky hairs. Pappus white, ca. 5.5 mm, and with a few outer short hairs. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Jul–Sep.

Hebei, N Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [widely distributed in Asia, Europe, North America].

This species is very variable. Many subspecies and varieties have be recognized by previous authors, and there are many related species in Asia and North America. Specimens from Xiaowutai Shan in Hebei and Taibai Shan in Shaanxi had been identified as Aster alpinus [subsp. holomiticus] var. dolomiticus (Beck) Onno by Handel-Mazzetti and Onno, although Chinese plants do not match the type of that name, from Europe.

1a. Phyllaries unequal, apex rounded ..........................................................  52d. var. diversisquamus

1b. Phyllaries subequal, apex obtuse or rounded.

2a. Leaves conspicuously glandular ......................................................................  52c. var. fallax

2b. Leaves without conspicuous glands.

3a. Leaves with dense or sparse short hairs or subglabrous, lower leaves oblong-spatulate  52a. var. alpinus

3b. Leaves densely pubescent, sometimes densely villous, lower leaves linear-oblong  52b. var. serpentimontanus

52a. Aster alpinus var. alpinus

高山紫菀(原变种) gao shan zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster pulchellus Willdenow; A. alpinus var. dolomiticus (S. S. Beck) Onno.

Stems 10–20 cm, sometimes to 30 cm tall. Lower leaves spatulate or oblong-spatulate, sometimes somewhat glandular. Capitula 3–3.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 1.5–2 mm wide.

NE China, Hebei, Shanxi, N Xinjiang [N Asia to Europe].

Plants from Hebei and Shanxi are close to some European specimens. Plants from Xinjiang can be regarded as two forms of this variety. “Form 1,” at 2400–2900 m in N Xinjiang, has stems 15–35 cm; lower leaves oblong-spatulate, attenuate into a long petiole, sparsely or somewhat sparsely adpresed hairy; capitula 4–5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 1.5–2 mm wide. It is closely related to A. vvedenskyi Bond (in Tianshan), but the latter differs in having leaves glandular. “Form 2” at ca. 2600 m in Xinjiang , has stems 20–52 cm; leaves same as “form 1” but larger, 2–12 × 0.7–2 cm, thin, subglabrous, sparsely pubescent; capitula 3–5.3 cm in diam.; involucre 2–2.5 cm in diam., phyllaries to 3 mm, sparsely hairy.

52b. Aster alpinus var. serpentimontanus (Tamamschjan) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 204. 1985.

蛇岩 she yan

Aster serpendimontanus Tamamschjan, Fl. URSS 25: 108. 1959.

Plants gray-white. Stems 10–20 cm, sometimes to 35 cm tall. Lower leaves linear-oblong, 3–10 × 0.2–0.5 cm, densely pubescent, sometimes very dense. Capitula 3.5–5.5 cm. Phyllaries linear, 1–1.5 mm wide.

2300–2500. N and W Xinjiang [Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia), Tajikistan (Pamir region)].

52c. Aster alpinus var. fallax (Tamamschjan) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 205. 1985.

伪形 wei xing

Aster fallax Tamamschjan, Fl. URSS 25: 109. 580. 1959; A. flaccidus Bunge var. atropurpureus Onno.

Stems to 35 cm tall. Lower leaves oblong-spatulate, 1.5–8 cm, sparsely puberulent, abaxially somewhat densely glandular. Capitula ca. 4 cm in diam. Phyllaries linear, ca. 10 × 1.5 mm, sparsely puberulent.

1500–2100 m. N Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol [Russia (SE Siberia)].

52d. Aster alpinus var. diversisquamus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 359. 1985.

异苞 yi bao

Stems 20–25 cm tall. Lower leaves oblong-spatulate, 2–7 × 0.4–0.8 cm, ± erect, sparsely or densely pubescent, sparsely glandular. Capitula 3–3.5 cm in diam. Phyllaries oblong-spatulate, 1.5–2.3 mm wide, unequal, outer series rounded at apex, 3/4 up to inner, ligule reddish.

* About 1700 m. W Xinjiang (Tacheng).

This variety has unequal phyllaries, similar to Aster heterolepis Handel-Mazzetti, but its other features differ from the latter. It might be better treated as a species.

53. Aster oreophilus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 378. 1896.

石生紫菀 shi sheng zi wan

Aster tricapiitatus Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geoga. Bot. 12: 493. 1903; A. vanioti H. Léveillé; A. diplostephioides Bentham var. yunnanensis Onno, p.p.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes procumbent or obliquely ascending, with caespitose stems and rosulate phyllome. Stems erect or ascending, 20–60 cm, thick, often branched above or in middle, covered with spreading soft long hairs, clad with withered leaf remains, more densely leafy. Leaves somewhat thick, densely or sparsely hispidulous, midrib and subtrinerved veins abaxially somewhat prominent, rosulate leaves narrowly spatulate, 4–8 × 0.6–1.5 cm, attenuate into a winged long petiole below, entire or shallowly dentate above, apex obtuse or subrounded, middle and upper leaves smaller, erect, linear or lanceolate-oblong, base attenuate and semiamplexicaul, apex rounded. Capitula 2.5–3.5 cm in diam., in corymbs or rarely solitary at apex of stems; peduncles (branches) 2–10 cm or more, densely hairy. Involucre 6–8 mm, 10–12 mm in diam., hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series shorter than inner ones or subequal, spatulate-oblong or ligulate, herbaceous, 5–7 × ca. 1 mm, densely pubescent, apex rounded, often purplish brown, inner ones herbaceous above, densely puberulent, thickly membranous below, apex rounded or somewhat acute. Ray florets ca. 30, or more, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, ligule blue-purple, ca. 12 × 2 mm; disc florets 4–5 mm, tubes ca. 1.7 mm, lobes ca. 0.7 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, somewhat compressed, ca. 2 mm, ribbed on one side, with densely silky hairs. Pappus tinged reddish or dirty white, ca. 4 mm, with subequal bristles. Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct.

* Alpine and subalpine forests, open slopes or roadsides; 2300–4000 m. SW Sichuan, N, NW Yunnan.

This species is variable. Two forms have been recognized in China, although their names were not validly published (see Ling in FRPS 74: 206. 1985): Aster oreophilus f. “umbrosus” with middle and lower leaves broader, margin entire or roughly serrate, apex somewhat acute, upper leaves sometimes spreading; capitula ca. 5 cm in diam; involucre larger (NW Yunnan); and f. “inaequisquamus” with leaves larger; phyllary outer series ca. 1/2 as long as inner (NW Yunnan). The flowers of the latter are used medicinally to alleviate pain and as an antiphlogistic.

54. Aster heterolepis Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 614. 1937.

异苞紫菀 yi bao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, with caespitose flowering stems and rosulate phyllome. Stems erect, 14–45 cm tall, clad with withered leaf remains, covered with appressed hairs and glandular hairs, 2–4, inflorescence-branched or simple, laxly leafy above. Leaves somewhat thick, densely pubescent and finely glandular, triplinerved, midrib abaxially prominent, lower leaves present at anthesis, same as rosulate leaves in shape, spatulate or oblong-spatulate, 3–9 × 0.5–1.5 cm, attenuate into a winged and somewhat expanded petiole, margin entire, apex rounded or obtuse, middle leaves spatulate to linear-oblong, narrower, sessile, upper leaves small, ± linear. Capitula 3.5–5(–6) cm in diam, solitary at apex of branches. Involucre hemispheric, 8–10 mm, 10–15 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series spatulate, 4–7 × 1.5–2.5 mm, apex rounded, herbaceous or coriaceous at base, densely pubescent, and glandular, inner ones linear-oblong, ca. 10 × 2 mm, apex acute or acuminate and tinged purple, densely hairy above, ± coriaceous at base, with membranous margin. Ray florets 30, tubes ca. 2.5 mm, ligule bluish, 15–18 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 6 mm, tubes ca. 2.5 mm, puberulent above, lobes ca. 1 mm. Cypselas to 3 mm, somewhat compressed, sparsely pubescent, often glandular above. Pappus white, ca. 6 mm, with equal setae and a few short hairs. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep.

* Stony slopes; 1500–2500 m. S Gansu.

This species is closely related to Aster oreophilus but differs mainly by its phyllary shape and large capitula and habit.

55. Aster tagasagomontanus Sasaki, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formos. 21: 151. 1931.

山紫菀 shan zi wan

Perennial small herbs with thickened rhizomes. Stems erect, 10–20 cm tall, densely pubescent. 1–4-branched above. Radical leaves present at anthesis, many in rosette, ascending, spatulate, 3–6 × 0.8–1.9 cm, inner leaves longer, abaxially pale, adaxially green, densely pubescent and sparsely glandular punctate on both surfaces, rarely without glands, base narrowed into winged petiole, margins entire or sparsely crenulate, apex rounded, mucronate, papyraceous cauline leaves sparse, gradually smaller upward, spatulate to oblong, densely pubescent, sparsely glandular punctate or without glands, base attenuate to cuneate, sessile, apex obtuse or acute, uppermost leaves linear, ca. 10 mm. Capitula solitary or few at apex of branches, 3–3.5 cm in diam.; peduncle 3.5–4.5 cm, with 1 linear bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric or bowl-shaped, 7–10 mm, 15–17 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal, lanceolate, 6–9 × 1.5–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, tinged reddish purple, herbaceous, outside densely hirsute, apically pubescent inside. Ray florets 14–18 in 1 row, ligules white, 8.5–17 × 1.4–2.5 mm, tubes puberulent; disc florets yellow, ca. 4.5 mm, tubes ca. 1.8 mm, lobes unequal, 1–1.5 mm. Style appendages triangular, obtuse. Cypselas narrow obovate, 3–4 × ca. 1 mm, somewhat compressed, 1-ribbed on one side, densely puberulent and glandular punctuate. Pappus dirty white, 3.5–4.5 mm, with numerous unequal setae. Fl. Jul–Sep.

* Among exposed rocks in alpine regions; 3400–3700 m. Taiwan.

56. Aster barbellatus Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 119. 1964.

髯毛紫菀 ran mao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes stout, stoloniferous. Stems erect, 20–40 cm tall, unbranched, with withered leaf remains at base, sparsely or moderately pilose, glandular above, basal leaves usually persistent, spatulate, 2.5 × 0.6–1 cm, base attenuate into a broadly winged petiole, margin entire or with 3–4 shallow teeth per side, apex obtuse or rounded, middle leaves oblong or spatulate, 2–3.5 × 0.4–0.7 cm, base semiamplexicaul, upper leaves small, apex somewhat acute, densely or moderately appressed hispidulous and glandular, densely ciliate, midrib abaxially somewhat prominent, triplinerved veins inconspicuous. Capitula solitary at apex of stems, 4–5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.5–1.7(–2) cm in diam., 6–7 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear or spatulate-oblong, 0.9–1 × 0.15–0.25 cm, acute or obtuse, herbaceous, finely and sparsely pilose and ciliate. Ray florets 30–40, tube ca. 2 mm, ligule blue or purplish, lobes ca. 1.5 mm, often tinged purple. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, brown, ca. 3 mm, covered with fine silky hairs, sparsely glandular at apex. Pappus simple, reddish or buff, setae thickly barbellate above, 4–5.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Aug.

Open grassy slopes, field margins, sometimes among dwarf shrubs; 3000–4000 m. S Xizang [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Nepal].

57. Aster ionoglossus Ling, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(1): 87. 1981.

堇舌紫菀 jin she zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes stout, somewhat woody. Stems erect, 35–40 cm tall, thick, angled and shallowly canaliculate, covered with spreading hairs and glandular, unbranched, with withered leaf remains at base, leaves conferted below, sparse above. Leaves somewhat thick, hirsute on both surfaces, often glandular, abaxially spreading long hairs on veins and at margin, midrib abaxially prominent, subparallel trinerved, lower leaves oblong-spatulate, 4–6.5 × 0.6–1.2 cm, attenuate, margin entire, apex rounded or obtuse, rarely somewhat acute, middle leaves oblong, 3–5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, base often semiamplexicaul, upper leaves small, lanceolate or linear, apex acute. Capitula solitary at apex of stems, 4.5–5.5 cm in diam. Phyllaries 2-seriate, equal, oblong or spatulate-oblong, 9–10 × ca. 2 mm, outer series herbaceous, obtuse, densely pilose, inner ones apex somewhat acute, subglabrous and somewhat coriaceous, often purplish red at upper margins and ciliate. Ray floret ca. 40, tube ca. 2 mm, ligule blue-purple, 15–20 mm, 4-veined; disc florets 6–7 mm, tube ca. 1.5–2 mm, yellow, lobes ca. 1.5 mm often tinged purplish. Style appendages lanceolate ca. 0.5 mm. Ovary ca. 2.5 mm, covered with fine silky hairs. Pappus yellow, 4–5.5 mm, setae thickened. Fl. Jul.

* Alpine open slopes; ca. 3400 m. S Xizang (Yadong).

58. Aster lingulatus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 377. 1896.

舌叶紫菀 she ye zi wan

Perennial herbs, with procumbent or ascending rhizomes stout above, with withered leaf remains, flowering stems solitary or with rosulate phyllome. Stems erect or ascending, 15–35 cm tall, covered with spreading long hairs, branched above, rarely unbranched, densely leafy below. Leaves thick, covered with scabrid hairs on both surfaces, lower leaves withered or persistent at anthesis, oblong-spatulate or linear-oblong, base attenuate and often semiamplexicaul, upper leaves smaller, erect or somewhat spreading. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., 2–4 in corymbs, rarely solitary. Involucre hemispheric, 0.7–1.2 cm; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series shorter or as long as inner, linear-oblong, densely pilose, ca. 1 mm wide, apex acuminate and often purplish brown, herbaceous, inner series herbaceous above, margin membranous and often ciliate. Ray florets ca. 30, ligule blue purple, 15–18 mm; disc florets ca. 4 mm. Cypselas obovate, somewhat compressed, ca. 2 mm, covered with densely silky hairs. Pappus tinged reddish, ca. as long as disc corollas. Fl. Aug–Oct.

* Alpine or subalpine grassy slopes or in Pinus forests; 2600–3600 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

59. Aster tricephalus C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 43. 1876.

三头紫菀 shan tou zi wan

Rhizomatous perennial herbs often with robust stolons and sterile rosettes. Stems erect, 30–40 cm tall, unbranched below, sparsely pilose. Leaves pilose and glandular, radical and basal leaves of flowering stems absent or shriveled, but on sterile rosettes, spatulate, ca. 6.5 × 2 cm, cauline leaves ± evenly distributed on stem, usually overlapping, upper ones often surrounding capitula, oblanceolate, elliptic or lanceolate, 3.5–6.5 × 0.6–2.1 cm, sessile, base semiamplexicaul, margins entire or with 2–3 shallow teeth per side, apex obtuse or acute. Capitula 1–3 (rarely more), 2–2.8 cm in diam.. Phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, herbaceous, 1.2–1.4 × 0.2–0.3 cm, oblanceolate, acute or obtuse, midveins brownish, ciliate, otherwise ± glabrous. Ray florets 50–60, tubes ca. 0.2 cm, ligules white or blue, ca. 1.8 cm; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5.5 mm, pubescent, tubes 1.5–2 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm, lanceolate. Cypselas brown, obovate, 3.4–4 mm, 2-ribbed, finely pubescent and glandular at apex. Pappus whitish or buff, simple, 5–5.5 mm. Fl. Aug–Oct.

3600–4000 m. S Xizang [India (Sikkim), Nepal].

This species is similar in height to Aster barbellatus and Aster neo-elegans, but differs in having flowering stems without basal leaves, basal leaves present on well-developed stolons only, capitula usually 3, and ray florets more numerous in each capitula.

60. Aster neoelegans Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 118. 1964 [“neo-elegans”].

新雅紫菀 xin ya zi wan

Aster elegans J. D. Hooker & Thomson; Diplopappus elegans J. D. Hooker & Thomson ex J. D. Hooker.

Slender perennial rhizomatous and stoloniferous herbs. Stems 40–75(–100) cm tall, unbranched, finely appressed pubescent. Leaves finely pubescent, basal leaves persistent, 5–7 × 0.8–1 cm, oblanceolate or spatulate, decreasing gradually in size, becoming distant and linear acute in upper part of stems, base sessile or attenuate, apex acute or obtuse. Phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, herbaceous, finely pubescent and ciliate, linear, 0.6–0.8 × 0.1–0.15 cm, acute. Ray florets 35–40, tube ca. 2 mm, ligules white, mauve, or blue-violet, 0.7–1.2 cm; disc florets yellow, ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes ca. 0.75 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm, lanceolate. Cypselas light brown, obovate, 2.5–3 mm, sparsely silky with a few glands above. Pappus whitish, simple, ca. 4.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Forest clearings often on marshy ground; ca. 3000 m. S Xizang (Yadong) [Bhutan, India (Sikkim)].

61. Aster handelii Onno, Biblioth. Bot. 106: 52. 1932.

红冠紫菀 hong guan zi wan

Perennial herbs. Rhizomes stout, apex with solitary or cespitose flowering stems bearing rosulate phyllomes at base. Stems erect or ascending, 15–35 cm tall, simple, covered with spreading or mixed long hairs, with withered leaf remains, leaves conferted below and sparse above. Leaves somewhat thick, with densely white rough hairs on both surfaces, abaxially with longer hairs on veins and at margins, midveins abaxially somewhat prominent, lateral veins inconspicuous, lower leaves present at anthesis, homomorphic with rosulate leaves, spatulate or oblong-spatulate, 1.5–4 × 0.5–1.4 cm, base attenuate into a winged petiole, margin entire, apex subrounded, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear, 2–4 × 0.3–0.8 cm, base semiamplexicaul, apex acute or obtuse, upper leaves gradually narrowed. Capitula terminally solitary, 4–5.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2-seriate, oblong-linear, 7.5–9 × ca. 2 mm, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, with densely long hairs. Ray florets 30–40, ligule bluish purple, 15–25 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, lobes externally puberulent. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, with densely silky hairs. Pappus simple, red-brown, nearly as long as disc corollas, with numerous setae. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

* Alpine or subalpine grasslands and dry grasslands; 3000–3500 m. SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

This species is similar to Aster tongolensis but differs in pappus structure.

62. Aster tongolensis Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 376. 1896.

东俄洛紫菀 dong e luo zi wan

Aster subcaerulens S. Moore.

Perennial herbs. Rhizomes slender, procumbent or ascending, often with fine stolons. Stems erect or fascicled with rosulate phyllomes, 14–42 cm tall, somewhat slender, sparsely or densely pubescent, usually simple, rather densely leafy below. Leaves hirsute on both surfaces, midveins abaxially prominent, lateral and trinerved veins conspicuous, radical and rosulate leaves oblong-spatulate or spatulate, 4–12 × 0.5–1.8 cm, base attenuate or abruptly narrowed into winged and semiamplexicaul petiole, margin entire or shallowly dentate in upper half, apex obtuse or rounded, lower leaves oblong or linear-lanceolate, base semiamplexicaul, sessile, middle and upper leaves small, 1–4 × 0.1–0.4 cm, somewhat acute. Capitula solitary at stems (or branches), 3–5(–6.5) cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 0.8–1.2 cm in diam; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or outer series somewhat shorter, oblong-linear, ca. 8 × 1.5 mm, acute, herbaceous above, densely hairy, coriaceous below. Ray florets 30–60, tube ca. 1.5 mm, puberulent, ligule blue or reddish, 15–30 × 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, 4–5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 1.2 mm, sparsely puberulent outside. Style appendages ca. 0.7 mm. Pappus simple, purple-brown, somewhat longer than tube of corolla, with few unequal setae. Cypselas ca. 2 mm, obovate, pilose Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Jul–Sep.

* Alpine and subalpine forests, watersides, grasslands, 2800–4000 m. S Gansu, NW and SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

This species is variable. Two forms have been recognized in China: f. “ramosus” (not validly published; see Ling in FRPS 74: 214. 1985) with stems 30–60 cm tall, rather stout, several branched; lower leaves withered or absent at anthesis, middle leaves larger, 4–6 × ca. 1.3 cm; pappus sometimes up to lobes of corollas, ca. 3.5 mm (W Sichuan and NW Yunnan); and f. humilis Diels (Is this validly published?? If so, add place of publication) with stems 3–9 cm tall, slender; lower leaves and rosulate leaves spatulate, 0.5–1.5 × 0.2–0.3 cm, rarely ca. 3 × 0.7 cm, conferted below (N and SW Sichuan).

63. Aster souliei Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 3902. 1896.

缘毛紫菀 yuan mao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, woody. Stems solitary or fascicled with rosulate phyllome, erect, 5–45 cm tall, slender, simple, finely canaliculate, sparsely or densely pilose, with withered remains at base, densely leafy below. Rosulate and basal leaves obovate, oblong-spatulate or oblanceolate, 2–7(–11) cm, base attenuate into a broadly winged and amplexicaul petiole, margin entire, apex obtuse or acute, lower and upper leaves oblong-linear, 1.5–3 × 0.1–0.3 cm, with sparse hairs or subglabrous on both surfaces, or with sparse hairs abaxially along veins and adaxially near margin, white long ciliate, midvein abaxially prominent, triplinerved. Capitula solitary at apex of stems, 3–4(–6) cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 0.8–1.5(–2) cm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, subequal or outer series somewhat short, 7–10 mm, linear, rarely spatulate-oblong, obtuse or slightly acute, herbaceous above, coriaceous below, glabrous or hairy on midvein, or ciliate, apex sometimes tinged purple-green. Ray florets 30–50, tube 1.5–2 mm, ligule blue-purple, 12–23 × 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, 3.5–5 mm, tube 1.2–2 mm, puberulent, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 1 mm. Cypselas ovate, somewhat compressed, 2.5–3 × ca. 1.5 mm, densely pilose. Pappus simple, 0.8–2 mm, somewhat longer than tube of corollas, with unequal setae. Fr. May–Jul, fr. Aug.

Alpine Pinus forest margins, thickets and grasslands on slopes; 2700–4000 m. S Gansu, NW to SW Sichuan, E, S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N Myanmar].

This species is variable in size, leaf shape, involucre, and indumentum.

1a. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous, ciliate or not ............................................................  63a. var. souliei

1b. Phyllaries somewhat foliaceous, abaxially hairy and ciliate ..............................  63b. var. limitaneus

63a. Aster souliei var. souliei

缘毛紫菀(原变种) yuan mao zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster ganlun Kitamura; A. souliei Franchet var. limitaneus (W. W. Smith & Farrer) Handel-Mazzetti.

Phyllaries abaxially glabrous, ciliate or not.

W Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N Myanmar].

63b. Aster souliei var. limitaneus (W. W. Smith & Farrer) Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 620. 1937.

Chinese name??

Aster limitaneus W. W. Smith & Farrer, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 9: 80. 1916; A. forrestii Stapf; A. tongolensis Franchet subsp. forrestii (Stapf) Onno.

Phyllaries somewhat foliaceous, abaxially hairy and ciliate.

S Gansu, W Sichuan, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N Myanmar].

This species is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental.

64. Aster megalanthus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 359. 1985.

大花紫菀 da hua zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust (to 6 mm in diam.) with densely fibrous roots, bearing solitary flowering stem and rosulate phyllome. Stems erect, 35–45 cm tall, stout (5–7 mm in diam.), angled and finely canaliculate, covered with mixed to 4 mm long hairs below, purple-red and densely pilose above, densely leafy below. Leaves densely pilose, midvein and margin with spreading long hairs, midvein stout, triplinerved veins abaxially prominent, lateral veins fine, radical leaves withered or present at anthesis, radical and rosulate leaves oblong-spatulate, 7–12 cm, base attenuate into a broadly winged petiole, margin subentire toward middle, apex obtuse or rounded, middle leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, narrower and smaller, sessile, apex obtuse or acute. Capitula solitary at apex of stem, ca. 6.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, coriaceous below, oblong or linear-lanceolate, ca. 10 × 1.5–2 mm, outer series densely hirsutulous, inner ones pilose above, margin somewhat reddish, apex obtuse or somewhat acute. Ray florets ca. 100, ligule purple-red, 25–30 × ca. 3.4 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 6 mm, sparsely puberulent outside. Style appendages long lanceolate. Ovary ca. 2 mm, somewhat compressed, densely pilose. Pappus simple, purple-brown, less than disc tube, with a few unequal setae. Fl. Aug.

* On slopes; ca. 4000 m. W Sichuan (Zheggu shan).

This species is closely related to Aster tongolensis, but differs by its tall height and in having more ray florets, a broader ligule, and longer disc florets.

65. Aster fanjingshanicus Y. L. Chen & D. J. Liu, Bull. Bot. Res. 8(3): 11. 1988.

梵净山紫菀 fan jing shan zi wan

Dwarf perennial herbs, rhizomes short or longer, woody, clad with dark brown petiole remains at collar, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems slender, erect, 4–7 cm tall, simple, finely striate, densely or sparsely white pilose, and mixed glandular hairs. Leaves petiolate, radical leaves rosulate, present at anthesis, oblanceolate-spatulate or spatulate, 8–15 × 3–5 mm, abaxially pale green, sparsely pilose on veins, adaxially dark green, densely appressed-pilose, white ciliate at margins, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, midvein and lateral veins abaxially distinctly prominent, base cuneate-attenuate into a winged petiole, petiole as long as blade, margin entire, apex rounded, or inconspicuously mucronulate, cauline leaves (3 or)4 or 5, lanceolate, spatulate, or rarely linear-oblong, 5–15 × 2–3 mm, sessile or subsessile, apex obtuse or acuminate. Capitula solitary at apex of stem. Involucre campanulate or hemispheric, 4–5 × 6–8; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, herbaceous, outer series oblong-lanceolate, 1–1.5 mm wide, acuminate or somewhat acute, densely pilose, inner series linear or linear lanceolate, with narrowly membranous margins, glabrous or apically sparsely puberulent. Ray florets 11–13(–15), tube ca. 2 mm, ligule white, oblong, 6–7 × ca. 1 mm, 4- or 5-veined; disc florets yellow, ca. 3 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, lobes ovate-lanceolate. Style appendages lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, 1.5–2 mm, sparsely pilose. Pappus reddish brown, simple, with scabrid setae, ca. as long as disc corollas. Fl. Jun–Jul.

* Grasslands on slopes, rocky areas; 2000–2400 m. Guizhou (Fanjingshan).

66. Aster giraldii Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 5. 1905.

秦种紫菀 qin zhong zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender, with stolons. Stems erect, 24–40 cm tall, slender, solitary or fascicled, covered with sparsely spreading hairs, simple or ± branched. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves oblong-spatulate, 4–7 × 1–1.3 cm, base attenuate into long petiole, margin sparsely mucronate-dentate, middle leaves oblong or obovate-lanceolate, 3–5 × ca. 1(–2) cm, base cuneate, sessile or shortly petiolate, apex acute or shallowly or deeply toothed, upper leaves small, often rounded, somewhat amplexicaul, thin, adaxially with scabrid hairs, abaxially sparsely hairy, on veins and margin with rough long hairs, midveins abaxially somewhat prominent, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., solitary at apex of stems or branches. Involucre hemispheric, 7–10 mm in diam., 6–7 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, ± herbaceous above, glabrous coriaceous below, outer series shorter, 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, inner series 4.5 × 1.5–2 mm. Ray florets 12–20, ligule 10–15 × 2–2.5; disc florets 3–4, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 1 mm. Cypselas obovate, 2.5–3 × 1.5 mm, marginal ribs thick, not ribbed on both surfaces, sparsely pilose. Pappus reddish brown, 1–2 mm, with numerous unequal setae. Fl. and fr. Aug–Dec.

* Valleys of hills and lax forests; ca. 2600 m. S Shaanxi (Huxian, Taibai Shan).

67. Aster salwinensis Onno, Biblioth. Bot. 106: 74. 1932.

怒江紫菀 nu jiang zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender and long, sometimes with stolons. Stems obliquely ascending, rarely erect, 4–25 cm tall, borne from rosulate phyllome outside, slender, covered with spreading long hairs, surround by withered leaf remains. Leaves thin, abaxially on veins and adaxially with long hairs, often ciliate, midvein abaxially prominent, lateral veins 3-paired, rosulate leaves obovate-spatulate, 3–9 × 0.6–1.5 cm, base attenuate into a winged petiole, margin sparsely mucronulate dentate or subentire, apex rounded or retuse, mucronulate, cauline leaves ± erect, obovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–4 × 0.2–1.5 cm, base rounded or cuneate and semiamplexicaul, sessile, margin somewhat denticulate or entire, apex rounded or acuminate. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam, solitary at apex of stems. Involucre hemispheric, 0.8–1.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 8–10 × 1–1.5(–2.2) mm, herbaceous, acuminate, with broadly membranous margins, midveins conspicuous, apex and on veins with dense or sparse rough hairs, inner series sometimes glabrous. Ray florets 15–30, tube 2–2.5 mm, ligule blue-purple, rarely white, 10–15 × 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, tube 1.5–2.5 mm, lobes 1–1.5 mm, often tinged purple-brown, subglabrous. Style appendages ca. 0.75 mm. Cypselas narrowly obovate, ca. 4 × 1.5 mm, brown, compressed, 2–4-ribbed, glabrous or apically hairy. Pappus double, inner series dirty yellow, 4–6 mm, outer series few, white, with setae, rarely paleaceous, 1–1.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Alpine grasslands on slopes or on rocks; 3300–4600 m. SW Sichuan, E Xizang, NW Yunnan [NE Myanmar].

68. Aster tientschwanensis Handel-Mazzetti, Oesterr. Bot. Zeit. 79: 819. 1940.

天全紫菀 tian quan xi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems erect, 7–18 cm tall, 1 or 2 rosulate phyllomes borne from outside, slender, often curved, sparsely villous, often glabrescent below, leaves conferted below and scattered above. Leaves rather thick, subglabrous on both surfaces, long ciliate, midvein abaxially prominent, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, obliquely ascending, rosulate leaves spatulate, 2–7 × 0.5–1.5 cm, base attenuate into cuneate winged petiole, margin with scattered, rounded 2–5-paired teeth, apex obtuse or subrounded, lower cauline leaves present at anthesis, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.3 cm, spatulate, sessile or shortly petiolate, apically 3-denticulate or entire, upper leaves small, oblong or linear, margin entire. Capitula 2–2.7 cm, solitary at apex of stems. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 7 mm, 6–10 mm in diam. Phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, subequal, or outer series somewhat shorter ca. 1 mm wide, glabrous or sparsely hairy, inner series with ± broadly membranous margins, sometimes lacerate, apex acute, herbaceous, tinged purple-red. Ray florets ca. 20, tube ca. 2 mm, puberulent, ligule white, 10–11 × ca. 2 mm, 3–5-veined; disc florets ca. 4.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, puberulent, lobes less than ca. 1 mm. Ovary narrowly oblong, ca. 2.5 mm, somewhat compressed, with densely silky hairs. Pappus simple, tinged red, 3.5–4.5 mm, with numerous scabrid setae. Fl. May–Jul.

* Mountain forest margins and thickets; ca. 3300 m. W Sichuan (Tianchuan, Lixian).

This species is similar to Aster salwinensis but differs in having leaves thick and glabrous on both surfaces, ovary densely silky hairy, and pappus simple and tinged red.

69. Aster himalaicus C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 42. 1876.

须弥紫菀 xu mi zi wan

Aster mekongensis Onno, p.p.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, clad with withered leaf remains. Stems curved below, borne from base of rosulate phyllome, ascending, 8–25 cm tall, slender or rather thick, spreading villous, whole or upper part with stipitate glandular hairs. Leaves thin, both surfaces or abaxially and margin with spreading long hairs, and glandular, midvein and triplinerved veins abaxially prominent, rosulate leaves obovate, oblanceolate, or broadly elliptic, 2–3.5(–4.5) × 1–2.5 cm, base attenuate into a broadly winged petiole, margin entire or with 1- or 2-paired mucronate teeth, apex rounded or acute, mucronate, basal leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves obovate, oblong, rarely sublanceolate, 1.5–3.5 (or more) × 0.5–1.2 cm, base narrowed and semiamplexicaul, margin entire or dentate, upper leaves approaching inflorescence. Capitula solitary at apex of stems, 4–4.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.5–2 cm in diam., 1.1–1.3 cm, often overtopping disc; phyllaries 2-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 12 × 2.5–3.5 mm, acute or acuminate, herbaceous or tinged purple, outer series all or base and on veins with long hairs, glandular, inner series hairy or subglabrous. Ray florets 50–70, tube 1.5–2 mm, ligule blue-purple 13–17 × 1.5–2 mm; disc florets purple-brown or yellow, 6–8 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, pilose, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, compressed, brown, 2.5–3, 2-ribbed, with silky hairs, glandular-above. Pappus white, ca. 5.5 mm, with unequal scabrid setae, sometimes with a few hairs and palea. Fl. Jul–Aug.

Alpine meadows and Pinus forests; 3600–4800 m. S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), N Myanmar, Nepal].

70. Aster techinensis Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 359. 1985.

德钦紫菀 de qin zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes stout, clad with withered leaf remains, with conferted fascicled flowering stems and rosulate phyllome. Stems often curved below, borne from base of phyllome, ascending, 15–25 cm tall, slender or stout, covered with spreading sparse hairs, somewhat glandular above, densely leafy. Leaves thin, glandular, adaxially sparsely hairy, or subglabrous, abaxially on veins and margin with sparsely long hairs, densely ciliate, midvein and triplinerved veins abaxially somewhat prominent, rosulate leaves obovate, oblanceolate or spatulate, 1.5–4 × 0.5–1.5 cm, attenuate in a broadly winged petiole, margin with 2–4-paired mucronate teeth or subentire, apex rounded or obtuse, mucronate, radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves oblong-spatulate, oblong or narrowly ovate, 2–4.4 × 0.5–1.5 cm, base somewhat rounded or rounded, amplexicaul, margin entire or with 1- or 2-paired mucronate teeth. Capitula solitary at apex of stems, 3.5–4.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.8–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, 13–15 × 3–5 mm, acuminate, herbaceous, green or tinged purple, glandular, outer series on midvein and inner series with sparsely long hairs, ciliate. Ray florets ca. 80, tube ca. 2 mm, ligule bluish purple, ca. 15 × 1.5 mm; disc florets yellow, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm purple-black. Style appendages triangular. Ovary oblong, ca. 2.5 mm, with silky hairs. Pappus tinged red, ca. 7 mm, with unequal scabrid setae. Fl. Aug.

* Common; ca. 3500 m. NW Yunnan (Deqin).

This species is closely related to Aster himalaicus but differs from the latter in having stems, leaves, and phyllaries with few villi and pappus tinged red not white.

71. Aster stracheyi Hooker, f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 250. 1881.

匐生紫菀 fu sheng zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes procumbent, bearing several long fine stolons to 30 cm. Flowering stems springing from base of rosette of radical leaves, ascending or erect, 3–8 cm tall, often reddish, sparsely villous. Radical and rosulate leaves spatulate or elliptic, 0.8–3.5 × 0.6–1.3 cm, base attenuate into 1–6.5 cm winged petiole, margin entire or 3- or 4-serrate, apex obtuse or acute, cauline leaves linear, oblong or obovate, 0.5–2 × 0.2–0.8 cm, sparsely to moderately pilose on both surfaces, ciliate, trinerved from base, sessile or base attenuate into short petiole, margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate or -serrate, apex acute or obtuse. Capitula solitary, ca. 2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.3–1.8 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, lanceolate, 8–12 × 2–2.5 mm, herbaceous, purplish tinged, glabrous or ciliate only at base. Ray florets 30–40, tube ca. 1.5 mm, ligules blue mauve, 9–13 × 1.7–2 mm; disc florets yellow, 4–5.5 mm, tubes ca. 2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas obovate, 2.25–3 mm, densely whitish pubescent. Pappus simple, dirty white or pinkish, ca. as long as disc corollas. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Rocks near streamsides, among boulders in alpine turf; 3300–4800 m. S Xizang (Tingre) [Bhutan, India, Nepal].

72. Aster retusus Ludlow, Bull. Brit. Hist. Not. 2(3): 69. 1858.

凹叶紫菀 ao ye zi wan

Dwarf perennial herbs, rhizomes often vertical, stout, stoloniferous, stolon up to 2–4 cm. Stems erect, 2–8 cm tall, with withered leaf remains at base, simple, usually purple-brown, sparsely pilose at base, more densely above, hairs reddish purple, multicellular. Radical leaves present at anthesis, rosulate, spatulate or oblong-spatulate, 1–3 × 0.3–0.5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, often ciliate, triplinerved, and with fine, 1-paired marginal veins, base gradually attenuate into broadly or narrowly winged short petiole, margin entire, apex rounded and obtuse, cauline leaves 3–4, oblanceolate, 1–2 × 0.2–0.4 cm, sessile, margin sometimes ciliate. Capitula solitary, 2–2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 1 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, 6.5–9 × 1.5–2.5 cm, outer series lanceolate, inner ones linear, acute or acuminate, herbaceous above, margin and apex purplish, recurved, ciliate, otherwise glabrous. Ray florets ca. 25, tube ca. 3 mm, ligule purplish mauve, 10–18 × ca. 1.5 mm; disc florets 3.5–6 mm, tube 2–2.5 mm, lobes ca. 0.75 mm. Cypselas immature, oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, slightly hirsute. Pappus double, outer series setae ca. 1 mm, inner setae as long as disc florets or slightly longer, yellowish, barbellate. Fl. Jul–Aug.

* Alpine meadows or on rocks; 4200–4300 m. SE Xizang

This species resembles Aster batangensis in leaf shape but is completely different in habit and leaf surface.

73. Aster latibracteatus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 371. 1896.

宽苞紫菀 kuan bao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, surrounded at base by withered leaf remains. Stems erect or ascending, 5–20 cm tall, somewhat stout, densely buff villous, densely leafy in all parts. Leaves thin, buff-brown villous on both surfaces, abaxially on veins and margin densely villous, lower and rosulate leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, 2–5 × 0.6–1.7 cm, 2–3 denticulate on each side, base attenuate into a broadly winged petiole, apex rounded, upper leaves oblanceolate, oblong or ovate, 1.5–4 × 0.7–1.3 cm, base rounded, apex obtuse and mucronate, uppermost leaves more dense and surrounding capitula. Capitula 5–6 cm in diam., solitary at apex of stems. Involucre 1.5–2.5 cm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer series ovate, 10–12 × ca. 6 mm, inner ones lanceolate, subequal, 2–3 mm wide, herbaceous, sparsely buff or dark brown tomentose and ciliate. Ray florets 25–30, tubes to 0.8 mm, ligules blue or purplish, ca. 2 × 0.1–0.2 cm; disc florets yellow 6–7 mm, tubes 1–2 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.75 mm. Cypselas oblong, 3–3.2 × ca. 1.5 mm, pale brown, sparsely appressed pilose. Pappus double, outer pappus pale 1.5–2 mm, paleaceous, lacerate above, inner ones brown, 3–3.5 mm, setae thick. Fr. Aug–Oct.

Stony alpine pastures; 3600–4000 m. NW Yunnan (Dali, Deqin, Gongshan) [N Myanmar].

74. Aster bulleyanus J. F. Jeffrey, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 183. 1912.

扁毛紫菀 bian mao zi wan

Aster diplostephioides Banthan var. yunnanensis Onno.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems erect or ascending, 30–40 cm tall, rather slender, simple, finely canaliculate, spreading or chaotic villous, solitary or fascicled, laxly leafy. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, rarely present, 8–10 cm, abruptly narrowed into long petiole, blade oblong or ovate, 3–4 × 2–4 cm, lower and middle leaves obovate or subpyriform, or oblanceolate, 5–8 × 2–4 cm, thin, abaxially villous on veins and at margins, adaxially sparsely pilose or subglabrous, triplinerved or 5-nerved, lateral veins abaxially conspicuous, prominent, base abruptly narrowed and broadly amplexicaul, gradually attenuate into a broadly winged short petiole or sessile, margin sparsely mucronate denticulate, apex acute or somewhat so. Capitula solitary, 7–9 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 2–2.3 cm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 2-seriate, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 15 × 3–4 mm, acuminate, often reflexed, white villous. Ray florets 80–100, tubes ca. 1 mm, ligules purplish red, ca. 4 × 2–3 cm, 4-veined, acute; disc florets purplish brown, ca. 5 mm, tubes ca. 2 mm, lobes lanceolate, sparsely pilose below. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Pappus 1- or 2-seriate, brown and buff at base, quite unequal, thickly paleaceous or paleaceous below and setaceous above, up to base of lobes. Cypselas obovate, compressed, ribbed on one side, except marginal rib, 3–4 × 1–1.2 mm, sparsely pilose. Fl. and fr. Aug–Sep.

* Alpine or subalpine open slopes; 3000–4000 m. NW Yunnan.

75. Aster bietii Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 373. 1876.

线舌紫菀 xian she zi wan

Aster mehongensis Onno, Biblioth. Bot. 106: 54. 1932, p.p.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, sometimes bearing short stolons. Stems erect or ascending, 14–45 cm tall, fascicled, surrounded at base by withered leaf remains, stout, densely glandular pubescent intermixed with a few eglandular villous hairs, densely leafy at base. Rosulate leaves oblong-spatulate, 7–11 cm, 1.2–1.8 cm wide, base abruptly narrowed into a winged long petiole, margin shallowly or mucronulate denticulate, apex acute or acuminate, basal leaves withered at anthesis, middle leaves ovate, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, 3–9 × 1–2.8 cm, base somewhat narrow or rounded, sessile, semiamplexicaul, margin entire or sparsely denticulate, apex acute or obtuse, upper leaves smaller, acute, thin, subglabrous or adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially villous on veins, midvein and triplinerved veins ± prominent. Capitula solitary, 7–8 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 2-seriate, equal, narrowly lanceolate, 15–22 × 3–5 mm, herbaceous, green often brownish toward apex with dark-colored villous and glandular hairs. Ray florets ca. 70, tubes ca. 1 mm, pubescent, ligules purplish blue, linear ca. 3.5 × 0.2 mm; disc florets 6–7 mm, tubes 2–2.5 mm, lobes ca. 1.5 mm, purplish in dried state, glandular. Style appendages 0.75–1 mm, linear-lanceolate. Cypselas obovate, 4–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm, light brown, covered with shortly stalked glands, especially at base and apex. Pappus simple, olive-brownish, ca. as long as disc corollas, with somewhat unequal setae. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Alpine and subalpine meadows and screes, on ledges of cliffs; 3300–4600 m. E Xizang, NW Yunnan.

76. Aster platylepis Y. L. Chen, Kew Bull. 39(1): 159. 1984.

阔苞紫菀 kuo bao zi wan

Doronicum latisquamatum C. E. C. Fisher, Kew Bull. 1937: 98. 1937, non Aster latisquematum (Maximowicz) Handel-Mazzetti (1938).

Perennial herbs. Stems slender, erect, 20–30 cm tall, brown or purplish, gray pubescent with crisped multicellular hairs. Basal leaves not seen, cauline leaves membranous, oblong or somewhat obliquely ovate, 1.6–4.2 × 0.8–2.2 cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially hispidulous, eglandular, 5–7-nerved from base, base subcordate or rounded, and amplexicaul, margins ± sinuate-crenate, apex obtuse with a minute apiculum. Capitula solitary, campanulate, 3.5–4 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer series lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 13–19 × 5–7 mm, apex subacute, hispidulous with purplish margin and apex abaxially when dry, inner most series usually a little shorter, much narrower, indumentum as in outer. Ray florets 1–3-seriate, purplish, tubes ca. 2 mm, ligules ca. 14 × 0.7 mm, bluntly 2- or 3-toothed; disc florets yellow-brown, ca. 4.5 mm, lobes short, triangular, acute. Style-arm appendages lanceolate. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2-ribbed, sparsely hairy. Pappus longer than tube of corolla. Fl. Aug.

Rocky soils; 3000–4000 m. S Xizang (Tsampo Lake) [India].

77. Aster brachytrichus Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 372. 1896.

短毛紫菀 duan mao zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, woody. Stems erect, 15–50 cm tall, solitary or fascicled, simple, sparsely or densely villous, scattered leafy. Rosulate leaves spatulate, 5–10 × 1.5–3.5 cm, base gradually attenuate into a long petiole, lower leaves often withered at anthesis, smaller, lower and middle leaves ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, 2–9 × 0.5–4.5 cm, base rounded or somewhat narrow, sessile and semiamplexicaul, margin entire or sparsely toothed, apex rounded or somewhat acute, upper leaves small, thin, sparsely hairy or glabrous on both surfaces, or densely hairy, abaxially on veins and at margins with spreading villous hairs, midvein and triplinerved veins abaxially slightly prominent, or bearing 2 fine marginal veins. Capitula solitary, 3–7.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1–2 cm in diam., overtopping disc; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, 10–13 × 1–4 mm, outer series apex acute or obtuse, long hairy on veins, ciliate, rarely glabrous, inner ones linear-lanceolate, rarely linear, acuminate, ciliate. Ray florets 30–50 or more, tubes less than ca. 1 mm, ligules blue or purplish, 15–35 × 1–3 mm; disc florets orange-yellow, 4–6 mm, glabrous, tubes 1.5–2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas cordate-ovate, ca. 4 × 2–2.7 mm, with winged margins, glabrous or shortly ciliate above or shortly hairy at both ends. Pappus simple, ca. 2 mm, yellow at base, scarious, purple-brown above, with unequal scabrid setae. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

SW Sichuan, N, NW Yunnan [N Myanmar].

This species is difficult to distinguish from Aster jeffeyanus. Leaf shape, as well as capitula size, is quite variable.

1a. Leaves adaxially densely hairy; involucre ca. 1 cm in diam.; ligules ca. 15 × 1 mm ............  77d. var. tenuiligulatus

1b. Leaves adaxially glabrous or sparsely hairy; involucre 1.5–2 cm in diam.; ligules usually 15–35 × 1–3 mm.

2a. Phyllaries linear, 1.5–2 mm wide  ...................................................  77c. var. angustisquamus

2b. Phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 2.3–4 mm wide.

3a. Middle cauline leaves 2–6 × 0.5–2.5 cm, apex rounded or somewhat acute ........  77a. var. brachytrichus

3b. Middle cauline leaves 7–9 × 2.5–4.5 cm, apex rounded  .....................  77b. var. laltifolius

77a. Aster brachytrichus var. brachytrichus

短毛紫菀(原变种) duan mao zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster bodinieri H. Léveillé.

Stems 15–40 cm tall. Cauline leaves ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.5–2.5 cm, adaxially glabrous or sparsely hairy, margin entire or sparsely denticulate, apex rounded or acute. Capitula 4–6 cm in diam. Involucre ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2.3–4 mm wide.

* Alpine needleleaf forests, thickets, open places; 2500–3500 m. NW Guizhou, SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

The leaf shape is variable, being sometimes broadly ovate and attenuate at both ends. Plants with a sparsely toothed leaf margin are often regarded as a separate variety (var. oreaster).

77b. Aster brachytrichus var. latifolius Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 360. 1985.

宽叶 kuan ye

Stems ca. 40 cm tall. Middle cauline leaves broad, oblong, 7–9 × 2.5–4.5 cm, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, entire, rounded at both ends. Capitula ca. 7.5 cm in diam. Involucre ca. 2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2.3–4 mm wide.

* Pinus forests; ca. 3000 m. NW Yunnan (Lijiang, Yulong Shan).

77c. Aster brachytrichus var. angustisquamus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 360. 1985.

狭苞 xia bao

Stems 15–35 cm tall. Cauline leaves ovate, oblong, or ovate-lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.5–2.5 cm, adaxially glabrous or sparsely hairy, margin sparsely serrate, apex rounded or acute. Capitula 4–6 cm in diam. Involucre ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries linear, 1.5–2 mm wide.

* Needleleaf forests; ca. 2700 m. NW Yunnan (Zhongdian).

77d. Aster brachytrichus var. tenuiligulatus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 360. 1985.

细舌 xi she

Stems 20–25 cm tall. Cauline leaves oblong, 2–4 × 0.6–1 cm, adaxially densely hispidulous, rounded at both ends. Capitula 3–3.5 cm in diam. Involucre ca. 1 cm in diam. Ligules ca. 15 × 1 mm. Cypselas ca. 3 mm.

* Mountain slopes; 2600–3500 m. NW Guizhou, SW Sichuan.

78. Aster jeffreyanus Diels, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 185. 1912.

滇西北紫菀 dian xi bei zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems solitary or fascicled with rosulate phyllome, 10–25 cm tall, simple, covered with spreading villous hairs. Leaves conferted below, scattered above, radical leaves present at anthesis, 2–4 × 1–2 cm, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, base abruptly attenuate into short petiole, margin entire, apex acute or abruptly acute, leaves above middle smaller, ± erect, ovate-lanceolate to linear, somewhat broad, sessile and semiamplexicaul, upper leaves 1–1.5 × ca. 0.2 cm, adaxially sparsely hairy, abaxially on veins villous, triplinerved. Capitula solitary, 3.5–5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 1 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 2.5–3 mm, on veins villous, often ciliate. Ray florets 30–50, ligules blue or purplish, 15–18 × 2.5–3 mm; disc florets 4–5 mm, glabrous. Cypselas obovate, compressed, ca. 3 × 2 mm, with winged margins, glabrous or pilose. Pappus purplish brown above, yellow at base, to 2 mm, with unequal scabrid setae. Fl Jun–Jul.

* Alpine or subalpine open slopes; ca. 2800. SW Sichuan (Muli), NW Yunnan (Lijiang, Zhongdian).

79. Aster prainii (Drummond) Y. L. Chen, Proceed. Symb. Qinghai-Xizang, Plat. 2: 1314. 1981.

厚棉紫菀 hou mian zi wan

Chlamidites prainii Drummond, Kew Bull. 1907: 91. 1907.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes creeping or ascending, stout, multi-branched, densely lanate, glabrescent later. Stolons slender and long, with linear and fascicled stem and rosulate phyllome. Stems erect or ascending, 4–10 cm, simple, both surfaces covered with 3 mm densely lanate hairs, surrounded at base by withered leaf-petiole remains. Lower and rosulate leaves spatulate or linear-spatulate, 1–5 × 0.4–0.8 cm, inconspicuously trinerved, base attenuate into a long petiole, middle leaves oblong-spatulate or spatulate, ca. 3 × 0.7 cm, upper leaves linear, often surrounding involucre. Capitula 4.5 cm in diam., solitary. Involucre broadly campanulate, ca. 1.3 cm, ca. 2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer series oblong-lanceolate, ca. 1.2 × 0.2 cm, acuminate, externally densely lanate, internally deep green, sparsely lanate above, thin, trinerved, inner ones linear-lanceolate, 8–9 × 0.7–1 mm, lanate above only. Ray florets more than ca. 40, tubes ca. 3 mm, sparsely pilose above, ligules deep blue, 10–16 × ca. 3 mm, 4-veined; disc florets orange, tubes ca. 2 mm, above or lobes densely gray-white pilose, to 1.4 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Anthers mucronate at base; style appendages lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas narrowly oblong, compressed, ca. 3 × 0.8 mm, 1-ribbed on each side, densely silky hairy. Pappus dirty white or tinged reddish brown, to 7.5 mm, with numerous subequal and outer shorter setae. Fl. Aug–Sep.

* On slopes above snowline, stony grounds; 5100–5400 m. S Xizang.

80. Aster lanuginosus (J. Small) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 234. 1985.

棉毛紫菀 mian mao zi wan

Wardaster lanuginosus J. Small, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 29(3): 236. 1926.

Perennial herbs. Stems solitary or 2, subscapose. Radical leaves conferted, cauline leaves few. Capitula solitary, heterogamous, ligulate. Involucre broadly campanulate; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, rather unequal, ca. 10 mm. Receptacle raised, alveolate. Ray florets 20–30, purple, ligules ca. 15 mm, entire or 3-denticulate; disc florets numerous, campanulate, ca. 7 mm, yellow. Anthers 2, apiculate at base. Style arms somewhat broad, appendages lanceolate, papillose. Cypselas compressed, 2.5–3 mm, 2-ribbed, hairy. Pappus numerous, brownish, somewhat unequal, with scabrid setae.

* About 5000 m. SW Sichuan (W Muli).

Specimens not seen: preceding description translated from the original description.

81. Aster asteroides (Candolle) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 315. 1891 [“asterodes”].

星舌紫菀 xing she zi wan

Heterochaeta asteroides Candolle, Prodr. 5: 282. 1836; Aster likiangensis Franchet subsp. costei; A. likiangensis subsp. redinii (Ostenfeld) Onno.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes short, with several caespitose napiform tuberoids above. Stems solitary, 2–15, rarely to 30 cm tall, slender, purplish or green below, spreading villous and glandular pubescent, above middle or upper part leaves usually absent. Radical leaves conferted, present at anthesis, obovate or oblong, 1–4 × 0.4–0.8(–1.7) cm, base attenuate into a short petiole, margin subentire, more rarely 1- or 2-denticulate, middle leaves oblong or oblong-spatulate, sessile, apex obtuse or acuminate, upper ones linear or linear-lanceolate, almost sessile, abaxially glabrous or on veins hairy, adaxially sparsely or densely villous, triplinerved, margin ciliate. Capitula solitary, 2–3.5 in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 0.7–1.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, linear-lanceolate, 5.5–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acuminate, herbaceous, purplish green, abaxially and margin densely purplish brown pubescent or villous, especially at base. Ray florets 30–60, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, ligules bluish purple, to 20 × 1–2 mm, acute; disc florets orange-yellow, tubes ca. 1 mm, lobes 1–2 mm, with dark or uncolored glandular hairs on exterior. Style appendages lanceolate, 0.5–0.75 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, brownish, sparsely covered with fine silky buff hairs. Pappus white or yellowish, double, outer setae very short, paleaceous, inner setae 4–5 mm, generally reaching only as far as base of disc corolla lobes. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug.

Alpine thickets, moist grasslands, marshy areas; 3200–3500 m. E Qinghai, W Sichuan, C and S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Nepal].

This species somewhat resembles Aster flaccidus but is easily distinguished from the latter by its napiform tuberoids and disc floret lobes with dark glandular hairs.

82. Aster likiangensis Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 370. 1890.

丽江紫菀 li jiang zi wan

Aster asteroides (Candolle) O. Kuntze subsp. costei (H. Léveillé) Grierson; A. costei H. Léveillé.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes short, thick, with several caespitose napiform tuberoides above. Stems erect, 3–3.5 cm tall, slender, solitary or fascicled with rosulate phyllomes, usually purplish, spreading villous and purplish glandular pubescent, above middle at base generally without leaves. Radical leaves conferted, present at anthesis, obovate, rhomboid, or oblong, 1.5–7 × 0.5–1.7 cm, base abruptly attenuate into a long or short petiole, margin subentire, apex acute or rounded, middle leaves ovate or linear-lanceolate, sessile, abaxially densely pubescent or only on veins sparsely hairy, adaxially sparsely or densely villous, triplinerved, lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, margin ciliate. Capitula solitary, ca. 2.5–5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, lanceolate, 8–10 × 2–3 mm, apex acute or acuminate, herbaceous, purplish green, purplish brown glandular hairs on outside and margins, densely villous at base. Ray florets 30–50, bluish purple, rarely reddish, ligules 15–20 × 2–3 mm, acute, 2-denticulate; disc florets to 5 mm, purplish brown above, with short glandular hairs or subglabrous, tubes 1–1.5 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, covered with sparsely white hairs or silky hairs. Pappus brownish or dirty white, double, outer setae short, paleaceous, white, inner setae 4–5 mm, white or dirty white. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug.

Alpine meadows, open slopes, valleys, marshy places; 3500–4500 m. SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan].

This species is closely related to Aster asteroides, and even has been regarded as a subspecies of it, but is distinguished by its broader phyllaries, purplish brown disc florets, and brownish or dirty white pappus. Aster likiangensis f. “polianthus” has been recognized in China, although that name was not validly published (see Ling in FRPS 74: 238. 1985). It has disc corolla lobes with white long articulate hairs and was recorded from alpine meadows at ca. 4200 m in E Xizang (Bomi).

83. Aster flaccidus Bunge, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 2: 599. 1835.

萎软紫菀 wei ruan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizome slender and long, sometimes stoloniferous. Stems erect, 5–30(–40) cm tall, simple, surface crisped or spreading white villous, especially in upper part usually intermixed with stipitate glands or glandular hairs, densely leafy below. Radical and rosulate leaves spatulate or oblong-spatulate, 2–7 × 0.5–2 cm, base attenuate into a short or long petiole, margin entire or rarely with few shallow teeth, apex rounded or acute, cauline leaves 3–5, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3–7 × 0.3–2 cm, base attenuate or abruptly narrowed, usually semiamplexicaul, upper leaves small, linear, thin, densely villous or subglabrous, or glandular, triplinerved and lateral veins fine. Capitula solitary, 3.5–5(–7) cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 1.5–2, rarely to 3 cm, densely or sparsely lanate-villous with white or colored hairs, intermixed with stipitate or subsessile capitate glands; phyllaries 2-seriate, linear-lanceolate, subequal, 0.7–10 × 1.5–2 mm herbaceous, acute or acuminate, with fragile villous hairs. Ray florets 40–60, tubes ca. 2 mm, pilose above, ligules blue or mauve, rarely pink, 13–22, rarely ca. 30 × 1.5–2.5 mm; disc florets yellow, 5.5–6.5 mm, tubes 1.5–2.5 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm, pilose. Style appendages lanceolate, 0.4–1.2 mm. Cypselas oblong, 2.5–3.5 mm, 2-ribbed, brownish, covered with fine silky hairs, sometimes intermixed with glandular hairs, rarely glabrous. Pappus whitish, outer setae ca. 1.5 mm, subpaleaceous, inner ones 6–7 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Nov.

Damp alpine grasslands, alpine and subalpine pastures, thickets, screes; 1800–5100 m. S Gansu, N Hebei, E Qinghai, S Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia (E Siberia)].

This species is used medicinally for treating pulmonary abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pertussis.

This species is variable and had been divided into different species by previous authors.

1a. Stems 5–15 or to 30 cm, inconspicuously glandular; leaves villous on both surfaces or on veins only; ; involucre 1.5–2(–3) cm in diam., base densely villous ...................................  83a. subsp. flaccidus

1b. Stems 5–15 cm, conspicuously glandular; leaves glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially on veins sparsely villous only, margin often ciliate; involucre 1.2–1.8 cm in diam., base not densely villous  83b. subsp. glandulosus

83a. Aster flaccidus subsp. flaccidus

萎软亚种 wei ruan ya zhong

Aster flaccidus subsp. fructa-glandulosus (Ostenfeld) Onno; A. flaccidus f. stolonifer Onno; A. heterochaeta Bentham ex C. B. Clarke; A. kansuensis Farrer; A. tibeticus J. D. Hooker; Erigeron flacidus (Bunge) Botschantzev; E. heterochaeta (C. B. Clarke) Botschantzev.

Stems 5–15 or to 30 cm, inconspicuously glandular. Leaves villous on both surfaces or on veins only. Involucre 1.5–2(–3) cm in diam., base densely villous.

Alpine and subalpine pastures, thickets, screes; 1800–5100 m. S Gansu, N Hebei, E Qinghai, S Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, NW Xinjiang, Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, NW India, Kashmir, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia (E Siberia)].

Three forms have been recognized in China: f. flaccidus with leaves covered with ± villous hairs; apex of stems and base of involucre with more densely white villous hairs, inconspicuously glandular and glandular hairs; involucre 1.5–2(–3) cm in diam.; f. glabratus Ling (Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 239. 1985) with leaves glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially on veins sparsely villous only, ciliate or not; involucre 2–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries to 12 mm, with villous hairs on exterior or on veins, eglandular (NE Xizang); and f. griseo-barbatus Grierson (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 131. 1964) with stems above and involucre covered with purplish brown or gray-brown hairs (3200–4870 m; S and E Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India]).

83b. Aster flaccidus subsp. glandulosus (Keissler) Onno, Biblioth. Bot. 106: 66. 1932.

腺毛亚种 xian mao ya zhong

Aster flaccidus var. glandulosus Keissler, Ann. Nat. Hist Hof-Mus. Wien 22: 26. 1907; A. flaccidus var. frutu-glandulosus Oestenfeld; A. flaccidus subsp. fructu-glandulosus (Oestenfeld) Onno; A. glandulosus (Keissler) Handel-Mazzetti (1930), non Labillardiere (1841).

Stems 5–15 cm, conspicuously glandular in upper part. Leaves usually conferted at base of stems, glabrous on both surfaces or abaxially on veins sparsely villous, margin often ciliate. Involucre 1.2–1.8(–2) cm in diam; phyllaries covered with dark shortly stalked glands and only a few villous hairs. Cypselas often glandular.

* Damp alpine grasslands; 4000–5000 m. S Xizang.

84. Aster hololachnus Ling, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(1): 88. 1980.

全茸紫菀 quan rong zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes procumbent or ascending with conferted short stolons and terminal rosulate phyllome or flowering stems. Stems erect, 4–6 cm tall, slender, covered with densely spreading or crisped white hairs, clad with withered leaf remains at base. Leaf base attenuate into a narrow winged petiole, entire, apex rounded, middle leaves few, oblong-lanceolate, 1.7–2.2 × 0.4–0.6 cm, spreading or erect, semiamplexicaul at base, apex somewhat acute, upper leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, gray-white thickly tomentose, midvein and trinerves abaxially somewhat prominent. Capitula solitary, ca. 2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 1.5 cm in diam., thickly gray-white tomentose; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, ca. 8 mm, outer series ca. 1 mm wide, inner ones narrower to ca. 0.5 mm wide, with narrowly membranous margins, hairy above. Ray florets ca. 50, ligules (not open) ca. 10 × 1 mm; disc florets yellow, ca. 6 mm, tubes ca. 1 mm, puberulent, lobes glandular. Ovary oblong, sparsely pubescent or subglabrous. Pappus double, white, outer setae very short, paleaceous, inner setae ca. as long as disc corolla.

* Glacier area; ca. 5400 m. S Xizang (Tingri).

This species is closely related to Aster flaccidus but mainly differs from the latter in having gray-white thickly tomentose leaves and narrower phyllaries and ligules.

85. Aster tsarungensis (Grierson) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 241. 1985.

察瓦龙紫菀 cha wa long zi wan

Aster flaccidus Bunge subsp. tsarungensis Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 133. 1964.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender and long. Stems erect, 15–25(–45) cm tall, solitary or caespitose with rosulate phyllomes, clad with withered leaf remains at base, canaliculate, purplish brown above or sometimes over whole surface, covered with spreading purplish brown densely glandular hairs and intermixed with shaggily villous hairs. Lower leaves dense, spatulate, 5–9, rarely ca. 10 × 0.3–0.7 cm, base attenuate into a winged long petiole, margin entire or sparsely mucronate-dentate, apex rounded or obtuse, lower and middle leaves oblong-spatulate or lanceolate, 2.5–5 × 0.5–2.5 cm, base abruptly attenuate and semiamplexicaul, apex obtuse or acuminate, upper leaves smaller, linear-lanceolate, thin with shaggily villous and glandular hairs on both surfaces or adaxially glabrous, abaxially villous on veins, long ciliate, midvein and triplinerved veins abaxially somewhat prominent. Capitula solitary, 4–6 cm in diam. Involucre broadly hemispheric, 2–3 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, linear-lanceolate, 9–15 × 1.5–3.5 mm, herbaceous, acuminate, outer series villous in all part or on midvein, tinged purplish above, inner ones narrower, with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets 2-seriate, 60–85, tubes 1–2 mm, ligules bluish purple, 15–20 × 1.8–2 mm; disc florets yellow or tinged purplish, 7.5–9 mm, tubes ca. 2 mm, lobes 1.2–1.4 mm. Style appendages 0.5–1 mm. Pappus double, outer setae short, white, paleaceous, inner setae dirty white, ca. 8 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.

* Alpine and subalpine meadows and on slopes in valleys; 2600–4800 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan, SE Xizang.

This species is closely related to and usually regarded as a subspecies of Aster flaccidus. However, its stems, covered with purplish brown densely glandular hairs and shaggily villous hairs, and its disc florets, tinged purplish or yellow, distinguish it from A. flaccidus.

86. Aster diplostephioides (Candolle) C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 45. 1876.

重冠紫菀 zhong guan zi wan

Heterochaeta diplostephioides Candolle, Psodr. 5: 282. 1836; Aster delavayi Franchet; A. diplostephioides var. delavayi (Franchet) Onno; A. vilmorinii Franchet, p.p.; Erigeron delavayi (Franchet) Botschantzev; E. diplostephioides (Candolle) Botschantzev.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust, branched, bearing long thick roots below and surrounded by thick collars of fibrous leaf remains above. Stems erect, 16–45 cm tall, stout, unbranched, bearing a solitary capitulum, usually glandular pubescent with scattered villous hairs. Lower leaves and rosulate leaves oblong-spatulate or oblanceolate, base attenuate into a long or narrow winged vaginate petiole, including petiole 6–16(– 22) cm, blade 1–4 cm wide, margins entire or sometimes denticulate, apex acute or subrounded, apiculate, middle cauline leaves oblong or linear-lanceolate, decreasing in size from dimensions of basal leaves to ca. 3.5 × 0.4 cm, upper leaves smaller, thin, abaxially on veins and margins with spreading sparsely villous hairs, adaxially with glandular hairs or subglabrous, triplinerved and lateral veins abaxially somewhat prominent, conspicuously reticulate, upper part of stem usually ± naked. Capitula solitary, 6–9 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 2–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 2-seriate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, longer than disc, ca. 15 × 1–3 mm, outer series deeply green, herbaceous, minutely blackish glandular with villous hairs, especially toward base, inner ones sometimes with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets usually 2-seriate, 80–100, tubes ca. 1.5 mm, ligules mauve, or blue-violet, linear, 20–30 × 1–2.5 mm; disc florets 5–6 mm, blackish or brownish purple externally at apex, yellow or orange within, tube 1.5–2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages lanceolate, ca. 1.25 mm. Cypselas obovate, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, 4-ribbed, pale brown, covered with sparsely appressed hairs intermixed with glands. Pappus double, outer series paleaceous, white, 1–1.5 mm, inner ones with 15–20 setae, 4.5–5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Dec.

Alpine and subalpine grasslands, scrub; 2700–4600 m. W Gansu, E Qinghai, SW and W Sichuan, S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Nepal, N Pakistan].

Aster diplostephioides f. “minor” has been recognized in China, although that name was not validly published (see Ling, FRPS 74: 244. 1985). It has stems dwarf, to 12 cm tall; basal leaves oblong-spatulate, 3–5 × 0.4–0.5 cm, cauline leaves linear, 2–3 × 1.5–3 cm, suberect, lateral veins inconspicuous; involucre ca. 1.5 cm in diam., phyllaries ca. 9 × 1 mm; ligules ca. 20 × 1 mm (Jumulama in S Xizang).

87. Aster yunnanensis Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 375. 1896.

云南紫菀 yun nan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes somewhat slender. Stems solitary or caespitose with rosulate phyllome, 30–40(–70) cm tall, thick, surrounded by fibrous leaf remains at base, covered with spreading or crisped pubescent and intermixed stipitate glandular hairs above, simple or bearing 2–8 flowering branches above middle part, scattered leafy above. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower and rosulate leaves oblong, oblanceolate, or spatulate-oblong, 7–15 × 1.5–3 cm, base attenuate into a winged and basally vaginate petiole or lower leaves sessile, margin entire or mucronate denticulate, apex acute or obtuse, middle leaves gradually shorter, oblong, 10–18 × 2.5–4 cm, base rounded, cordate, or auriculate, and semiamplexicaul, upper leaves small, ovate or linear, acute or acuminate, adaxially sparsely hairy, glandular, midvein abaxially prominent, triplinerved and lateral veins conspicuous. Capitula 4–8.5 cm in diam., solitary at apex of stems and branches. Involucre hemispheric, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, ovate or linear-lanceolate, 10–15 × 0.8–4(–5) mm, acute or abruptly acute, deeply green, densely villous below, sparsely pubescent and dark glandular hairs above, with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets 80–120, tube 1.6–2 mm, ligules bluish mauve, 20–30 × 1–2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 7 mm, yellow above, tube 1.8–2 mm, lobes 1–1.2 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.7 mm. Cypselas oblong, 3–3.5 × ca. 1 mm, 4-ribbed, covered with silky hairs, somewhat glandular at apex. Pappus double, outer setae 0.8–1 mm, white, paleaceous, inner setae 6–7 mm, white or tinged yellow. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, E and S Xizang, Yunnan.

This species is closely related to Aster diplostephioides but differs in having stems branched, rarely unbranched; phyllaries usually broader, rarely somewhat narrow; and disc florets yellow, not blackish or brownish purple, at apex. Based on the variations in width and indumentum of phyllaries, this species can be divided into following varieties.

1a. Phyllaries ovate-lanceolate, 3–4(–5) mm wide, often pubescent in lower part only; ligules broader  87a. var. yunnanensis

1b. Phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 0.8–2 mm wide, abaxially or at least at base densely villous; ligules narrower.

2a. Leaves adaxially sparsely pubescent and glandular, abaxially on veins and margins villous; phyllaries abaxially at base or completely densely villous and glandular .....................  87b. var. angustior

2b. Leaves densely yellow villous with glandular hairs; phyllaries with yellowish white intermixed villous and purplish glandular hairs  .................................................................  87c. var. labrangensis

87a. Aster yunnanensis var. yunnanensis

云南紫菀(原变种) yun nan zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster diplostephioides (Candolle) C. B. Clarke var. yunnanensis (Franchet) Onno.

Stems 2–8-branched, rarely unbranched. Leaves mucronate denticulate or entire, lower leaves 17–18 × 2–4 cm, middle leaves abaxially on veins and margins villous, adaxially sparsely pubescent and glandular, base broad, rounded or auriculate. Capitula 5–8.5 cm in diam. Involucre 2–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries ovate-lanceolate, 3–4(–5) mm wide, densely villous below, sparsely pubescent and purplish glandular above. Ligules 25–35 × 1.5–2.5 mm.

* Alpine and subalpine grasslands; 2500–4500 m. SW and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

87b. Aster yunnanensis var. angustior Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 622. 1937; Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 142, p.p.

狭苞 xia bao

Aster vilmorinii Franchet; Erigeron vilmorinii (Franchet) Botschantzev.

Stems 2- or 3-branched or unbranched. Leaves sparsely serrate or subentire, lower leaves 7–15 × 1–2.5 cm, middle leaves somewhat narrow or broader, abaxially on veins and margins villous, adaxially sparsely pubescent and glandular, base rounded or cordate. Capitula 4–6 cm in diam. Involucre 1.5–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 0.8–1.5 mm wide, abaxially at base or completely densely villous and glandular. Ligules 20–25 × 1–2 mm.

* Alpine and subalpine forest margins and open grasslands; 2300–4100 m. SW and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

87c. Aster yunnanensis var. labrangensis (Handel-Mazzetti) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 246. 1985.

夏河 xia he

Aster labrangensis Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 621. 1937; A. kawanguchi Kitamura.

Stems 2–5, corymbose branched. Leaves mucronate denticulate or entire, lower and middle leaves 5–10 × 1.5–2.8 cm, slightly thick, densely yellow villous with glandular hairs, base truncate or cordate. Capitula 4–6 cm in diam. Involucre 1.5–2 cm in diam.; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 10–13 × 1–2 mm, with yellowish white intermixed villous and purplish glandular hairs. Ligules 20–25 × 1–1.5 mm.

* Alpine and subalpine open slopes and grasslands; 3600–4300 m. S Gansu, E and S Qinghai, W Sichuan, E and S Xizang.

The outer pappus in this species paleaceous or sometimes short setae.

88. Aster setchuenensis Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 377. 1896.

四川紫菀 si chuan zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender. Stems erect, solitary or caespitose with rosulate phyllome, 20–50 cm tall, surrounded at base by withered fibrous leaf remains, angled and glabrescent in lower part, somewhat reddish, densely hispidulous, uppermost densely pubescent, usually bearing a few branches, leafy or sparsely above. Radical leaves withered or present at anthesis, lanceolate or spatulate, 5–12 × 0.5–1.5 cm, margin sparsely mucronate denticulate or entire, apex somewhat acute, middle leaves linear-lanceolate, 5–9(–15) × 0.7–1.4 cm, sessile, semiamplexicaul, rounded-auriculate, upper leaves smaller, linear, acute, papyraceous or thin, abaxially pale, sparsely pubescent, adaxially and margins with verrucose scabrid hairs, midvein abaxially prominent, triplinerved and 6- or 7-paired lateral veins conspicuous. Capitula solitary at apex of branches, 2–4 cm in diam. Involucre 1–1.7 cm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 2-seriate, linear-lanceolate, shortly pubescent, villous below, ca. 1.5–2 mm wide, herbaceous, acute, inner series 8–9 × ca. 2 mm, reddish purple above, apex acuminate, with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets ca. 40, tube ca. 1.5 mm, ligules bluish mauve, 15–18 × ca. 4 mm; disc florets to 6 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Pappus double, outer series very short, paleaceous, white, inner ones dirty white, ca. 5 mm, with subequal setae. Fl. Aug–Sep.

* Mountain forests or streamsides; 3300–3500 m. NC Sichuan (Barkam, Lixian).

This species differs from other species in having scabrid shortly hairy leaves and capitula solitary at apex of branches.

89. Aster lipskyi Komarov, Not. Syst. Herb. Hort. Petrop. 1: 8. 1921.

青海紫菀 qing hai zi wan

Rhizomes robust. Stems ca. 50 cm tall, erect, same as leaves, covered with short pubescence. Lower leaves broadly lanceolate, long petiolate, upper leaves sessile, amplexicaul, upper most leaves small, linear, margin irregularly mucronate denticulate. Capitula solitary, 5–6 cm in diam. Involucre sparsely hairy; phyllaries to 1.5 mm wide. Ligules narrow, dark purple. Cypselas usually glabrous. Pappus ca. as long as disc corolla, white or somewhat yellow.

* E Qinghai (near Qinghai Hu).

The type has not been seen. The original description was based on seeds collected from near Qinghai Hu and cultivated in the Komarov Botanical Gardens. This species differs from Aster diplostephioides in having narrower phyllaries (to 1.5 mm).

90. Aster farreri W. W. Smith & J. F. Jeffrey, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 9: 78. 1926.

狭苞紫菀 xia bao zi wan

Aster diplostephioides (Candolle) C. B. Clarke subsp. farreri (W. W. Smith & J. F. Jeffrey) Onno; A. nigrotinctus Ling; A. tibeticus “Fedtsch.” Liu (Fl. Chihl. 164. 1927), non J. D. Hooker (1881); A. vilmorinii Franchet var. nigrotinctus (Ling) Ling; Erigeron farreri (W. W. Smith & J. F. Jeffrey) Botschanjev.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender and long with thick collar. Stems erect, 30–60 cm tall, surrounded at base by withered fibrous leaf remains, solitary or caespitose, or caespitose with rosulate phyllomes, angled, covered with spreading villous hairs below, somewhat purplish and with densely crisped and sparsely villous hairs above, usually unbranched, sparsely leafy in upper part. Lower cauline leaves and rosulate leaves narrowly spatulate, 5–13(–22) × 1.2–2.2 cm, base attenuate into a long petiole, margin entire or sparsely mucronate denticulate, apex somewhat acute, middle leaves linear-lanceolate, 7–13 × 0.7–2 cm, base somewhat narrowed or rounded semiamplexicaul, apex acuminate, upper leaves small, linear, acute, somewhat thin, abaxially on veins and margins with villous hairs, adaxially covered with sparsely villous hairs, midvein abaxially prominent, lateral veins conspicuous. Capitula solitary, 5–8 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 2–2.4 cm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 2-seriate, subequal, linear, 10–14 × ca. 1 mm, eglandular, often overtopping disc, acuminate, outer series villous, herbaceous, inner ones subglabrous, often with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets ca. 100 or more, ligules purplish blue, 20–30 × ca. 1 mm; disc florets ca. 7 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 × 1–1.2 mm, ribbed on one side, with short hairs, eglandular or subglabrous below. Pappus double, outer series very short, paleaceous, inner setae white or dirty white, as long as disc corolla. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.

* Subalpine grasslands and open slopes; 2800–3200 m. SE Gansu, N Hebei, E Qinghai, Shanxi, W Sichuan.

This species is easy to distinguish from Aster diplostephioides by its narrow, eglandular phyllaries, often overtopping the disc, and very narrow leaves.

91. Aster brevis Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 635. 1937.

短茎紫菀 duan jing zi wan

Aster flaccidus Bunge f. ternicatus Onno, Biblioth. Bot. 106: 65. 1932.

Perennial herbs, dwarf, subcaespitose, rhizomes thick, collar 5–10 mm in diam., clad with hard, fibrous leaf remains, bearing 1–2 cm unbranched roots. Stems 5–12 cm, herbaceous, covered with spreading articulate villous hairs, with 4–7 ± equidistant leaves. Radical leaves several, spatulate, 1–4 cm, thick, entire, apex somewhat acute or rounded, cauline leaves oblong, 1.2–2 cm, apex obtuse, margin and abaxially on midvein with rough hairs, lower cauline leaves sometimes glabrous. Capitula solitary, 3.5–4 cm in diam. Involucre to 1 cm; phyllaries equal, herbaceous, lanceolate, ca. 2 mm wide, acuminate, covered with articulate hairs, eglandular, tinged purplish. Ligules dark blue, linear-oblong, 10–12 × 1–1.2 mm, apex rounded, 2–3-lobulate. Disc florets orange-yellow (according to collection record), apically somewhat purplish when dry. Cypselas sparsely appressed hairy. Pappus white, inner setae up to base of lobes, outer 3 × shorter than inner, partly paleaceous. Fl. Jul.

* Alpine slopes; ca. 3900 m. ?Gansu, NW Yunnan (Zhongdian).

Specimens not seen, above description is based on Handel-Mazzetti.

According to Onno, this species is distinguished from Aster flaccidus by having stout subterranean stems and thicker roots and also occurs in Gansu.

92. Aster bipinnatisectus Ludlow ex Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 26: 144. t. 14. 1964.

重羽紫菀 zhong yu zi wan

Dwarf perennial herbs with woody rootstocks. Stems 2- or 3-caespitose, 2–8 cm tall, surrounded at base by dense collars of foliar remains, pilose. Leaves white villous, very densely so at base, radical leaves rosulate, petiolate, petioles 1–2 cm, vaginate at base, blade 1–2 cm, bipinnatisect, primary segments 3–5 pairs, 5–7 mm, each with 3–8 pairs of secondary segments, 1–3 cm, cauline leaves 3–4, similar, but smaller and pinnatisect. Involucre 2.5–3.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries villous, purplish at tips, outer series 6–7 × ca. 0.75 mm, inner 9–10 × 0.8–1 mm. Ray florets 20–35, tube 2.5–3 mm, ligules 1.3–1.5 × ca. 0.2, very pale mauve; disc florets yellow, 5.5–6 mm, tube ca. 1.6 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendage ca. 0.5 mm. Pappus outer setae ca. 1 mm, inner setae slender, scabrid. Cypselas ca. 1.5 × 0.5 mm. Fl. Jul.

* On rock faces; ca. 3200 m. SE Xizang (Shoga Dzong).

Specimens not seen, above description is based on Grierson.

This species is distinguished from all other species of the genus by having bipinnatisect, villous leaves. Rosulate phyllomes at the base of woody stems is also a distinguishing character.

93. Aster senecioides Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 381. 1896.

狗舌草 gou she cao

Perennial herbs, rhizomes robust. Stems erect, often solitary, 16–50 cm tall, angled, slender or robust, covered, with spreading stout long hairs, bearing flowering branches and scattered leaves. Leaves slightly thick, densely covered with scabrid hairs on both surfaces or adaxially densely with long hairs on veins, midrib stout, lateral veins 4–6 pairs, abaxially slightly prominent, radical leaves small, lower leaves present at anthesis, elliptic or oblong-spatulate, 5–18 × 1.4–4 cm, base attenuate into a winged short petiole, margin sparsely or densely shallowly toothed, apex obtuse or subrounded, middle and upper leaves oblong or linear-lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.3–2 cm, base attenuate or rounded-semiamplexicaul, margin sparsely dentate or entire, apex acute or rounded. Capitula 2–3 cm in diam., 2–6, sometimes 8, corymbose; peduncles 1.5–7 cm, with linear or linear-lanceolate bracteole leaf. Involucre hemispheric, 1–1.2 × 1–1.5 cm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear to obovate-oblong, apex acute or acuminate, outer series 7–10 mm, sparsely with scabrid hairs, inner 10–11 × 2–2.5 mm, glabrous or hairy on midrib and at tip, with broadly membranous margins. Ray florets ca. 20, tube ca. 2.5 mm, ligules purplish, 12–14 × 2–4 mm; disc florets yellow-green, 6–5 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, sparsely pilose, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages linear-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm. Pappus double, outer very short, white, with setae, rarely paleaceous, inner reddish brown, ca. 5 mm, with unequal setae. Cypselas oblong, somewhat compressed, 3–3.5 × ca. 1 mm, abaxially 2- or 3-ribbed, adaxially 1- or 2-ribbed, except marginal rib, glandular. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Alpine valleys, needleleaf forests, and rocky slopes; 2000–3000 m. SW Sichuan, N and NW Yunnan.

1a. Phyllaries with broadly membranous margins, acute or acuminate, 2–2.5 mm wide, outer slightly short, ligules narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm wide ......................................................  93a. var. senecioides

1b. Phyllaries with narrowly membranous margins, obtuse or acute, 3–3.5 mm wide, outer ca. 1/2 as long as inner, ligules oblong, to 4 mm wide .............................................................  93b. var. latisquamus

93a. Aster senecioides var. senecioides

狗舌紫菀(原变种) gou she zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Aster senecioides Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 381. 1896.

Stems 16–40 cm tall. Lower leaves 5–17 × 1.4–3.5 cm, base attenuate into a short petiole, middle leaves 2–6 cm. Phyllaries 2–2.5 mm wide, acute or acuminate, with broadly membranous margins, outer slightly short; ligules narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm wide. Outer pappus with numerous setae or sometimes paleaceous.

* SW Sichuan, N and NW Yunnan.

93b. Aster senecioides var. latisquamus Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 360. 1985.

阔苞 kuo bao

Stems 25–50 cm tall. Lower leaves 10–18 × 3–4 cm, base attenuate into a long petiole, middle leaves oblong, ca. 10 × 3 cm. Phyllaries 3–3.5 mm wide, herbaceous above, obtuse or acute, with narrowly membranous margins, outer ca. 1/2 as long as inner; ligules oblong, to 4 mm wide. Outer pappus with a few setae only.

* N and NW Yunnan (Hekin, Kunming).

94. Aster batangensis Bureau & Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 5: 50. 1891.

巴塘紫菀 ba tang zi wan

Subshrub, rhizomes (or stems) procumbent or ascending, multi-branched, woody, to 1.5 cm across, often inflected densely with withered leaf remains; bark lacerate often with adventive roots, conferted rosulate basal shoot and flowering stems borne from apex of branches, basal shoot short or to 2 cm, densely with conferted leaves and terminal rosulate phyllome. Leaves spatulate or linear-spatulate, 1.5–8 × 0.3–1 cm, thick, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces, or puberulent on veins only, ciliate, midvein subparallel with lateral veins, base attenuate into winged long petiole, apex rounded or retuse, or mucronulate, lower leaves linear-spatulate or linear, 1.5–3.5 × 0.2–0.7 cm, base attenuate, apex rounded or acuminate, upper leaves gradually smaller, bracteole leaf-like. Flowering stems erect or ascending, slender, sparsely pubescent, densely leafy below. Capitula solitary, 3–4.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 10–15 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, subequal, linear-lanceolate, 7–12 × 1–2 mm, acuminate, outer herbaceous, glandular, covered with short hairs or glabrous, inner herbaceous above, glandular, with broadly membranous margins. Ray florets 15–20, tube ca. 3 mm, ligules purple, 12–22 × 1–2.5 mm; disc florets ca. 5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ca. 1 mm. Style appendages ca. 0.5 mm. Cypselas oblong, ca. 4 mm, somewhat compressed, 1- or 2-ribbed on one side, 1-ribbed on other side with scabrid hairs. Pappus double, white or somewhat reddish, outer setae few, very short, inner to 5 mm with numerous unequal setae. Fl. May–Sep, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Forest and thicket margins, open grasslands and slopes, stony slopes; 2500–4000 m. SW and W Sichuan, E Xizang, NW Yunnan.

1a. Phyllaries glandular and short pubescent; leaves 1.5–8 × 0.3–1 cm, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces ...................................................................................................................  94a. var. batangensis

1b. Phyllaries often glandular, but glabrous; leaves 2–5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, puberulent on veins only  94b. var. staticefolius

94a. Aster batangensis var. batangensis

巴塘紫菀(原变种) ba tang zi wan (yuan bian zhong)

Leaves 1.5–8 × 0.3–1 cm, sparsely pubescent on both surfaces. Phyllaries glandular and shortly pubescent.

* Forest and thicket margins, open grasslands, stony slopes; 3400–4000 m. SW and W Sichuan, E Xizang, NW Yunnan.

94b. Aster batangensis var. staticefolius (Franchet) Y. Ling, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 253. 1985.

匙叶 shi ye

Leaves 2–5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, puberulent on veins only. Phyllaries often glandular, but glabrous.

* Open slopes; 2500–4000 m. SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan (Lijiang).

95. Aster rockianus Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 613. 1937.

腾越紫菀 teng yue zi wan

Perennial herbs, rhizomes short, multi-branched, bearing fascicled leaves and lateral stems at top of branches. Stems ca. 45 cm tall, simple, densely leafy, canaliculate, covered with appressed short hairs, subglabrous below. Leaves thin, abortive phyllome lanceolate, 2–4 × ca. 1 cm, adaxially and abaxially on veins sparsely with short hairs, acute or rounded, mucronate, attenuate into a longer than blade petiole, margin sparsely mucronulate-denticulate, cauline leaves narrowly lanceolate, 3–8 × 0.4–0.8 cm, long acuminate, with a winged short petiole, lower leaves withered at anthesis. Inflorescences densely corymbose, ca. 10 cm in diam. Capitula broadly campanulate-conical. Involucre ca. 1 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, narrowly lanceolate, 5–7 mm, outer shorter than inner, acuminate, densely hairy, inner with membranous margins, red above, glabrous below. Ray florets 2-seriate, ligules oblanceolate, 4–5 × ca. 1 mm, somewhat acute, rarely 2-denticulate, blue when dry; disc florets 4–5 mm. Ovary obovate, compressed, with thick margins, covered with appressed hairs. Pappus simple, equal, white or brownish, as long as disc corollas.

* Yunnan (Tengye).

Species not seen. According to Handel-Mazzetti, this species is an intermediate form between Aster and Erigeron. In aspect, it is similar to Aster moupinensis, but its leaf shape and capitula are different. This species may be related to Aster diplostephioides, but it differs in habit.

26. KRYLOVIA Schischkim, Fl. Occid. Sibir. 11: 2690. 1949.

岩菀属 yan wan shu

Rhenactina Lessing, Linnaea 6: 119. 1831, non Willdenow (1807); Rhinactinidia Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs with thick woody rhizomes many branched, producing stems or flowering stems, flowering stems erect, branched or simple, densely covered with curved shortly appressed hairs. Radical leaves numerous, caespitose, obovate or oblong-obovate, margin entire or sparsely dentate, base attenuate into a petiole, trinerved, cauline leaves obovate-oblong or oblong, rarely linear, shortly petiolate or sessile. Capitula solitary at apex of branches or several in racemes, radiate. Involucre broadly campanulate or subhemispheric; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, coriaceous, green, becoming yellow-brown later, with membranous or membranous-ciliate margins, hairy, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or somewhat acute, outer shorter. Receptacle slightly convex, alveolate with irregular short membranous margins. Florets numerous, fertile, marginal pistillate florets ligulate, 2 × longer than disc, pale purple; central florets hermaphrodite, numerous, tubular, yellow or purplish, ± zygomorphic, limb campanulate, 5-lobed, lanceolate, 1 lobe longer. Anther with triangular appendages, acuminate at base, very shortly caudate; style appendages triangular. Cypselas oblong, brownish, ± angled, covered with long, appressed hairs, 1-ringed at base. Pappus double, white or dirty white, outer shorter, inner ± dilated at tip, nearly as long as disc corollas.

Four species: C Asia and Russia (Siberia); two species in China.

1a.       Radical leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, 2.5–4.5 cm, apex obtuse or rounded; capitula several at apex of stems and branches; plants to 25 cm tall, with stems
                                                                                                                                             1. K. limoniifolia

1b.       Radical leaves oblong-obovate, less than ca. 2.5 cm, apex acute or somewhat acute; capitula solitary at apex of stems; plants less than ca. 10 cm tall, stems absent ......................  2. K. eremophila

1. Krylovia limoniifolia (Lessing) Schischkim, Fl. Zapadnoi Sibiri. 11: 2670. 1949.

岩菀 yan wan

Rhinactina limoniifolia Lessing, Linnaea 6: 119. 1831; Aster limoniifolius Fedisch; A. obovatus Ledebour.

Perennial herbs. Rhizome woody, producing many short stems, 10–20(–25) cm tall, collar often clad with numerous brown petiole remains, entire plant covered with short recurved, ascending hairs. Stems many, erect, slender, branched above. Radical leaves caespitose, rosulate, petiolate, obovate or ± oblong, shorter or sometimes equal to petiole, 2.5–4.5 × 1–2 cm, trinerved, petiole slender, expanded at base, base cuneate-attenuate, margin entire or sometimes sparsely dentate, apex obtuse or orbicular and smooth-edged, cauline leaves smaller, oblong or oblong-ovate, blunt, lower leaves shortly petiolate, uppermost ones sessile, covered with bent rough hairs on both surfaces. Capitula several at apex of stems or branches, ca. 2 cm in diam. Involucre subhemispheric, 6–7 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, oblong, coriaceous, membranous ciliate at margins, outer short, often patent at apical part. Ray florets purplish, ligules 10–13 × 2–3 mm; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, limb campanulate, slightly zygomorphic with 5 unequal lobes, 1 lobe longer than rest. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3.5 mm, rough pubescent. Pappus white, double, outer shorter, inner with setae, somewhat dilate at apex, nearly as long as disc corollas. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug.

Angular rocky or grassy slopes; 1200–2300 m. NW and W Xizang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia)].

2. Krylovia eremophila (Bunge) Schischkim, Fl. Zapadnoi Sibiri. 9: 267. 1949.

沙生岩菀 sha sheng yan wan

Aster eremophilus Bunge, Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. Sav. Etr. 2: 103. 1835; Rhinactina uniflora Bunge.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thick, woody, many branched, collar clad with numerous dark brown petiole remains. Acaulescent plants with several 3–8(–10) cm flowering stems, simple, ± densely covered with crisped hairs. Radical leaves many, caespitose, rosulate, oblong-obovate or oblong-oblanceolate, 1.5–4 × 0.3–0.8 cm, usually 1-nerved, rarely inconspicuously trinerved, covered with densely crisped hairs on both surfaces, base slightly expanded, attenuate into petiole, petiole equal to blade or shorter, margin entire or sparsely with shallow teeth, apex acute or somewhat obtuse, rarely orbicular, cauline leaves few, narrowly oblong or sublinear, sessile, base narrowed, apex obtuse. Capitula solitary at apex of flowering stems, 1.5–2 cm in diam. Involucre subhemispheric, 5–6 × ca. 10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, coriaceous, acuminate, margin narrowly membranous or sometimes membranous ciliate, outer series shorter, lanceolate, pubescent, middle and inner oblong, pubescent or almost smooth in lower half. Ray florets ligulate, ligules light violet, 13–15 × ca. 2 mm, usually spirally rolled out at anthesis; disc florets yellow, 4.5–5.5 mm, ± zygomorphic, 5-lobed, lanceolate, 1 lobe of inner side longer. Cypselas oblong, ca. 4 mm, densely pubescent, brownish at maturity. Pappus white or dirty white, outer shorter than inner, as long as disc corollas. Fl. Jun–Jul.

Steppe and dry pebbly slopes; 1800–2000 m. C and N Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia (Altai, W Siberia)].

27. ASTEROTHAMNUS Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 330. 1950.

紫菀木属 zi wan mu shu

Kalimeris Cassini in Candolle, Prodr. 5: 259. 1836, p.p.

Subshrubs strongly branching with woody rhizome and numerous gray tomentose or gray-white arachnoid or crisped tomentose stems. Stems erect or ascending, many branched. Leaves small or smaller, conferted, subcoriaceous, margin often reflexed, 1-nerved. Capitula solitary at ends of stems or branches or 3–5 arranged in corymbs, heterogamous, with ligulate or only with tubular florets. Involucre broadly obovate or subhemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, coriaceous, acute, usually very unequal in form and size, with broad whitish membranous margins, with 1 middle brownish or reddish distinct vein. Receptacle ± flat, alveolate, alveoli with membranous margin, irregularly denticulate. Ray florets twice as long as involucre, sky blue, light violet, or whitish pink, pistillate, carpogenous; disc florets bisexual, yellow. Anthers obtuse at base; style arm appendages triangular. Cypselas oblong, covered with appressed rigid ascending hairs, denser at margin, triquetrous, with one convex and two flat or ± concave sides. Pappus usually white, more rarely rust-colored or dirty smoke-colored, with scabrous crenate hairs, as long as disc corollas, sometimes external hairs shorter.

About seven species: C Asia; five species (one endemic) in China

1a.       Leaves short and broad, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or oblanceolate.

2a.       Plants dwarf, 8–15(–20) cm tall; leaves small, oblong-oblanceolate, 6–8 × 2–3(–4) mm, arachnoid-tomentulose .............................................................................................  1. A. alysoides

2b.       Plants higher, (25–)30–40 cm tall, leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 10–12 × ca. 3 mm, conspicuously with arachnoid crisped hairs or cottony hairs
...........................................................................................................  4. A. molliusculus

1b.       Leaves long and narrow, linear, oblong-linear, or oblong.

3a.       Stems virgate, many branched, finely tomentose-pubescent; leaves linear, 10–15(–20) × 1–1.5 mm; capitula mainly with ray florets, sometimes ray florets absent, peduncles slender and long; phyllaries with greenish or white, rarely purplish, tip .......................................................  2. A. fruticosus

3b.       Stems many branched in lower part only, with inflorescence branches in upper part, gray-white tomentose or crisped pubescent, or ± glabrescent; capitula often with ray florets, peduncles rather thick; phyllaries with purplish red tip

4a.       Leaves oblong-linear, (8)12–15 × (1)1.5–2 mm; phyllaries ovate, lanceolate, or oblong, apex acuminate, arachnoid-pubescent  ..............................................  3. A. centrali-asiaticus

4b.       Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, rarely oblong-linear, 13–25 × 2–4 mm; phyllaries ovate or oblong-lanceolate, apex slightly obtuse, conspicuously white tomentulose ..........  5. A. poliifolius

1. Asterothamnus alysoides (Turczaninow) Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 336. 1950.

紫菀木 zi wan mu

Aster alyssoides Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 189. 1832; Calimeris alyssoides Candolle.

Dwarf subshrubs, 8–15(–20) cm, entirely white arachnoid-tomentulose, branched from base, branches slender and short. Stems erect or somewhat ascending, woody in lower part, with reddish brown bark, herbaceous above. Leaves conferted, very small, oblong-oblanceolate, 6–8 × 2–3(–4) mm, white arachnoid-tomentose on both surfaces, adaxially apically ± glabrescent, 1-nerved, base attenuate, sessile, margin often reflexed, apex shortly acuminate. Capitula smaller, solitary at end of stems, or several arranged in corymbs, with a few florets. Involucre broadly obovate, 6–7 × 12–13 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, arachnoid-tomentulose, outer short, ovate-lanceolate, middle and inner oblong, entire, coriaceous, 1-nerved, apex slightly obtuse, with broadly membranous margins. Ray florets 6, ligules spreading bluish, ca. 8 × 1 mm; disc florets 12, yellow, 5–6 mm, limb 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, densely covered with long hairs. Pappus white, with scabrous setae, apically dilated, ca. 5 mm.

Sandy and dry land. Nei Mongol [S Mongolia].

2. Asterothamnus fruticosus (C. Winkler) Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 337. 1950.

灌木紫菀木 guan mu zi wan mu

Calimeris fruiticosus C. Winkler, Acta Host. Petrop. 9: 419. 1886.

Aster branched, lower part woody and hard, light yellow or tan-colored, herbaceous, gray-green above, finely tomentose-pubescent, ± glabrescent at nearly base, rather densely leaved. Leaves linear, 10–15(–20) × 1–1.5 mm, diminishing in size up stem, sessile, 1-nerved, arachnoid-tomentulose on both surfaces or sometimes adaxially subglabrous. Capitula large, in loose corymbs, 8–10 × ca. 10 mm, with membranous florets; peduncles slender, erect or somewhat curved, bearing ± linear small leaves. Involucre broadly obovate, 6–7 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, coriaceous, imbricate, outer and middle smaller, ovate-lanceolate, inner oblong, apex long acuminate, sparsely arachnoid-tomentulose, with broadly membranous margins, apex green or white, ± purplish red, 1-nerved, with ray florets or sometimes ray florets absent. Ray florets 7–10, ligules spreading, purplish, ca. 10 mm; disc florets 15–18, 4–5 mm, limb campanulate, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, 3.5–4 mm, covered with white long hairs. Pappus white, twice as long as cypselas. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Gritty-stony foothills, stony riverbeds. C and W Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia].

3. Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 337. 1950

中亚紫菀木 zhong ya zi wan mu

Aster alyssoides var. achnolepis Handel-Mazzetti; A. centraliasiaticus Novopokrovsky.

Subshrubs 20–40 cm, strong, many branched, rhizome thick, more than ca. 1 cm in diam. Stems numerous, caespitose, many branched in lower part, with inflorescence branches above, erect or ascending, woody at base, hard, finely striate, bark reddish brown, gray-white tomentulose, or ± glabrescent later, present branches gray-white crisped tomentulose, ± glabrescent later, turning green. Leaves conferted, ascending or erect, oblong-linear or sublinear, (8–)12–15 × 1.5–2 mm, abaxially densely gray-white tomentose, adaxially gray-green, 1-nerved, base attenuate, margin reflexed, apex acute. Capitula large, 8–10 × ca. 10 mm, solitary or arranged in loose corymbs. Involucre broadly obovate, 6–7 × ca. 9 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer shorter, ovate or lanceolate, inner oblong, entire, acuminate or somewhat obtuse, usually purplish red, gray-white arachnoid pubescent, 1-nerved, with broadly membranous margins. Ray florets 7–10, ligules spreading, pallid blue, ca. 10 mm; disc florets 11–19(–26), yellow, ca. 5 mm, limb campanulate, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate. Style appendages triangular-ovate. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3.5 mm, slightly compressed, with white long hairs. Pappus white, as long as disc corollas. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Meadows or gritty-stony foothills, stony river beds. Gansu, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, SE Xinjiang [S Mongolia].

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing).

3a. Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus var. centrali-asiaticus

中亚紫菀木(原变种) zhong ya zi wan mu (yuan bian zhong)

Stems numerous, caespitose, many branched in lower part, with inflorescence branches above, gray-white tomentulose, or ± glabrescent later, present branches gray-white crisped tomentulose, ± glabrescent later, turning green. Capitula arranged in loose corymbs. Ray florets 7–10; disc florets 11–12.

Meadows or gritty-stony foothills, stony river beds. Gansu, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai [S Mongolia].

3b. Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus var. phocerior Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 340. 1950.

高大 gao da

Stems and leaves densely covered with permanent gray-white tomentum. Capitula with numerous florets. Ray florets 8–10; disc florets 15–19(–26).

* Desert or grassland; 2200–3400 m. W Gansu, N Qinghai, SE Xinjiang.

3c. Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus var. potaninii (Novopokrovsky) Ling & Y. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 263. 1985.

短叶 duan ye

Asterothamnus potaninii Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 342. 1950; Aster potaninii Novopokrovsky.

Stems many branched in lower part, rarely with several inflorescence branches. Leaves conferted and short, ca. 8–15 mm. Capitula solitary or 2 or 3 arranged in loose corymbs; peduncles longer. Phyllaries narrow, oblong or linear-lanceolate. Ray florets 7–10; disc florets ca. 17.

* About 1300 m. E Gansu, Ningxia.

4. Asterothamnus molliusculus Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 342. 1950

软叶紫菀 ruan ye zi wan

Aster molliusculus Novopokrovsky.

Subshrubs 30–40 cm tall, many branched. Stems erect or ascending, woody in lower part, hard, bark yellow-brown, densely gray-white tomentulose, ± glabrescent later, present branches slender, spreading, ascending or somewhat curved, branches and leaves densely covered with gray-white crisped hairs or cottony hairs. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 10–12(–20) × ca. 3 mm, somewhat soft, abaxially white arachnoid-lanate, adaxially pallid green puberulent, conspicuously 1-nerved, sessile, base slightly attenuate, margin reflexed, apex slightly obtuse or somewhat acute, with cartilaginous mucro. Capitula large, usually 1–3 in corymbs, shortly pedunculate. Involucre broadly obovate, ca. 8 × 8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer shorter, lanceolate, inner oblong, acuminate or somewhat obtuse, with broadly white membranous margins, 1-nerved, densely with gray-white cottony hairs. Capitula with numerous florets. Ray florets 8, ligules spreading, yellowish when dry, oblong, ca. 10 × 2.5–3 mm; disc florets 12, yellow, ca. 5 mm, limb campanulate, lobes lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3.5 mm, slightly compressed, covered with sparsely long hairs. Pappus whitish scabrid as long as disc corollas. Fl. Aug.

Meadows. Nei Mongol [Mongolia].

5. Asterothamnus poliifolius Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 343. 1950

毛叶紫菀木 mao ye zi wan mu

Aster poliifolius Novopokrovsky.

Subshrubs many branched. Stems erect or ascending, numerous, woody at base, many branched, bearing inflorescence branches above, with yellow-brown bark, herbaceous in upper part, densely covered with crisped hairs, ± glabrescent later. Leaves conferted, sessile, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 15–25 × 2–4 mm, gray-white arachnoid-tomentose on both surfaces, adaxially ± glabrescent later, midvein conspicuous, margin reflexed, apex acute or somewhat obtuse, cartilaginous mucronate. Capitula large, 8–10 × 10–12 mm, arranged in corymbs, shortly pedunculate. Involucre broadly obovate or subhemispheric, 6–7 × 8–9 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, outer shorter, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, inner lanceolate or oblong, acuminate, purplish red at middle and apex, with broadly white membranous margins, 1-nerved, conspicuously gray-white tomentulose. Capitula with numerous florets. Ray florets 6–7, ligules spreading, pallid purple, oblong, ca. 8 × 3 mm; disc florets 12–15, yellow or ± pallid purple, ca. 5 mm, limb campanulate, lobes lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, ca. 4 mm, slightly compressed, densely with long hairs. Pappus white or yellowish brown, scabrous, as long as disc corollas. Fl. Sep.

* Grasslands; ca. 1000 m. Xinjiang.

28. GALATELLA Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 37: 463, 488. 1825.

乳菀属 ru wan shu

Aster sect. Galatella Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 273. 1870, p.p.

Perennial herbs, rhizome robust. Stems erect or ascending at base, often corymbose-branched, above, rarely unbranched. Leaves alternate, sessile, oblong, lanceolate, or linear, 1-nerved, margin entire and smooth-edged, often covered with dotted glands, lower leaves 3-nerved. Capitula heterogamous, small or of medium size, radiate, arranged in simple or corymbiform inflorescences, rarely solitary. Involucre obconical to almost hemispheric; phyllaries multi-seriate, imbricate, herbaceous, greenish, usually with more lucid, partly membranous margin, glabrous or puberulent, 1–3-nerved, outer seriess finer, lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, acute, innermost ones larger and more lucid, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, blunt or somewhat obtuse, rarely acute at apex. Receptacle slightly convex, irregularly alveolate, clavate above and with gristly-toothed peristome of alveolae. Marginal florets ligulate, sterile, ligules pinkish or bluish violet, conspicuously exceeding disc florets in length, 1–20 arranged in 1 whorl, rarely absent; disc florets tubular, yellow, bisexual, sometimes pinkish violet, 5–60(–100), usually 1.5–2 × as long as involucre, corolla with 5 lanceolate teeth. Anthers with broadly lanceolate appendages at apex, blunt at base, filaments glabrous; style bilobed at apex, with lanceolate or ovate-triangular appendages. Cypselas identical, oblong, narrowed to base, ± flattened abaxially, ribbed, covered with rather long subappressed hairs, cicatrice basal or sub-basal. Pappus consisting of 2(or 3) irregular whorls of scabrous bristles, unequal, connate in a ring at base, whitish, sometimes with pinkish violet hue, exceeding cypsela in length.

About 40–50 species: widely distributed from C and S Europe to considerable parts of Asia; 12 species in China.

1a.       Leaves covered with dotted glands on both surfaces or adaxially, or sometimes inconspicuously with dotted glands, lower and middle leaves 3-nerved, or middle and upper ones 1-nerved; plants covered with short papilliform hairs and fine aureoles or subglabrous.

2a.       Capitula ray florets absent.

3a.       Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, only lower leaves 3-nerved  ....................  8. G. regelii

3b.       Leaves oblong-lanceolate, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, rarely linear, lower and middle leaves 3-nerved. .....................................................................................................  7. G. biflora

2b.       Capitula usually with 5 to more numerous ray florets.

4a.       Capitula rather small with 15–25 florets, arranged in loose or dense corymbs.

5a.       Capitula dense or more dense; peduncles ascending or incurved; phyllaries 3-nerved, rarely 1-nerved, abaxially glabrous or subglabrous  .......................................................  5. G. punctata

5b.       Capitula loose; peduncles erect or incurved, fastigiate; phyllaries usually 1-nerved, rarely partly 3-nerved, abaxially puberulent  ........................................................  6. G. fastigiiformis

4b.       Capitula larger, with 25–60(–100) florets, rarely few, arranged in loose corymbs, rarely solitary.

6a.       Plants up to 50–60(–70) cm tall; leaves short acuminate or slightly obtuse at apex.

7a.       Pappus entirely or partly with pinkish violet hue; involucre broadly obconical or subhemispheric, 6–8 × 9–12 mm, phyllaries abaxially subglabrous .............................  1. G. chromopappa

7b.       Pappus whitish; involucre hemispheric, 4–5 × ca. 7 mm, phyllaries abaxially usually with short arachnoid hairs  ...................................................................................  2. G. altaica

6b.       Plants up to 80–100 cm tall; leaves acuminate or long acuminate at apex.

8a.       Plants covered with short papilliform hairs; capitula numerous; involucre broadly obconical or almost hemispheric, 3–4 × 5–7 mm  ...........................................................  3. G. songorica

8b.       Plants in lower part subglabrous; capitula not numerous; involucre almost hemispheric, 3.5–6 × 8–10 mm ..................................................................................................  4. G. dahurica

1b.       Leaves without dotted glands, lower leaves 3-nerved, middle and upper ones 1-nerved, or all leaves 1-nerved; plants glabrous or covered with arachnoid tomentum.

9a.       Involucre almost hemispheric, outer phyllaries lanceolate; capitula solitary or rarely in loose corymbs     9. G. tianschanica

9b.       Involucre broadly obconical, outer phyllaries very stout, ovate-lanceolate; capitula more numerous, rarely solitary, arranged in fastigiate branches in corymbs with scaly bracts.

10a.     Capitula without ray florets; leaves (except most lower leaves) narrowly linear, with decurved margins; plants covered with white or gray-white arachnoid-tomentum ................  12. G. scoparia

10b.     Capitula always with ray florets; leaves oblong, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, with plane margins; plants subglabrous.

11a.     Lower and often middle cauline leaves oblong, 5–7 mm wide, middle and upper leaves lanceolate to linear, 3–5 mm wide, 1–3-nerved; capitula larger, few, rarely solitary; involucre 6–9(–10) × 9–14 mm  ............................................................................................................  10. G. hauptii

11b.     Lowermost leaves linear-lanceolate, up to 3–4 mm wide, middle and upper leaves narrowly linear, 1–2 mm wide, 1-nerved; capitula smaller, more numerous; involucre smaller, 5–7 × 8–10(–12) mm wide  ...................................................................................................  11. G. angustissima

1. Galatella chromopappa Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7. 124. 1948.

紫缨乳菀 zi ying ru wan

Aster chromopappus Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs, 25–60 cm tall, covered with very short papilliform hairs and fine aureoles (especially at margin of leaves). Stems solitary or numerous, erect or often ascending at base, conspicuously striate, branched at apex, usually with not many (rarely to 20) obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or a few capitula on pedicels. Leaves conferted, lower leaves withered at anthesis, middle leaves sessile, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, (2)3–4 × 3–4 cm, on both sides, rarely only adaxially, covered with dotted glands and shortly papilliform hairs, 3-nerved, lateral veins sometimes distinct only near base, base gradually narrowed, apex shortly acuminate, rarely long acuminate, terminal leaves (on ramuscules of inflorescence) very diminished, linear-lanceolate or linear, ca. 10 × 1–1.5 mm, 1-nerved. Capitula larger, 3–6 arranged in dense or slightly loose corymbiform inflorescences, rarely solitary, with 35–60 florets, 12–18 mm in diam. Involucre broadly obconical to almost hemispheric, 6–8 × 9–12 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, herbaceous, greenish, sometimes pinkish violet at apex, with narrowly membranous ± shortly arachnoid-fimbriate margin, abaxially subglabrous, 3-nerved, rarely partly 1-nerved, outer ones ovate-lanceolate, acute, inner ones considerably larger, oblong, bunt or arcuate at apex. Ray florets 8–12 in number, pinkish (or ?bluish) violet, 12–16 mm, apically 3-denticulate; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, ca. 7 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas 4–5 mm, densely with white long hairs. Pappus white, entirely or partly with pinkish violet hue, scabrous, as long as disc corollas. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Mountain steppes, grasslands on slopes; ca. 2000 m. W Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia].

2. Galatella altaica Tzvelev, Fl. URSS. 25: 144. 1959.

阿尔泰乳菀 a er tai ru wan

Galatella bipunctata Novopokrovsky, Bot. Mat. Her. Inst. An. SSSR. 11: 221. 1949, p.p.

Perennial herbs, 20–60 cm tall, covered with very short but plentiful papilliform hairs and with fine aureoles, upper part often minutely covered with very thin arachnoid tomentum. Stems solitary or several, erect or ascending at base, branched at apex, with few arcuate or obliquely upright inflorescence branches. Leaves dense, spreading or ascending, sessile, oblong to linear-lanceolate, 4–6 × 0.5–0.8 cm, both surfaces, rarely only adaxially, with conspicuously dotted glands and aculeolate hairs, 3-nerved, base narrowed, apex short acuminate, terminal leaves (on ramuscules of inflorescences) much diminished. Capitula 7–10, arranged in corymbiform inflorescences, rarely solitary, relatively large, 13–20 mm in diam., with 25–50 florets. Involucre almost hemispheric, 4–5 × 7–8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, yellow-green, 1-nerved, or inconspicuously 3-nerved, abaxially ± shortly hairy to subglabrous, margin shortly arachnoid-fimbriate, outer ones ovate-lanceolate, acute, innermost ones larger, oblong, blunt or arcuate, with narrowly membranous margins. Ray florets 8–15 in number, pinkish violet hue, ligules oblong, 15–18 mm, apically 3-denticulate; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, 6–7 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas 2.5–3 mm, densely conferted with long hairs. Pappus whitish, scabrous, 6–7 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Forest margins, stony slopes. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia].

3. Galatella songorica Novopokrovsky, Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS Ser. 1, 7: 116. 1948.

新疆乳菀 xin jiang ru wan

Galatella tarbagatensis Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thicker. Stems solitary or several, erect or slightly ascending at base, conspicuously striate, green, almost glabrous, branched at apex, branches slender, arcuate-incurved, somewhat erect, subcorymbiform or subfastigiate. Leaves conferted, ascending, rarely erect, lower leaves withered after anthesis, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate (3)4–7 × 0.4–0.6 cm, both surfaces, especially adaxially, with dotted glands, 3-nerved or 1-nerved, apex acuminate or long acuminate, terminal leaves (on ramuscules of inflorescence) strongly diminished, linear-lanceolate to linear, 1–2 × 0.1–0.2 cm, 1-nerved. Capitula numerous, in dense or slightly lax corymbiform inflorescences, each terminating in 1–5 capitula on pedicels, relatively large, 10–12(–15) mm in diam., with 25–40 florets, or smaller, 3–5 × ca. 5 mm, with fewer florets. Involucre broadly obconical to almost hemispheric, 3–4 × 5–7 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer ones smaller, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, herbaceous, greenish, acute, 1-nerved, abaxially puberulent, innermost larger, submembranous, blunt, 3-nerved with white membranous margins, glabrous or almost glabrous. Ray florets 10–14, ligules pallid violet, oblong, 10–13 × 2–3 mm, apically 3-denticulate; disc florets numerous (24–28), pallid yellow ca. 6 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style arm appendages triangular-ovate. Cypselas oblong, 2–4 mm, densely with hairs. Pappus white, sometimes pallid violet at base, 5–6 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Dry mountain slopes, stony slopes, moist and humid places, roadsides; 500–3900 m. Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia].

Tzvelev (Fl. URSS 25: 145. 1959) reduced this species to Galatella macrosciadia. According to the original description by Novopokrovsky, the plants from Xinjiang differ from that species in having capitula numerous, involucres smaller, obconical, rarely almost hemispheric, 3.5–5 × 5–7 mm, and in their distribution. There are also the following varieties..

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing).

3a. Galatella songorica var. songorica

新疆乳菀(原变种) xin jiang ru wan (yuan bian zhong)

Capitula relatively large, 10–12 mm in diam., with 25–40 florets, in dense or slightly lax corymbiform inflorescences. Involucre broadly obconical to almost hemispheric, 3–4 × 5–7 mm.<missing>

Dry mountain slopes, stony slopes, roadsides; 500–1800 m. N Xinjiang [Mongolia, Russia].

3b. Galatella songorica var. discoidea Ling & Y. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 360. 1985.

盘花 pan hua

Capitula small, 4–5 mm, with 10–15 florets, tubular. Involucre obconical, less than ca. 3 × 4 mm; phyllaries few.

* About 3900 m. N Xinjiang (Shawan).

3c. Galatella songorica var. angustifolia Novopokrovsky, Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS Ser. 1, 7: 116. 1948.

窄叶 zhai ye

Plants dwarf, ca. 30 cm tall. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 2–3 × 0.1–0.2 cm, both surfaces conspicuously with dotted glands, 1-nerved, almost entire, apex acuminate. Capitula large, ca. 12 × 15 mm, few arranged in loose corymbs. Involucre almost hemispheric, ca. 5 × 8–10 mm.

* On slopes. Xinjiang

3d. Galatella songorica var. latifolia Ling ex Y. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 361. 1985.

宽叶 kuan ye

Plants ca. 60 cm tall. Leaves thin, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 0.9–1.4 cm, both surfaces or abaxially inconspicuously with dotted glands, 3-nerved, apex shortly acute or slightly obtuse. Capitula small, 3–4 × ca. 5 mm.

* Moist and humid places, rare. 2400 m. Xinjiang (Tian Shan Laoba).

4. Galatella dahurica Candolle, Psodr. 5: 256. 1836.

兴安乳菀 xing an ru wan

Aster dahuricus Bentham ex Baker; A. dahuricus subsp. yamatsudanus (Kitagawa) Kitagawa; A. yamatsudanus Kitagawa.

Perennial herbs, densely with papilliform hairs and fine aureoles, weakly scabrous, subglabrous on lower part, rhizome slender and long, procumbent or ascending, clad with brown scales. Stems solitary, erect, yellow green, purplish at base, branched at apex, branches slender, erect or slightly incurved. Leaves dense, lower leaves often withered at anthesis, middle leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, rarely oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 0.3–0.8 cm, both surfaces or only adaxially covered with dotted glands, not many diminished in size, linear, distinctly 3-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex long acuminate. Capitula in lax corymbiform inflorescences, rarely solitary, relatively large, 10–15 × 15–25 mm, with 30–60(–100) florets; peduncles slender, with 1 or 2 linear bracts. Involucre almost hemispheric, 3.5–6 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, yellow-green, abaxially ± shortly hairy to subglabrous, shortly arachnoid-fimbriate at margin, usually 3-nerved, outer ones small, narrowly lanceolate, herbaceous, acute, 1-nerved, innermost larger, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, almost membranous, blunt or arcuate, sometimes pinkish at tip, with narrowly membranous margin. Ray florets 10–20, ligules pinkish violet, 15–16 × 2–2.5 mm; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, or sometimes with pinkish violet hue, 6–8 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3–4 mm, sparsely hairy. Pappus whitish or dirty white, 6–8 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Meadows, grassland on slopes or forest edges; 500–1400 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [Mongolia, E Russia].

5. Galatella punctata (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster, 162. 1833.

乳菀 ru wan

Aster punctatus Waldstein & Kitaibel, Pl. Rar. Hung. 2: 113. Hab. 109. 1892; A. ledebourianus Novopokrovsky; Galatella acutisquama Novopokrovsky; G. acutisquamoides Novopokrovsky; G. densiflora (Avé-Lallemant) Novopokrovsky; G. ledebouriana Novopokrovsky; G. punctata var. densiflora Avé-Lallemant; G. rossicaNovopokrovsky var. densiflore (Avé-Lallemant) Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs, 28–80 cm tall, covered with very short, papilliform hairs and fine aureoles, subscabrous, rhizome thicker, procumbent. Stems rather numerous, rarely solitary, erect, branched at apex, with obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or a few capitula on pedicels. Leaves dense, linear-lanceolate or linear, adaxially or rarely on both sides covered with dotted glands, 3-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex long acuminate, except uppermost leaves, lower leaves withered after anthesis, middle leaves 4–6(–8) × 0.3–0.6 cm, terminal leaves very diminished, linear, 5–10 mm. Capitula numerous, in rather dense, rarely slightly loose, corymbiform inflorescences, 7–12 × 8–12 mm, with 15–25 florets. Involucre broadly obconical, 3–5 × 4–6 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, pallid green, with narrowly membranous margin, abaxially subglabrous, 3-nerved, rarely partly 1-nerved, outer ones smaller, ovate-lanceolate, acute, most inner ones larger, oblong, blunt or arcuate. Ray florets 5–10, ligules pinkish violet, 10–12 × ca. 2 mm; disc florets 10–15, pallid yellow, sometimes with pinkish violet hue, ca. 6 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas 3.5–4 mm, densely white pubescent. Pappus whitish, 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Grasslands on slopes, flood meadows; ca. 1700 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia (Siberia); Europe].

6. Galatela fastigiiformis Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 128. 1948.

扫枝乳菀 sao zhi ru wan

Aster fastigiiformis Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 128. 1948; Galatella acutisquamoides subsp. fastigiiformis Novopokrovsky; G. acutisquamoides subsp. muntana Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs, 25–100 cm tall, covered with very short papillifom hairs and fine aureoles, rhizome thick, procumbent. Stems solitary or several, erect, branched at apex, with arcuate and obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating 1 or a few capitula on pedicels. Leaves lax or denser, linear-lanceolate or linear, adaxially or rarely on both sides covered with dotted glands, or abaxially with indistinct dotted glands, 3-nerved but lateral often inconspicuous, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex long, rarely shortly, acuminate, middle leaves 4–5.5 × 0.35–4 cm, terminal leaves (on ramuscules of inflorescence) very diminished, narrowly linear, 1.5–2 × 0.1–0.2 cm. Capitula small, not numerous, rarely 2–3, in relatively loose corymbiform inflorescences, 7–10 × 7–12 mm, with 14–25 florets. Involucre obconical, 3–5 × 5–6 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, light yellowish green, with narrowly membranous short arachnoid-fimbriate margins, with 1 or partly with 3 nerves, outer ovate-lanceolate, acute, abaxially ± shortly hairy, most inner ones larger, oblong-lanceolate, blunt or arcuate, glabrous or subglabrous. Ray florets 4–8 in number, ligules pallid pinkish violet, ca. 10 × 1.5 mm; disc florets 11–15, pallid yellow, ca. 5 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3.5–4 mm with white long hairs. Pappus whitish, scabrous, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Grasslands on slopes, salt marsh meadows. W Xinjiang (Sa wan) [C Asia, Russia].

7. Galatella biflora (Linnaeus) Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster, 159. 1833.

盘花乳菀 pan hua ru wan

Chryroma biflora Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 841. 1753; Crinitaria biflora (Linnaeus) Cassini, Galatella dracunculoides Nees var. discoides Candolle.

Perennial herbs, 45–100 cm tall, covered with short papilliform hairs and finely aculeolate or subglabrous, rhizome short. Stems rather numerous, rarely solitary, erect, branched at apex, with obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or a few capitula on pedicels. Leaves dense, lower leaves fallen after anthesis, middle leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 5.5–6 × 0.4–0.5 cm, covered with dotted glands or eglandular, glabrous or subglabrous, usually dingy green, 3-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex long acuminate, except uppermost leaves, terminal leaves very diminished, linear-lanceolate. Capitula numerous, in rather dense, rarely slightly loose, corymbiform inflorescences, 8–11 × 10–12 mm, with 8–25 florets, rarely a few. Involucre obconical, 3–5 × 4–7 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, yellowish greenish, with narrowly membranous margins, abaxially subglabrous, or ± very shortly hairy, 3-nerved, rarely partly 1-nerved, outer ones smaller, ovate-lanceolate, acute, innermost ones larger, oblong, blunt or arcuate. Ray florets usually absent, very rarely 1–3(or 4); disc florets pallid yellow, 6–7 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3.5–4 mm, densely white hairy. Pappus whitish, 5–6 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

Grasslands on slopes; ca. 1700 m. W Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia].

8. Galatella regelii Tzvelev, Fl. URSS 25: 153. 1959.

昭苏乳菀 zhao su ru wan

Galatella chromopappa Novopokrovsky f. discoides Novopokrovsky; Linosyris puntata Regel & Schmalhauseni.

Perennial herbs, 25–45 cm tall, covered with very short papilliform hairs mixed with fine aureoles, subscabrous. Stems rather numerous, ascending at base, erect above, branched in upper part, with arcuate or obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or a few capitula on pedicels. Leaves dense, lower leaves withered and fallen after anthesis, middle leaves linear, 3–4 × ca. 0.2 cm, adaxial surface, or both surfaces, covered with dotted glands, dingy green, distinctly 1-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex shortly acuminate, terminal leaves very diminished, linear. Capitula solitary or 2–3 in very loose corymbs, 8–11 × 12–14 mm, with 20–30 florets. Involucre broadly obconical, 4–5 × 5–8 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, greenish, with more lucid membranous margins, abaxially glabrous or subglabrous, 1-nerved, or partly 3-nerved, outer ones finer, lanceolate, acute, most inner ones oblong, blunt or arcuate. Ray florets absent; disc florets pallid yellow, ca. 5 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas 3–3.5 mm, densely white hairy. Pappus whitish, 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Forest margins, grasslands on slopes; 1200–1700 m. W Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia].

9. Galatella tianschanica Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 130. 1948.

天山乳菀 stain shan ru wan

Aster tianschanicus Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 130. 1948.

Perennial herbs, 25–60 cm tall, ± covered with very thin arachnoid tomentum, in upper part, later subglabrous. Stems rather numerous, rarely solitary, ascending at base, erect above, but often arcuate-curved, branched at apex, with 1–8 obliquely upright ramuscules, each terminating in 1 capitulum. Leaves usually dense, concentrated mainly on lower half of stem and often orientated to one side, sessile, lower leaves linear-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × 0.25–0.3 cm, slightly fleshy, without dotted glands, pallid green, distinctly 1-nerved, base gradually narrowed, apex shortly acuminate, terminal leaves few, very diminished, narrowly linear, margins often decurved. Capitula longer, solitary or several in loose corymbiform inflorescences, 8–10 × 15–20 mm, with 50–80 florets. Involucre almost hemispheric, 4–5 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, greenish, with narrowly membranous margin, abaxially glabrous or subglabrous, with 3, or partly with 1, inconspicuous nerves, outer ones lanceolate, acute, most inner ones longer, oblong-linear, blunt or obtuse at apex. Ray florets 15–20, ligules light bluish violet, oblong, ca. 10 × 3–3.5 mm; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, 6–7 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3–3.5 mm, densely white hairy. Pappus whitish, 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Salt marshes, rare; ca. 1200 m. W Xinjiang (Akasu) [C Asia].

10. Galatella hauptii (Ledebour) Lindley, in Candolle, Prodr. 5: 256. 1836.

鳞苞乳菀 lin bao ru wan

Aster hauptii Ledebour, Fl. Altaic. 4: 100. 1833; A. fastigiatus Ledebour; Galatella angustissima (Tausch) Novopokrovsky; G. haupti var. grandiflora Avé-Lallemant; G. squamosa Candolle.

Perennial herbs, (10)20–50 cm tall, glabrous or subglabrous, but usually subscabrous with fine aureoles, arranged mainly at margins of leaves, rhizomes robust, procumbent. Stems several or solitary, erect or often ascending at base, branched in upper part, with few arcuate and obliquely ascending upright ramuscules, terminating in 1, rarely 2–3, capitula on pedicels. Leaves denser, without dotted glands, glabrous, green, sessile, base gradually narrowed, apex shortly acuminate, lower or partly middle leaves withered at anthesis, middle leaves lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, 3–7 × 0.3–0.5 cm, 1–3-nerved, upper leaves usually linear, 1-nerved, terminal leaves rather numerous, very diminished. Capitula few, large, 8–15 mm, usually in loose virgate corymbs, rarely solitary, each branch of inflorescence with several linear bracts, with scalelike bracteole leaf. Involucre broadly obconical 6–10 × 3–5 mm; phyllaries ca. 4-seriate, herbaceous, pallid green, not rarely pinkish violet at apex, with narrowly membranous margins, shortly arachnoid fimbriate, abaxially glabrous or subglabrous, 1-nerved, outer ones short, ovate-lanceolate, acute, most inner ones longer, oblong, blunt or obtuse at tip, many-flowered (to 60 florets in capitula). Ray florets 10–15, ligules pinkish violet, oblong, 13–15 × 2–3 mm; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, often with pinkish violet hue, 6–7 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3.5–5 mm, white appressed hairy. Pappus whitish, 5–7 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Mountain slopes, grasslands, stony slopes; 1400–1800 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia].

11. Galatella angustissima (Tausch) Novopokrovsky, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 136. 1948.

窄叶乳菀 zhai ye ru wan

Aster angustissimus Tausch, Flore 11: 226. 1828; Galatella hamptii (Ledebour) Lindley var. tenuifolia (Lindley) Avé-Lallemant; G. tenuifolia Lindley.

Perennial herbs, 10–15 cm tall, glabrous or subglabrous (with very weak arachnoid pubescence in upper part). Stems solitary or several, erect, but often ascending at base, green, branched above, with arcuately or obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1, rarely 2–3, capitula on pedicels. Leaves dense, without dotted glands, green, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex acuminate, lower leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, up to 4 mm wide, 3-nerved, middle and upper leaves usually narrowly linear, 2–4 × 0.1–0.2(–0.3) cm, 1-nerved, terminal leaves (on ramuscules of inflorescence) rather numerous, very diminished. Capitula smaller, 8–18 × 10–15 mm, rather numerous, in lax corymbiform inflorescences, with 20–50 florets. Involucre broadly obconical, 5–7 × 8–12 mm; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, foliaceous, greenish, often pinkish at tip, margin narrowly membranous and shortly arachnoid fimbriate, abaxially subglabrous, with 1 thickened nerve, outer ones ovate-lanceolate, acute, most of inner ones longer, oblong-lanceolate, blunt and obtuse at apex. Ray florets 10–15, ligules pinkish violet, oblong, 13–15 × 2–3 mm; disc florets numerous, pallid yellow, 6–7 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 3.5–5 mm, white hairy. Pappus whitish, 5–7 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Dry grasslands, steppes, stony slopes; ca. 2000 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia)].

12. Galatella scoparia (Karelin & Kirilov) Novopokrovsky, Izv. Ross. Ak. Nauk. Ser. 6. 12: 2274. 1918.

卷缘乳菀 juan yuan ru wan

Limsyris scoparia Karelin & Kirilov, Enum. Pl. Song. 149. 1842; Aster scoparius (Karelin & Kirilov) B. Fedtschenko (1911), non Nees, nec. Candolle.

Perennial herbs, 25–45 cm tall, covered with thin arachnoid, later flocculent, tomentum, mixed with fine aureoles, rhizome procumbent, woody. Stems rather numerous, rarely solitary, erect or ascending at base, green, mainly above middle (sometimes almost from base) branched with arcuate or obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1, rarely 2–3, capitula on long pedicels. Leaves virgatelike, narrowly linear, 2–4 × 0.1–0.2 mm, grayish green, without dotted glands, subcoriaceous, 1-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, margins decurved, apex acute and arcuate, most lower leaves linear, often 3-nerved (lateral nerves inconspicuous), fast-decaying, terminal leaves (on pedicels of capitula) very diminished, almost setiform. Capitula few, 3–5 in loose often irregular corymbs, 12–17 × 17–17 mm, with 14–20 florets. Involucre broadly obconical, 10–15 × 10–18 mm; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, subcoriaceous, light green, often grayish with thin arachnoid tomentum, with narrowly membranous margins, 1-nerved, outer ones smaller, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or arcuate, most inner ones considerably larger, oblong, usually blunt at tip. Disc florets, pallid yellow, 7–8 mm, lobes lanceolate. Style arm appendages ovate-triangular. Cypselas oblong, 4.5–6 mm, white pubescent. Pappus whitish, 6–7 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Dry steppes, slopes, gravels. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia].

29. LINOSYRIS Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 37: 460, 470. 1825.

麻菀属 ma wan shu

Crinitaria Cassini.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes slender and long. Stems several or solitary, erect or ascending, usually branched at apex, diverging from elongated nodose rhizome. Leaves alternate, oblong to narrowly linear, with or without dotted glands, 1-nerved, sessile, margin entire and smooth-edged. Capitula rather fine, shortly cylindrical or obconical, numerous, arranged in dense or loose corymbs, very rarely solitary; phyllaries 3- to multi-seriate, imbricate, subcoriaceous or foliaceous, greenish, usually with more lucid, partly membranous margin, subglabrous, ± distinct nerves, outer ones either considerably shorter than oblong inner ones or almost equal to them in length, but narrower and linear-subulate, blunt or slightly acute. Receptacle slightly convex, irregularly alveolate. Florets fertile, bisexual, yellow, 5–40, arranged in many circles and usually exceeding involucre in length; corolla with 5 broad lanceolate teeth. Anthers with broad appendages at apex, blunt at base; style bilobed at apex, with ovate-lanceolate appendages. Cypselas oblong, narrowed to base, abaxially ± flattened, with 1–2 lateral ribs, covered with rather long subappressed hairs. Pappus double, scabrous, whitish, sometimes with brownish hue, exceeding cypselas, setae of same structure united in a ring at base.

About five species: occurring mostly in steppe and forest-steppe zones of Europe and Asia; two species in China.

1a.       Plants covered with very thin, later vanishing, tomentum or subglabrous; leaves linear or oblong-linear, usually covered with dotted glands ................................................................  1. L. tatarica

1b.       Plants grayish tomentose; leaves oblong or oblong-linear, without dotted glands
                                                                                                                                             2. L. villosa

1. Linosyris tatarica (Lessing) C. A. Meyer, in Bong & Meyer, Verz. Saisang-nor Pfl. 38. 1841.

新疆麻乳 xin jiang ma ru

Chrysocoma tatarica Lessing, Linnaea 9: 186. 1835; Crisntaris tatarica (Lessing) Novopokrovsky.

Perennial herbs,10–35 cm tall, covered with very thin, arachnoid tomentum, glabrescent later. Stems several, erect or ascending, branched in upper part, with obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or several capitula on pedicels. Leaves fine, linear or oblong-linear, 1–3 × 0.15–0.4 cm, subcoriaceous, both sides or only adaxially covered with dotted glands, dingy green, 1-nerved, base gradually narrowed, sessile, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate, terminal leaves very diminished. Capitula very small, 8–10 × 3–5 mm, with 5–10 florets, numerous in rather dense corymbiform inflorescences. Involucre shortly cylindrical or obconical, 3.5–5 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, thinly coriaceous, light yellowish green, abaxially thinly arachnoid tomentose to subglabrous, shortly arachnoid fimbriate at margins, outer phyllaries fine, ovate, blunt or arcuate at tip, 1–3-nerved, most inner ones larger, oblong, with broadly membranous margins, blunt, 3–5-nerved. Florets tubular, pallid yellow, 5–6 mm, lobe lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, 3–4 mm. Pappus whitish, sometimes with brownish hue, 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Salt marshes, steppes, stony dry slopes; 700–1200 m. N Xinjiang [Russia, C Asia].

2. Linosyris villosa (Linnaeus) Candolle, Prodr. 5: 352. 1836.

灰毛麻菀 hui mao ma wan

Chrysocoma villosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 841. 1753.

Perennial herbs, 15–35 cm tall, gray tomentose. Stems usually rather numerous, erect, branched in upper part, with obliquely upright ramuscules, terminating in 1 or several capitula on pedicels. Leaves oblong or oblong-linear, without distinct dotted glands, base gradually narrowed, apex shortly acuminate or obtuse, terminal ones (on ramuscules of inflorescence) very diminished. Capitula numerous, in rather dense corymbiform inflorescences, 8–12 mm, with 5–10 florets. Involucre shortly cylindrical or obconical, 6–9 × 4–6 mm; phyllaries thinly coriaceous, grayish, covered with thin tomentum, shortly arachnoid-fimbriate at margin, outer ones fine, ovate, blunt or arcuate at apex, 1–3-nerved, most inner ones larger, oblong, blunt, 3–5-nerved. Florets tubular, yellow. Cypselas 3–4 mm. Pappus 6–9 mm, whitish, sometimes with brownish hue. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Salt marshes, steppes, stony slopes. N Xinjiang [Russia, C Asia].

30. ARCTOGERON Candolle, Prodr. 5: 161. 1836.

莎菀属 sha wan shu

Perennial herbs, nod-forming, with several flowering scapes and with narrow grasslike leaves. Leaves conferted at base, linear-subulate, margin scabrous ciliate. Capitula heterogamous, radiate, solitary on scapes. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, lanceolate, acuminate, abaxially carinate, green, with white membranous margins. Receptacle narrow, flat, ± alveolate. Florets fertile. Ray florets monostichous ligulate, white or pinkish white, twice as long as involucre, ligules ovate-oblong, denticulate above; disc florets tubular, yellow. Anthers obtuse at base; style arm appendages shortly triangular. Cypselas oblong, slightly compressed, very densely silvery pubescent. Pappus simple, multi-seriate, with almost denticulate scabrous bristles.

One species: NE China, Mongolia, E Russia.

1. Arctogeron gramineum (Linnaeus) Candolle, Prodr. 5: 261. 1836.

莎菀 sha wan

Erigeron gramineus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 864. 1753; Aster gramineus (Linnaeus) Komarov.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes branched, ascending; roots thick, vertical or sometimes contorted. Flowering scapes 2–5(or 6), obvolute below with last year’s dry leaves. Leaves conferted at base, linear, 5–10 cm, less than ca. 1 mm wide, subsetose, rigid, slightly dilated below into a short vagina, somewhat concave above, both surfaces glabrous or ± arachnoid-pubescent, 1-nerved, thick in middle, margins decurved, rough, acutely ciliate. Capitula solitary at apex of flowering scapes, 1.5–2 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, abaxially carinate, green, densely finely pubescent, margin broadly white membranous, inner ones longer, membranous, straight or slightly bent back and sometimes with pinkish tips. Ray florets 1-seriate, ligulate, ligules pallid pinkish; disc florets bisexual, yellow, tubular, 5–6 mm, 5-denticulate above. Cypselas oblong, ca. 3 mm, slightly costate, densely pubescent with silver-white hairs. Pappus white, scabrous bristles, as long as disc corollas.

Dry mountain slopes or stony slopes. Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol [Mongolia, E Russia].

31. TRIPOLIUM Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 152. 1833.

碱菀属 jian wan shu

Aster sect. Tripolium (Nees) Bentham & J. D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 273. 1873.

Annual herbs. Stems erect. Leaves alternate, entire or sparsely dentate. Capitula heterogamous, arranged in corymbiform inflorescences, radiate. Involucre almost campanulate; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, outer ones shorter, almost imbricate, fleshy, with membranous margins. Receptacle ± flat, alveolate, alveoli with crenulations at margins. Ray florets pistillate, monostichous, ligulate, ligules bluish violet or pinkish, carpogenous; disc florets bisexual, numerous, yellow, tubular, 5-lobulate. Anthers obtuse at base; style arms thickened and elongate, apically triangular. Cypselas identical, compressed, oblong with thick lateral nerves, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Pappus conspicuously enlarged after anthesis, white or pinkish shining silky, 2 × as long as involucre.

One species: N Asia, Europe, North America.

1. Tripolium vulgare Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 152. 1833.

碱菀 jian wan

Aster tripolium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 872. 1753; A. carnosus Gilibert; A. maritinus Lamarck; A. macrolophus H. Léveillé & Vant; A. palustris Lamarck; A. papposissimus H. Léveillé & Vant; A. salinus Schrader.

Annual herbs. Stems hollow, sulcate, erect, 30–50 tall, sometimes up to 80 cm tall, solitary or several, caespitose, glabrous, branched, often spreading, sometimes from very base, sometimes only above. Leaves fleshy, glabrous, radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves linear or oblong-lanceolate, 5–10 × 0.5–1.2 cm, margin entire or slightly crenulate, apex acute, middle leaves narrowed, sessile, upper leaves diminished, bracteole leaflike. Capitula numerous, arranged in paniculate-corymbiform inflorescences, long pedunculate. Involucre almost tubular, campanulate after anthesis, ca. 7 mm in diam; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, laxly imbricate, green, often pinkish at margin, membranous when dry, glabrous, outer ones lanceolate or ovate, obtuse, 2.5–3 mm, inner ones narrowly oblong, ca. 7 mm. Ray florets 1-seriate, ligules 10–12 × ca. 2 mm; disc florets 8–9 mm, lobes 1.5–2 mm. Cypselas ca. 2.5–3 mm, compressed, with lateral nerves, sparsely hairy or glabrous. Pappus much longer than cypsela. Fl. and fr. Aug–Dec.

Salt marshes, salt marsh meadows, littoral, riversides. Gansu, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [C Asia, Japan, Korea, Russia (Siberia); N Africa, SW Asia (Iran), Europe, North America].

32. BRACHYACTIS Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 2: 495. 1845.

短星菊属 duan xing ju shu

Annual or perennial herbs. Stems erect or obliquely ascending, often branching from base, branches usually short, forming racemose-paniculate inflorescences. Leaves alternate, entire or dentate. Capitula heterogamous, discoid, with numerous florets, arranged in racemose-paniculate inflorescences, rarely solitary or several in leaf axils of upper part. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, linear or linear-lanceolate, unequal, outer ones often foliaceous, green, margin narrowly membranous or scabrous-ciliate. Receptacle flat, glabrous, weakly alveolate. Florets carpogenous. Marginal pistillate florets numerous, 1-seriate, tubular, with a tube shorter than style, upper margin obliquely lobed and ciliate, without ligule or ligulate, ligule very fine, distinctly exceeding style; disc florets bisexual, shorter than pappus, tubular, with 5 teeth. Style arms lanceolate, acute. Anthers without appendages at base. Cypselas obovate or oblong, compressed, narrowed at base, with 2–4 longitudinal nerves, pubescent with subappressed rather long rigid hairs. Pappus double, with white crenate bristles.

Five species: N Asia, North America; four species (one endemic) in China.

1a.       Perennial herbs, upper leaves sessile, semiamplexicaul at base, shortly decurrent at stems; capitula solitary or 3–4 conferted at apex of stems and branches; phyllaries longer than disc; pistillate florets longer than disc, ligules bluish, distinctly exceeding style ..............................................  1. B. anomalum

1b.       Annual herbs, upper leaves sessile or narrowed into a short petiole at base, not decurrent at stems; capitula numerous or relatively numerous, arranged in racemose or racemose-paniculate inflorescences; phyllaries shorter than disc; pistillate florets shorter than disc, ligules very short, uncolored, shorter than style, or only tube upper margin obliquely lobed, without ligule.

2a.       Stems above and branches sparsely pubescent; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, sessile, margin entire, ciliate, both surfaces glabrous or only adaxially sparsely shortly pubescent ......  2. B. ciliata

2b.       Stems and branches with stipitate glandular hairs or glandular pubescence; leaves obovate or obovate-oblong, narrowed at base into long or short petiole, margin coarsely serrate; both surfaces densely covered with stipitate glandular hairs or glandular pubescence.

3a.       Stems densely covered with stipitate glandular hairs mixed with sparsely short hairs; capitula 1–1.2 cm in diam., numerous, racemose or racemose-paniculate; phyllaries green, 1/3 shorter than disc, outer shorter than inner, densely with stipitate glandular hairs  ............................................  3. B. roylei

3b.       Plants densely covered with brown glandular pubescence; capitula 1.5–2 cm in diam., not numerous, racemose; phyllaries dark brown, slightly shorter than disc, outer ones often longer than inner, densely brown glandular-pubescent
                                                                                                              4. B. pubescens

1. Brachyactis anomalum (Candolle) Kitamura, Hara. Fl. East. Himal. 3: 113. 1975.

香短星菊 xiang duan xin ju

Erigeron anomalum Candolle, Prodr. 5: 293. 1836; Brachyactis menthora Bentham; B. indica C. B. Clarke.

Perennial herbs, with sweet menthol. Stems erect, 60–70 cm tall, rigid, pinkish violet tinged, with racemose short branches, covered with glandular pubescence. Leaves conferted, radical leaves fallen at anthesis, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, margin serrate, apex acute or arcuate, basal and lower leaves long petiolate, upper leaves gradually diminished, densely covered with glandular-pubescence on both surfaces, semiamplexicaul and decurrent at base, sessile. Capitula solitary or 3–4 conferted at apex of stems or branches, 1–1.5 cm in diam.; peduncles 5–10 mm. Involucre hemispheric-campanulate; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, outer often with 1–2, foliaceous, distinctly exceeding disc bracts, inner ones linear or linear-lanceolate, 6–7 mm, arcuate or acuminate, pinkish violet, with narrowly membranous margins, as long as or rather longer than disc. Receptacle flat, not alveolate. Florets carpogenous. Pistillate florets numerous, almost 2-seriate, ligulate, 5–6 mm, ligules bluish, fine and narrow, 3-denticulate at apex, distinctly longer than style; disc florets finely tubular, ca. 5 mm, tube often puberulent, lobes short, glabrous. Style arms lanceolate. Cypselas obovate-oblong, compressed, 3–3.5 mm, sparsely puberulent. Pappus pinkish, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones scabrous, longer than cypsela. Fl. and fr. May–Sep.

* Alpine thicket margins, grasslands on slopes; 3300–4000 m. S and W Xizang (Nielamu-Yatong).

2. Brachyactis ciliata Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 2: 495. 1845.

短星菊 duan sin ju

Erigeron ciliatus Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 24: 1829; Aster angustus Torrey & Gray; A. brachyactus Blake; A. latisquamus (Maximowicz) Handel-Mazzetti; Brachyactis latisquama (Maximowicz) Kitagawa; Conyza altaica Candolle; E. latisquamus Maximowicz.

Annual herbs, 20–60 cm tall. Stems erect, branched from base, rarely unbranched, often reddish below, upper half and branches covered with sparsely cartilaginous hairs, densely leafy. Leaves sessile, linear or linear-lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.3–0.6 cm, base semiamplexicaul, slightly decurrent, diminishing in size from base upward, transforming gradually to involucral bracts, apex acute or arcuate, radical leaves fallen at anthesis. Capitula numerous or rather numerous, arranged in racemose-paniculate inflorescences, rarely solitary at apex of branches, 1–2 cm in diam. Involucre semispherical; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear, unequal, shorter than disc, acute, outer phyllaries foliaceous, 7–8 × ca. 1 mm, sometimes revolute, ciliate at apex and margins, inner ones with membranous margins below, foliaceous above. Florets carpogenous. Pistillate florets numerous, tubular together with style, ca. 4 mm, upper half of tube and mouth pubescent with short sparse hairs, uncolored or lobes pinkish, style arms lanceolate; bisexual florets ca. 4 mm, pubescent with short sparse hairs in middle of tube. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2.25 mm. Pappus white, double, outer bristles very short, inner setae 6–7 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct.

Salt marshes, meadows, damp riverbanks, marshes and lakes in plains; 500–1500 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang [C Asia, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia)].

3. Brachyactis roylei (Candolle) Wendelbo, Nutt. Mag. Bot. 11: 62. 1953.

西疆短星菊 xi jiang duan xing ju

Conyza roylei Candolle, Prodr. 5: 381. 1836; Brachyactis umbrosa (Karelin & Kirilov) Bentham; C. umbrosa Karelin & Kirilov; Erigeron umbrosus (Karelin & Kirilov) Buser.

Annual herbs, 3–3.5 cm tall. Stems erect or obliquely ascending, green or tinged pinkish with racemose-paniculate branches from base or upper part, densely covered with stipitate glandular hairs and long articulate hairs, densely leafy. Radical leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, obovate or obovate-oblong, 0.5–4 × 0.3–1.5 cm, base cuneate, narrowed into a long petiole, margin sparsely long serrate, apex obtuse or arcuate, upper leaves diminished, both surfaces densely covered with stipitate glandular and long articulate hairs, margin with sparse teeth or almost entire. Capitula numerous, 1–1.2 cm in diam., racemose or racemose-paniculate. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, herbaceous, linear-lanceolate, 1/3 shorter than disc or almost as long as disc, 5–7 × 0.6–1 mm, with narrowly membranous margins, abaxially densely covered with stipitate glandular hairs and sparsely articulate hairs, outer ones rather shorter than inner, 5–7 × 0.6–1 mm. Florets carpogenous. Pistillate florets numerous, finely tubular, uncolored, together with style 4–4.5 mm, apically obliquely lobed or sometimes bearing fine ligules, sparsely puberulent above; bisexual florets tubular, 4–4.5 mm, lobes short, upper part of tube and lobes puberulent, style arms lanceolate. Cypselas oblong-oblanceolate, compressed, 2–2.2 mm, with appressed short hairs. Pappus white, double, outer bristles very short, inner setae almost as long as disc corollas. Fl. and fr. Jul–Sep.

W Xizang, N Xinjiang [C Asia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Russia].

4. Brachyactis pubescens (Candolle) Aitchison & C. B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 68. 1880.

腺毛短星菊 xian mao duan xing ju

Conyza pubescens Candolle, Prodr. 5: 381. 1836; Brachyactes robusta Bentham, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 12: 6 sub t. 1106. 1876.

Annual dwarf herbs, 4–20 cm tall. Stems erect or obliquely ascending, branched, densely covered with brownish yellow glandular pubescence, densely leafy. Radical leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, obovate or obovate-oblong, 1–4 × 0.5–1.5 cm, gradually narrowed at base into short petiole, margin sparsely roughly serrate, apex obtuse or arcuate, upper leaves diminished in size, almost sessile, densely glandular pubescent on both surfaces, margin almost entire or with sparse teeth. Capitula rather few, 1.5–2 cm in diam., racemose; peduncles thick, 1–1.8 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, dark brownish, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, slightly shorter than disc, abaxially densely brown glandular pubescent, outer seriess often longer than inner, 5–7 × 1–1.2 mm. Florets carpogenous. Pistillate florets numerous, finely tubular, uncolored, together with style 4–4.5 mm, apically obliquely lobed or with fine ligule, upper part of tube puberulent; bisexual florets tubular, uncolored, 4–4.5 mm, lobes short, tube above and apically lobes puberulent, style arms lanceolate. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 mm, compressed, puberulent. Pappus dirty white, double, outer bristles very short, inner setae almost a long as disc corollas. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

Mountain slopes; ca. 5200 m. W Xizang [Afghanistan, India, Pakistan].

33. HETEROPLEXIS Chang, Sunyatsenia 3: 266. 1937.

异裂菊属 yi lie ju shu

Climbing or erect herbs. Leaves alternate, petiolate, entire or conspicuously finely toothed. Capitula discoid, solitary or 2- or 3-fascicled at apex of branches, shortly pedunculate or sessile, heterogamous. Involucre campanulate-cylindrical; phyllaries numerous, herbaceous, 5- or 6-seriate, imbricate, ovate or ovate-oblong. Receptacle flat, glabrous, alveolate. Florets carpogenous. Marginal pistillate florets 1-seriate, ligulate, tube cylindrical, ligules fine, conspicuously 3-denticulate at apex, style arms linear, obtuse, sparsely puberulent on outside; central bisexual florets few, tubular, limb narrowly campanulate, apically with 5 unequal lobes, outer lobes longer, stamens 5, exserted at base of limb, anthers obtuse at base, style arms with triangular appendages. Cypselas in pistillate florets slightly compressed, angled on adaxial side, 1-ribbed on both sides, slightly convex abaxially; cypselas in bisexual florets 2-ribbed on both sides, sparsely pubescent. Pappus yellowish white, simple scabrous bristles subequal.

* Three species: China.

1a.       Stems and branches with densely gray short hairs, but without glands; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, adaxially covered with appressed scabrous short hairs, abaxially densely white silky villous  3. H. sericophylla

1b.       Stems and branches gray-white pubescent mixed with glands; leaves lanceolate-elliptic, covered with appressed scabrous short hairs, abaxially with glands.

2a.       Involucre 5–5.5 mm, 3–4 mm in diam.; female florets ca. 7, disc florets bisexual, ca. 3; leaves abaxially conspicuously glandular  ....................................................................  1. H. vernonioides

2b.       Involucre ca. 4 mm, 2–3 mm in diam.; female florets and bisexual florets 4; both surfaces of leaves densely conspicuously glandular  .......................................................  2. H. microcephala

1. Heteroplexis vernonioides Chang, Sunyatsenia 3: 267. t. 34. 1937.

异裂菊 yi lie ju

Climbing herbs. Stems terete, olive, corymbose branched above, branches spreading, striate, gray puberulent, mixed with glands, lower branches to 16 cm. Leaves hard papyraceous above middle, leaves lanceolate-elliptic, 8–9 × 2–2.5 cm, abaxially pallid, adaxially green, covered with scabrous short hairs on both surfaces, abaxially glandular, pinninerved, lateral nerves distinct, connected toward margin, base cuneate, petioles 3–5 mm, densely shortly pubescent, margin or above middle inconspicuously sparsely finely toothed, apex acute, upper leaves oblong, elliptic-oblong, or narrowly ovate, ca. 2 × 0.9 cm, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or slightly obtuse, uppermost leaves small, subsessile. Capitula discoid, shortly pedunculate or sessile, solitary or 2- or 3-fascicled; peduncles to 6 mm, with ovate-lanceolate bracts. Involucre campanulate-cylindrical, 5–5.6 × 3–4 mm; phyllaries 5- or 6-seriate, outer ones ovate, obtuse, abaxially and margin sparsely pubescent, often mixed with glands. Receptacle flat, alveolate. Pistillate florets 1-seriate, ca. 7, ligulate, ligules fine, inconspicuously 3-denticulate at apex; bisexual florets few (ca. 3), yellow, tubular, 4.5–5 mm, lobes 5, unequal, lanceolate, incurved, outer 2 lobes ca. 1.6 mm, inner lobes ca. 1 mm. Cypselas oblong-obovate, ca. 1.5 mm, 2-ribbed on both sides, sparsely puberulent. Pappus pallid yellow-white, scabrous, ca. 4.3 mm. Fl. Oct.

* Limestone, rocky sides in valleys, rare. Guangxi (Jinxian).

2. Heteroplexis microcephala Y. L. Chen, Guihai 5(4): 338. 1985.

小花异裂菊 xiao hua yi lie ju

Perennial herbs, erect, 50–70 cm tall. Stems terete, striate, with short or long branches above, covered with densely gray appressed hispidulous hairs mixed with glands. Leaves thickly papyraceous, with short petioles, middle cauline leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 5–10 × 1.5–2 cm, abaxially pallid, adaxially dark green, both surfaces pubescent with scattered appressed short hairs mixed with dense glands, lateral nerves 5- or 6-paired, distinct abaxially, base cuneate, petiole 2–3 mm, margins entire or rarely denticulate, mucronulate, apex acuminate, upper leaves and on branches small, ovate-lanceolate, subsessile. Capitula small, discoid, solitary in leaf axils or 2–4 arranged in racemose-corymbose inflorescences; peduncles 4–8 mm, covered with densely appressed short hairs, with 1 or 2(or 3) linear-lanceolate bracteoles. Capitula cylindrical or subcylindrical, ca. 4 mm, 2–3 mm in diam.; phyllaries 4- or 5-seriate, scarious, outer ones very small, ovate, 1–1.5 mm, slightly acute, inner ones oblong, 4–5 mm, obtuse, inconspicuously 1-nerved, puberulent at apex and margins. Marginal florets female, 4, ligulate, tube 2–2.5 mm, ligules fine, ca. 0.5 mm wide, inconspicuously 3-denticulate, shorter than style; disc florets bisexual, 4, tubular, yellow, tube ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous, 5-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, outer 2 longer, ca. 2 mm, inner 3 shorter, 1–1.5 mm, puberulent at apex. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1 mm, with appressed puberulence. Pappus yellow-white, bristles scabrous, ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jul–Dec.

* Limestone, rocky slopes; ca. 300 m. Guangxi (Yangzhou).

3. Heteroplexis sericophylla Y. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 361. 1985.

绢叶异裂菊 juan ye yi lie ju

Erect herbs. Stems terete, gray-brown, simple or branched, striate, densely gray puberulent, without glands. Leaves shortly petiolate, hard papyraceous, middle leaves lanceolate oblong-lanceolate, 11–14 × 2–2.5 cm, abaxially gray-green, densely white silky villous, adaxially green, covered with appressed rigid hairs, pinninerved, lateral nerves indistinct, base cuneate and narrowed into a petiole, petioles 2–3 mm, densely white silky villous, margin entire or above middle ± sparsely with mucronate fine teeth, apex acuminate or long acuminate, upper leaves narrowly lanceolate, 6.5–10 × 1–1.8 cm, subsessile, margin entire, apex acuminate, uppermost leaves diminished, linear-lanceolate. Capitula small, discoid, solitary or 2–3 fascicled in leaf-axils of short branches and in corymbs, shortly pedunculate or sessile, with linear-lanceolate bracts. Involucre cylindrical-campanulate, 3–4 × ca. 3 mm; phyllaries 5-seriate, obtuse, outer ones ovate, 1.5–1.8 mm, inner ones oblong, ca. 4 mm, 1-nerved, margin ciliate, abaxially white villous. Pistillate florets 6–7, 1-seriate, ligulate, ligules fine, ca. 0.5 mm, inconspicuously 3-denticulate; bisexual florets 5–6, yellow, 3.7–4 mm, with 5 unequal lobes, lobes lanceolate, outer 2 lobes longer, other 3 lobes short, apically white puberulent. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1.3 mm, 2-ribbed on both sides, with appressed short hairs. Pappus yellowish brown, simple scabrous, ca. 3.5 mm. Fl. Sep–Oct.

* Lax forests on hills; ca. 400 m. Guangxi.

34. NANNOGLOTTIS Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Petersb. 27: 480. 1881.

毛冠菊属 mao guan ju shu

Stereosanthes Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 384. 1896; Vierhapperia Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem. 13: 627. 1937.

Perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs, rhizome woody. Radical leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, cordate, or oblong, long petiolate or shortly petiolate, margin dentate, middle and upper cauline leaves sessile and often decurrent. Capitula numerous, corymbose, paniculate, or racemose, rarely solitary, radiate. Florets yellow, of 3 types. Outermost florets ligulate, female; inner florets with 2- or 3-seriate fine tubular female florets; central florets hermaphrodite, tubular, but pistil abortive. Capitula homochromous or heterochromous, ligulate florets 2–4-seriate, filiform florets rarely few or sometimes absent. Involucre hemispheric or cup-shaped; phyllaries 2-seriate, herbaceous, rarely thinly coriaceous, inner ones with slightly membranous margins, pubescent glandular hairs or multicellular long hairs. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, epaleaceous. Ray florets ligulate, filiform florets truncate or obliquely cut, shorter than style; disc florets narrowly funnel-shaped, 5-lobulate at apex, lobes glandular. Anthers obtuse or arcuate at base; style arms lanceolate, densely papillose. Cypselas oblong, 8–10-ribbed. Pappus of many scabrid bristles.

Nine species: Bhutan, China, India, Nepal; nine species (seven endemic) in China.

1a.       Subshrubs; capitula solitary; ray florets yellow; leaves abaxially densely lanate
                                                                                                                                             1. N. ravida

1b.       Perennial herbs; capitula numerous, corymbose-cymose; ray florets yellow, brownish, or reddish; leaves abaxially densely pubescent with cottony hairs or mixed with glandular hairs.

2a.       Ray florets brownish or reddish; ligules short, slightly exceeding involucre.

3a.       Radical leaves cordate, with long winged petiole  ..............................  9. N. yunnanensis

3b.       Radical leaves ovate-lanceolate, attenuate at base.

4a.       Middle cauline leaves abruptly narrowed into broadly winged petiole at base, margin denticulate, abaxially pubescent with glandular-stipitate hairs only .....................  8. N. hieraciphylla

4b.       Middle cauline leaves attenuate at base, margin dentate, abaxially pubescent with glandular-stipitate and scattered cottony hairs  ...........................................................  7. N. carpesioides

2b.       Ray florets yellow; ligules distinctly exceeding involucre.

5a.       Radical leaves abaxially lanate.

6a.       Radical leaves long petiolate, cordate, margin distinctly toothed, teeth obtuse or acute, middle cauline leaves undeveloped; phyllaries lanceolate or linear-lanceolate ................  2. N. delavayi

6b.       Radical leaves short petiolate, oblong, margin indistinctly toothed, middle cauline leaves developed; phyllaries ovate-lanceolate  ..............................................................  5. N. latisquama

5b.       Radical leaves abaxially with glandular hairs or mixed with cottony hairs.

7a.       Phyllaries thin coriaceous, 3- or 4-seriate, unequal, outer ones distinctly shorter than inner ones        3. N. gynura

7b.       Phyllaries herbaceous, 2- or 3-seriate, equal or subequal.

8a.       Radical leaves attenuate at base, decurrent on stem, sessile  .................  4. N. hookeri

8b.       Radical leaves abruptly narrowed into broadly winged petiole  ......  6. N. macrocarpa

1. Nannoglottis ravida (C. Winkler) Y. L. Chen, Kew Bull. 39: 432. 1984.

青海毛冠菊 qing hai mao guan ju

Senecio ravidus C. Winkler, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 13: 4. 1893; Nannoglottis qinghaiensis Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen.

Subshrubs, 12–20 cm tall, rhizome thickened, woody, multi-branching. Stems erect, pubescent with white cottony hairs and glandular hairs, later glabrescent. Radical leaves oblanceolate or spatulate-oblong, 4–5 × ca. 1 cm, middle above cauline leaves oblong or elliptic, 4–11 × 0.5–2.5 cm, abaxially densely with cottony hairs, adaxially green, arachnoid or glabrous, base attenuate into winged petioles, petioles to 5 cm, margin repand-dentate or shallowly lobate, apex obtuse-rounded. Capitula solitary. Involucre hemispheric, 13–15 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, 9–11 × 1–1.5 mm, acuminate, often reflexed at apex, abaxially with white cottony and glandular hairs. Ray florets yellow, ligules linear, ca. 10 × 1 mm; fine tubular florets female, ca. 4 mm, apically fine hairy; disc florets yellow, 5–6 mm, lobes glandular. Cypselas oblong, finely ribbed, appressed pubescent. Pappus white, scabrid bristles 5–6 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug.

* Rocky mountains, shady slopes, thickets, meadows; 3700–4100 m. Check distribution: S Qinghai (Chindu), Xizang.

2. Nannoglottis delavayi (Franchet) Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10(1): 97. 1965.

厚毛毛冠菊 hou mao mao guan ju

Stereosanthus delavayi Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 385. 1896.

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody. Stems erect, 35–80 cm tall, pubescent with white cottony and glandular hairs. Radical leaves cordate, 6–18 × 5–16 cm, abaxially densely with white cottony hairs, adaxially with arachnoid hairs or ± glabrescent, base attenuate into long petiole, margin shallowly dentate, teeth obtuse or acute, apex obtuse, middle above and upper cauline leaves undeveloped, sessile. Capitula 3–18, arranged in corymbiform-cymose inflorescences. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, lanceolate, subequal, abaxially with dense cottony hairs and glandular hairs. Ray florets yellow, ligules exceeding involucre, 9–14 × 1–1.3 mm; inner florets 1- or 2-seriate, filiform, 3–4 mm; disc florets yellow, lobes glandular at apex. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 3–4 mm, 8–10-ribbed, with appressed hairs. Pappus white, bristles 3–4 mm. Fl. Aug–Sep.

* Pinus or Quercus forests; 2900–3200 m. SW Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

3. Nannoglottis gynura (C. Winkler) Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10(1): 97. 1965.

狭舌毛冠菊 xia she mao guan ju

Senecio gynura C. Winkler, Acta Hort. Petrop. 14: 157. 1895; Stereosanthus gynura (C. Winkler) Handel-Mazzetti; S. hieraciifolius Diels; S. souliei Franchet; Nannoglottis souliei (Franchet) Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thickened, woody. Stems erect, 17–80 cm tall, pubescent with scattered glandular-stipitate hairs or almost glabrous. Lower leaves obovate or elliptic, 6–20 × 2.5–6 cm, obtuse or acute, base attenuate into narrowly winged short petiole, petiole 3–5 cm, margin irregularly dentate, above middle cauline leaves narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, abaxially with glandular stipitate hairs. Capitula (5–)10–27, arranged in paniculate-cymose inflorescences. Involucre 3–3.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, linear-lanceolate, unequal, outer ones shorter than inner, acuminate, densely with white long hairs. Ray florets yellow, ligules linear, 9–13 × 1.8–2.5 mm; filiform florets 1- or 2-seriate, yellow, ca. 4 mm, eligulate; disc florets numerous, tubular, sterile, 4–4.5 mm, lobes glandular at apex. Cypselas oblong, 5–6 mm, 8–10-ribbed, puberulent. Pappus white, scabrid bristles ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jul–Aug.

* Pinus forests, thickets, grasslands on slopes; 3500–4000 m. Qinghai, Sichuan, Xizang.

4. Nannoglottis hookeri (J. D. Hooker) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 31: 49–51. 1980.

虎克毛冠菊 hu ke mao guan ju

Doronicum hookeri Clarke ex J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 332. 1881.

Perennial herbs. rhizome woody. Stems 10–85 cm tall, erect, simple or branched only in inflorescences, often weakly lanate at first, glandular-stipitate above. Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 7–22 × 1–8 cm, lanate or glabrescent on both surfaces, base attenuate, decurrent on stem, sessile or lowest ones with winged petiole to ca. 10 cm, margin denticulate to sharply toothed, apex acute. Capitula 2–7, in corymbose-cymose inflorescences. Involucre ± hemispherical, 15–20 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, lanceolate, 10–15 × 1–4 mm, acuminate, sparsely arachnoid and glandular-stipitate. Ray florets ligulate yellow, tube 2.3–4.5 mm, puberulent above, ligule 8–13 × 1.7–3.3 mm; filiform florets 1- or 2-seriate, 2–3.5 mm, puberulent above; disc florets yellow, 4–4.5 mm, teeth puberulent outside. Cypselas oblong, 4–5 mm, appressed pubescent above. Pappus white or brownish, 4–5 mm, sterile cypselas ± glabrous. Fl. Jun–Aug.

Pinus forests, sometimes among shrubs; 3400–4100 m. S Xizang (Chumbi, Dotang, Yatung) [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Nepal].

5. Nannoglottis latisquama Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 98. 1965.

宽苞毛冠菊 kuan bao mao guan ju

Stereosanthus yunnanensis Franchet, J. Bot. (Morot) 10: 385. 1896.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thickened. Stems solitary, erect, simple, white thickly arachnoid hairy and glandular-stipitate, partly glabrescent later. Radical leaves ovate or lanceolate, 6–20 × 3–17 cm, base attenuate, decurrent on stem, in winged short petiole or subsessile, margin irregularly denticulate, apex obtuse or rounded, mucronulate, cauline leaves several, oblong, lanceolate, or ovate, apex obtuse or acute, upper leaves gradually diminished, white arachnoid-lanate on both surfaces. Capitula 2–14, arranged in corymbose-cymose inflorescences, very rarely solitary. Involucre hemispherical, 2.5–3.5 cm; phyllaries ca. 3-seriate, subequal, herbaceous, lanceolate, 13–18 × 2–5 mm, long acuminate, white arachnoid and densely glandular-stipitate. Ray florets ligulate, ligule yellow, linear, 9–15 × 3–4 mm, with 2–3 teeth at apex; inner female tubular florets 2- or 3-seriate, ca. 2 mm, style exceeding tube; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, sterile, ca. 5 mm, lobes glandular at apex. Cypselas of fertile female florets oblong, 4–45 mm, 10-ribbed, sterile ovary linear, glabrous. Pappus white or brownish yellow, scabrid bristles 4–5 mm. Fl. Jun–Sep.

* Pinus forests, thickets, grasslands; 3400–3900 m. S and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

6. Nannoglottis macrocarpa Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 99. 1965.

大果毛冠菊 da guo mao guan ju

Nannoglottis souliei (Franchet) Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen; Stereosanthus souliei Franchet.

Perennial herbs, rhizome ascending, woody, 1–2 cm in diam. Stems erect, 80–100 cm tall, with white lanate and squarrose multicellular hairs. Radical leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 6–25 × 3–11 cm, abaxially glandular-stipitate, long petiolate, margin dentate, apex obtuse, lower cauline leaves ovate or elliptical, 15–20 × 8–18 cm, sessile, apex obtuse, middle cauline leaves elliptical, up to 25, 8–10 cm, base decurrent into winged petiole, upper leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, base cordate-rotund and auriculate-amplexicaul, sessile, apex acuminate. Capitula 3–20, arranged in corymbiform-cymose inflorescences. Involucre hemispherical, 2–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or outer slightly longer, linear-lanceolate, 12 × 2–2.5 cm, with glandular-stipitate hairs. Ray florets ligulate, yellow, ligules 6–8 × 0.6–1.3 mm, abaxially glabrous; more inner female florets 1- or 2-seriate; fine tubular florets yellow; disc florets, 4–4.5 mm, yellow, lobes ca. 1.5 mm, with glandular hairs outside. Cypselas oblong, 6–7 mm, 10–12-ribbed, puberulent. Pappus white, scabrous bristles 4–5 mm. Fl. Jul–Aug.

Forests, grasslands; 3500–3700 m. Xizang (Chengdu, Bomi) [Nepal].

7. Nannoglottis carpesioides Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 27: 481. 1881.

毛冠菊 mao guan ju

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody. Stems erect, 60–100 cm tall, arachnoid-tomentose. Lower leaves dense, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 10–33 × 6–16 cm, abaxially scattered tomentose with glandular-stipitate hairs, attenuate at base, often decurrent on stem into winged petiole, petiole to 10 cm, margin coarsely dentate, apex acuminate, middle cauline leaves abaxially pubescent with glandular-stipitate and scattered cottony hairs, attenuate at base, margin dentate. Capitula ca. 2 cm in diam., often 3–12 arranged in loose racemose or corymbose inflorescences. Involucre hemispherical; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal or outer ones slightly longer. Ray florets female, ligulate, brownish, ligules oblong, 1.9–4 × 1.1–1.7 mm, abaxially scattered puberulent; more inner female florets eligulate, filiform-tubular, 1- or 2-seriate; disc florets tubular, with sterile yellowish teeth, glandular at apex. Cypselas oblong, 4.5–5 mm, 8–10-ribbed, hairy. Pappus dirty white, of disc florets few, shorter. Fl. Jun–Jul.

* Forests on slopes; 2000–3400 m. Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi.

8. Nannoglottis hieraciphylla (Handel-Mazzetti) Y. Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 101. 1965.

玉龙毛冠菊 yu long mao guan ju

Vierhapperia hieraciphylla Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 627. 1937.

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, Stems erect, 38–90 cm tall. Radical leaves ovate or oblong, 12–22 × 3.8–9 cm, abaxially with glandular-stipitate hairs, attenuate at base into winged short petiole, margin dentate, middle cauline leaves abaxially pubescent with glandular-stipitate hairs, base abruptly narrowed into broadly winged short petiole, margin denticulate. Capitula 2–7 arranged in racemose or corymbiform-cymose inflorescences; phyllaries 2–4-seriate, subequal, linear-lanceolate. Ray florets ligulate, purplish reddish, ligules 0.6–4 × 0.4–1.2 mm; inner florets female, filiform, 1-seriate, sometimes unstable; disc florets numerous, sterile, yellowish, 4–5 mm, lobes glandular at apex. Cypselas oblong, 8–10-ribbed, pilose. Pappus white, few, scabrous bristles 3–4 mm. Fl. Jun–Jul.

* Picea forests or thickets; 3400–3800 m. NW Yunnan (Lijiang, Zhongdian).

9. Nannoglottis yunnanensis (Handel-Mazzetti) Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1116. 1936.

云南毛冠菊 yun nan mao guan ju

Nannoglottis carpesioides Maximowicz var. yunnanensis Handel-Mazzetti, Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 57: 175. 1920.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thickened, woody, 55–200 cm tall. Stems erect, solitary, 3–7 mm in diam., pubescent with white crisped multicellular long hairs below, densely with glandular-stipitate and scattered multicellular long hairs in upper part. Radical leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, cordate, with long winged petiole, lower cauline leaves broadly ovate, ovate, or subelliptic, 9–25 × 4.5–15 cm, abaxially arachnoid pubescent, adaxially with scabrous short hairs to subglabrous, base broadly cuneate, truncate, or slightly cordate, decurrent, petiole 6–16 cm, broadly winged and decurrent on stem, margin irregularly dentate, apex obtuse, rotund, or acute, mucronulate, upper leaves gradually diminished, uppermost leaves sessile. Capitula 2–2.5 cm in diam., 3–10 arranged in corymbiform-cymose inflorescences. Involucre hemispheric. 2–2.5 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, subequal, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1–1.3 × 0.5–0.2 cm, acuminate, abaxially densely with glandular-stipitate hairs, margin arachnoid-ciliate, inner ones with narrow margins. Florets exceeding involucre, female florets 2- or 3-seriate, outer ones ligulate, ligules linear-lanceolate ca. 3 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm; inner florets finely tubular, 1.5–2 mm eligulate, truncate at apex; disc florets bisexual, numerous, sterile, yellowish, 4–5 mm, deeply lobate, lobes glandular, anthers and style exceeding disc corollas. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 3–4 mm, 8–10-ribbed, with white short hairs, ovary of disc florets 1.5–2 mm, glabrous or scattered nicosa [= typo for what??] above. Pappus white, of female florets simple, scabrid-pilose, 3–4 mm, those of disc florets few and unequal. Fl. Jun–Jul.

* Picea forests; 2900–4000 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan (Zhongdian).

35. PSYCHROGETON Bossier, Fl. Orient. 3: 156. 1875.

寒蓬属 han peng shu

Erigeron subg. Conyzastrum (Bossier) Botschantzev; E. subg. Pseudoconyzastrum K. H. Rechinger; E. subg. Psychrogeton (Bossier) Popov.

Perennial herbs, more rarely biennial, rhizome usually thickly woody, surrounded with a mass of leaf remains, sometimes thin, ± woody, noncaespitose. Stems dwarf or to ca. 60 cm tall, scapose or subscapose. Leaves alternate, basal leaves green or grayish white tomentose, often glandular, lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate, or rotund, petiolate or subpetiolate, margin entire, dentate, or sometimes subpinnatifid, cauline leaves entire or dentate. Capitula solitary or few, rarely racemose or corymbose. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate or ± equal in size, outer ones herbaceous, inner ones scarious margined. Ray florets tubular or ligulate, many, basal tubes 3–4 mm, ligules white, yellow or reddish, exceeding or shorter than their style, entire or 2- or 3-lobed; disc florets hermaphrodite, few (8–10) or numerous, similar in color to ray, as long as pappus; style of female flowers linear, those of disc florets lanceolate, without appendages. Cypselas 2–5 mm, those of ray florets obovate or oblanceolate, those of disc florets linear. Pappus simple or, especially on sterile cypselas, with a few outer bristles.

About 20 species: C and W Asia; two species in China.

1a.       Perennial herbs; stems 3–19 cm tall, simple, sparsely or densely lanate tomentose; capitula solitary, 1.5–2.4 cm in diam.; female florets ligulate, ligules golden yellow ...............................  1. P. poncinsii

1b.       Annual or biennial herbs; stems to 55 cm tall, branched, densely pilose, or densely and almost canescent pilose, with subsessile glands; capitula numerous, 0.7–1 cm in diam., corymbose-paniculate; female florets finely tubular, colorless
                                                                                                                                             2. P. nigromontanus

1. Psychrogeton poncinsii (Franchet) Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 427. 1973.

藏寒蓬 zang han peng

Aster poncinsii Franchet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 11, 7: 345. 1896; Erigeron andryaloides (Candolle) Bentham ex J. D. Hooker; E. poncinsii (Franchet) Botschantzev; Psychrogeton andryaloides Novopokrovsky ex Krascheninnikov var. poncisii (Franchet) Grierson.

Perennial herbs, rhizome thickly woody, branched. Stems erect or obliquely ascending, 3–19 cm tall, simple, stems, leaves and phyllaries sparsely or densely lanate tomentose, or sometimes mixed with stipitate glandular hairs. Basal leaves petiolate, oblanceolate or obovate, 1–6 × 0.3–1 cm, margin serrate or slightly repand, rarely entire, apex acute or obtuse, cauline leaves few (3–5), oblanceolate or linear, sessile or shortly petiolate. Capitula solitary, 1.5–2.4 cm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, green or gray-green, acute, with membranous margins, outer ones abaxially densely white tomentose or sparsely tomentose, inner ones 6.5–8 × ca. 1 mm, slightly shorter than pappus. Female ray florets longer than pappus, tube 5–6 mm, sparsely puberulent at middle, ligules golden yellow, become reddish or purplish after anthesis, obovate, 2.5–3.5 × 0.7–1.2 mm, 3-denticulate at apex; disc florets similar to ray florets in colors, 3.5–5 mm, with appressed puberulence. Pappus double, white, simple, 2.6–4 mm, those of disc florets linear.

Valleys; 3000–4100 m. Xinjiang, W Xizang [C Asia, Afghanistan, India, Russia; SW Asia (Iran)].

2. Psychrogeton nigromontanus (Bossier & Buhse) Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 27: 144. 1967.

黑山寒蓬 hei shan han peng

Erigeron nigromontanus Bossier & Buhse, Non. Mem. Soc. Mosc. 12: 114. 1860; Brachyactis iliensis Ruprecht; Conyza iliensis Trautvetter; E. kazachstanicus Sergievskaja.

Erect annual or biennial herbs, roots vertical or ascending. Stems 1–55 cm tall or more, grayish, striate, paniculately branched above, entire surface densely pilose, or densely and almost canescent pilose, with subsessile glands, densely leafy. Leaves densely canescent pilose, mixed with subsessile glands, radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower cauline leaves obovate to oblanceolate, ca. 8 × 2.5 cm, base gradually narrowed into long petiole, margin entire or shallowly dentate, apex acute, middle cauline leaves oblanceolate, ca. 3 × 0.75 cm, margin entire or with 1–2 teeth per side, upper leaves on branches smaller. Capitula small, 0.7–1.0 cm wide, usually numerous, arranged in corymbose-paniculate inflorescences; peduncles fine, 0.5–1 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries green, subequal, 2- or 3-seriate, ca. 4 × 0.5 mm, margins scarious, abaxially densely pilose and glandular in center, apex acuminate. Female florets numerous, corollas tubular, 1.75–2 mm, puberulent, limb ± obliquely cut; disc florets 6–12, bisexual, ca. 3.5 mm, lobes ovate-lanceolate, pilose at tips, fertile. Cypselas oblanceolate, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, sparsely pilose and glandular. Pappus simple, 20–24 bristles, 3–4.5 mm, finely scabrous. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Subalpine meadows; 1200–1500 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia; SW Asia (Caucasus, Iran, Iraq, Turkey)].

36. ERIGERON Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753.

飞蓬属 fei peng shu

Stenactis Cassini; Phalachroloma Cassini.

Perennial herbs, rarely annual or biennial, or subshrubs. Leaves alternate, entire or serrate. Capitula radiate, solitary or several, rarely numerous, racemose, corymbose, or paniculate. Involucre hemispheric or campanulate; phyllaries many-seriate, thin or herbaceous, margin and apex scarious, with reddish brown midvein, narrow and long, usually 0.45–0.6(–1.6) mm wide, subequal, sometimes outer ones shorter and somewhat imbricate, overtopping or shorter than disc. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, foveolate. Androgynous florets numerous, heterochromous; pistillate florets multi-seriate, ligulate or inner series eligulate, ligules narrow and small, usually less or slightly over ca. 10 mm, less than ca. 1 mm wide, rarely somewhat broad, purple, blue, or white, rarely yellow, numerous (usually over 100), sometimes rather few; disc florets bisexual, tubular to funnel-shaped, less than ca. 1 mm in diam., with 5-lobes. Anthers linear-oblong, obtuse at base, with ovate-lanceolate appendage at apex; style arm appendages short, 0.15–0.25 mm, broadly triangular, obtuse or arcuate. Flowers entire, fertile. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, flattened, often marginal-nerved, ± multi-nerved, sparsely or densely pilose. Pappus usually double, homomorphic or heteromorphic, often with fine fragile bristles, free or somewhat jointed at base, outer series very short, membranous, equal, sometimes bristles of pistillate florets entirely substituted by short coronet of membranes (species of sect. Phalocroloma).

More than 200 species: Asia, Europe, North America, a few in Africa and Australia; 35 species (13 endemic) in China.

Key to subgenera

1a.       Capitula with bimorphic florets ...........................................................  1. E. subg. Erigeron

1b.       Capitula with trimorphic florets ........................................................  2. E. subg. Trimorpha

1. Erigeron subg. Erigeron

飞蓬亚属 fei peng ya shu

Perennial herbs, rarely annual or biennial herbs or subshrubs. Capitula with florets of 2 types, usually heterochromous, marginal pistillate ligulate florets lilac, violet sometimes orange or white, patent or involute in tube, or sometimes short and small; disc florets tubular, yellow, lobes orange or violet.

About ?? species: Asia, Europe, and North America; 27 species (12 endemic; one introduced) in China.

Key to sections

1a.       Pappus of pistillate and hermaphrodite florets homomorphic, double, outer series very short, inner series bristled; ray florets 2- or 3-seriate, ligules usually broader, patent, or fine and narrow, not spreading; perennial herbs, rarely biennial or subshrubs ........................................  1. E. sect. Erigeron

1b.       Pappus heteromorphic, very short in pistillate florets, membranous-scaly jointed in a ring-coronet, double in hermaphrodite florets, outer ones short scaly, inner ones with 10–15 bristles; ray florets 2-seriate, ligules flat and patent; annual or biennial herbs ............................................  2. E. sect. Phalacroloma

1. Erigeron sect. Erigeron

飞蓬组 fei peng zu

Perennial herbs, rarely biennial or subshrubs. Pistillate florets 2- or 3-seriate, ligules patent or involute in tube, violet, blue, reddish, white, or sometimes orange. Pappus of pistillate and hermaphrodite florets homomorphic, double, outer series very short, inner ones bristled.

About ?? species: Asia, Europe; 26 species (12 endemic) in China.

1a.       Ligules broader, flat and patent when dry, anthers and style arms exserted from corolla.

2a.       Phyllaries distinctly overtopping disc; ligules purple or sometimes white, lobes of disc florets yellow.

3a.       Capitula small, less than ca. 2.5 cm in diam.; lower and middle leaf margins sharply serrate above middle                                                                                                        13. E. kiukiangensis

3b.       Capitula larger, 2.5–4 cm in diam.; lower and middle leaf margins entire or sparsely dentate.

4a.       Phyllaries with dense capitate stalked glands and scattered multicellular long hairs at base; capitula 2.5–3 cm in diam.  .......................................................................  12. E. leucoglossus

4b.       Phyllaries sparsely villous, only apically with densely stipitate glandular hairs; capitula 3–4 cm in diam.  ..................................................................................................  11. E. multiradiatus

2b.       Phyllaries as long as disc or slightly longer; ligules blue, purple, reddish, white, or sometimes orange, lobes of disc florets yellow or purple.

5a.       Plants fine and slender, densely leafy at base  ...................................  10. E. breviscapus

5b.       Plants thick, leaves scattered from base to upper part.

6a.       Ray florets orange ..........................................................................  5. E. aurantiacus

6b.       Ray florets purple, blue, or white.

7a.       Capitula less than 2.5 cm in diam.

8a.       Phyllaries dark green, often shorter or almost a long as disc, densely covered with stipitate glandular hairs and sparsely villous  ..............................................................  1. E. leioreades

8b.       Phyllaries green, purple at apex, often longer than disc, rarely almost as long as disc, densely covered with crisped villous hairs  .................................................  9. E. taipeiensis

7b.       Capitula longer, to 4 cm in diam.

9a.       Ligules blue ....................................................................................  4. E. vicarious

9b.       Ligules purplish or reddish.

10a.     Lobes of hermaphrodite florets purplish.

11a.     Capitula solitary, 2.5–4 cm in diam.; ray florets 8–14 × 0.8–1.5 mm
                                                                                                  7. E. komarovii

11b.     Capitula usually several (2–6), in corymbs, rarely solitary, 1.5–2 cm in diam.; ray florets 6–7 × ca. 0.5 mm  .......................................................................  8. E. morrisonensis

10b.     Lobes of hermaphrodite florets yellow.

12a.     Phyllaries covered with crisped villous hairs but glandular hairs absent
                                                                                                  6. E. allochrous

12b.     Phyllaries with stipitate glandular hairs, mixed with villous hairs.

13a.     Ray florets 6.5–8(–13) mm; phyllaries rather densely villous and mixed with ± distinctly glandular hairs  ..............................................................  2. E. seravschanicus

13b.     Ray florets 10–12 mm; phyllaries densely with stipitate glandular hairs and sparsely villous    3. E. altaicus

1b.       Ligules fine and narrow, not patent, often involute into tube when dry.

14a.     Corolla of disc florets cylindrical, subcylindrical, or obconical; anthers and style arms not exserted from corolla of hermaphrodite florets.

15a.     Phyllaries longer than disc, outer series usually 1/2 as long as inner.

16a.     Stems sparsely pubescent with scattered squarrose long multicellular hairs; cypselas ca. 0.3 mm wide, sparsely pilose  ..........................................................................  25. E. lonchophyllus

16b.     Stems densely pubescent with numerous strict, rather long, straight hairs, and with short appressed hairs above; cypselas ca. 0.6 mm wide, densely villous .........................  26. E. oreades

15b.     Phyllaries usually longer or as long as disc, outer series rather short or as long as inner.

17a.     Corolla of hermaphrodite florets narrowly conical; phyllaries often green, purplish at apex  22. E. petiolaris

17b.     Corolla of hermaphrodite florets cylindrical or subcylindrical, abruptly narrowed into fine tube; phyllaries dark purple or purplish, rarely green.

18a.     Phyllaries appressed, dark purple, purple at apex, densely with dark articulate crisped villous hairs                                                                                                          23. E. eriocalyx

18b.     Phyllaries rather loose, green or purple and ± reflexed at apex, with yellow cottony long hairs  24. E. lachnocephalus

14b.     Corolla of disc florets narrowly funnel-shaped; anthers and style arms often exserted from corolla of hermaphrodite florets.

19a.     Phyllaries shorter than disc; capitula smaller; ray florets 0.5–0.8 cm.

20a.     Plants 25–50 cm tall; leaves linear-oblong, obtuse or rotund at apex, eglandular hairs on both surfaces  ....................................................................................................  19. E. himalajensis

20b.     Plants dwarf, less than ca. 25 cm tall; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, acute at apex, glandular hairs on both surfaces.

21a.     Stems green, ca. 25 cm tall; cauline leaves numerous, linear; phyllaries green, densely with glandular hairs  ...........................................................................................  20. E. tenuicaulis

21b.     Stems purple, only ca. 7 cm tall, cauline leaves few, linear-lanceolate; phyllaries purple, sparsely with glandular hairs at base only  ......................................................  21. E. purpurascens

19b.     Phyllaries longer than or as long as disc; capitula larger; ray florets 0.8–1 cm.

22a.     Phyllaries rather densely villous, mixed with appressed short hairs, outer ones often patent and reflexed at apex; ray florets purplish, lobes of disc florets puberulent .....  14. E. patentisquamus

22b.     Phyllaries densely villous but without glandular hairs, outer ones not patent; ray florets white or purplish, lobes of disc florets glabrous or puberulent only at base.

23a.     Cauline leaves few, often conferted at base of stems, upward gradually diminished, unequal, stems sparsely villous or almost glabrous
                                                                                                  18. E. kunshanensis

23b.     Cauline leaves numerous, usually gradually dilated upward, almost equal, stems with densely villous and appressed short hairs.

24a.     Ray florets white; phyllaries green, with sparsely or rather densely villous and sparsely appressed short hairs; lobes of disc florets glabrous
..................................................................................................  15. E. multifolius

24b.     Ray florets purple; phyllaries purple, with pallid yellow long articulate hairs or with purple articulate lanate hairs; lobes of disc florets glabrous or puberulent.

25a.     Upper cauline and uppermost leaves and phyllaries with densely pallid yellow long articulate hairs, cauline leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; lobes of disc florets glabrous   16. E. porphyrolepis

25b.     Upper cauline and uppermost leaves and phyllaries with purple articulate lanate hairs, cauline leaves elliptic-ovate; lobes of disc florets puberulent ...............  17. E. lanuginosus

1. Erigeron leioreades Popov, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8: 52. 1940.

光山飞蓬 guang shan fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome slender. Stems usually several, erect, 10–37 cm tall, green or reddish, branched or rarely unbranched, pubescent with scattered, not very long, squarrose multicellular hairs, with, especially in upper parts, rather numerous short appressed hairs and capitate glands on short stalks, densely leafy. Radical leaves often withered or present at anthesis, petiolate, oblanceolate, 0.7–8 × 0.3–1.2 cm, squarrose multicellular hairs on both surfaces, or shorter scattered appressed hairs adaxially only, attenuate at base into long petiole, petiole pubescent, margin entire, pubescent, with rather long cilia, apex obtuse or arcuate, middle cauline leaves lanceolate, sessile, 0.7–4.5 × 0.1–0.5 cm, acute, upper ones smaller, with capitate glands on stalks. Capitula 1–6 in corymbs, 18–25 mm in diam. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries often shorter than disc florets or almost as long as them, linear-lanceolate, 5.5–6 × 0.5–0.7 mm, acute, outer ones rather shorter, dark cork-colored, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs and rather plentiful capitate glands on stalks. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 7–9 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, upper part of tube pubescent with single appressed short hairs, ligules lilac, with 2 small teeth at tip, ca. 0.4 mm; disc florets bisexual, tube yellow, 3.5–4 mm, upper half of tube pubescent with appressed short hairs, but teeth glabrous. Anthers and style arms exserted from corolla. Cypselas oblanceolate, 2–3 × ca. 0.6 mm, flattened, pubescent with plentiful subappressed short hairs. Pappus ca. 4.5–5 mm, bristles of outer series short. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Picea forests, alpine meadows; 2100–3400 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia (W Siberia)].

2. Erigeron seravschanicus Popov, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 10. 1948.

泽山飞蓬 ze shan fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome rather slender. Stems usually several, rarely solitary, 4–30 cm tall, erect, green or purplish in lower part, almost always branched, rarely unbranched, pubescent, with rather long squarrose multicellular hairs, scattered in lower part of stem and on lower leaves and plentiful in upper part of stem, mixed with capitate glands on stalks, loosely leafy. Radical leaves petiolate, withered at anthesis, oblanceolate, 1.2–8 × 0.25–1 cm, glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces, attenuate at base into long petiole, petiole and margin with rather long multicellular hairs, apex acute, lower leaves oblanceolate, shortly petiolate, middle and upper leaves sessile, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.5–6.5 × 0.1–0.6 cm, acute. Capitula 2–14 in corymbs, sometimes solitary, 9–16 × 18–33 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries green, linear-lanceolate, 5.5–9 × 0.5–1 mm, acute, outer ones slightly shorter, pubescent, with rather plentiful multicellular hairs, and mixed with capitate glands on stalks. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 6.5–8(–13) mm, tube 1.5–2.5 mm, tube apex pubescent with scattered short hairs, ligules ± flat, with 2 denticles at apex, lilac; disc florets tubular, bisexual, yellow, 4.5–5 mm, lobes glabrous. Anthers and style arms exserted from corolla. Cypselas oblanceolate, 2.2–2.5 mm, with short subappressed rigid hairs. Pappus 4.3–5 mm, bristles of outer ones very short. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Subalpine meadows; ca. 2600 m. C Xinjiang [C Asia].

3. Erigeron altaicus Popov, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8: 53. 1940.

阿尔泰飞蓬 a er tai fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome erect or ascending. Stems usually several, or sometimes solitary, 15–50 cm tall, erect, green or reddish, branched or rarely unbranched, pubescent all over with sparse long squarrose multicellular hairs, leaves and phyllaries, especially on upper part of stem, with plentiful capitate glands on stalks, sometimes subglabrous in lower part. Leaves green, entire, radical leaves rosulate, often withered at anthesis, oblanceolate or spatulate, 2–16 × 0.4–1.2 cm, with short acumen on orbicular apex, long petioles, cauline leaves 0.3–1.3 × 0.5–1 cm, lower leaves petiolate, oblanceolate, upper leaves sessile, lanceolate, acute. Capitula 2–5 in corymbs, or sometimes solitary, ca. 1.2 × 2.1–3.7 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, linear-lanceolate, 6–9 × 0.5–0.75 mm, acute, pubescent with scattered multicellular hairs and plentiful capitate stalked glands. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 10–12 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, pubescent on upper part of tube with short appressed hairs, ligules flat, lilac, 0.5–1.2 mm wide, with 2 denticles at apex; disc florets bisexual, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, tube 1–1.5 mm, pubescent on upper half with rather numerous appressed hairs, but with glabrous teeth. Anthers and style arms emerging from corolla. Cypselas linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm, flattened, ± pubescent with subappressed short hairs. Pappus double, inner bristles 3.5–4 mm, outer ones very short. Fl. Jun–Aug.

Subalpine meadows, grasslands; ca. 2500 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia (Siberia)].

4. Erigeron vicarious Botschantzev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 18: 260. 1957.

蓝舌飞蓬 lan she fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, branching. Stems several 25–28 cm tall, 1–3 mm in diam. at base, not branched, straight or ascending, plants, as well as leaves, pubescent with plentiful long squarrose soft multicellular hairs, usually mixed with capitate stalked glands. Leaves green entire, radical leaves petiolate, linear-lanceolate, 2–9 × 0.1–1.1 cm, acute, cauline leaves 3–12 in number, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, sessile, acute, or lowermost ones shortly petiolate, 0.7–6 × 0.1–0.6 cm. Capitula solitary, 1.4–1.8 × 2.1–3.8 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, almost of same length, linear-lanceolate, green, or reddish at tip. 7–9 × 1–1.8 mm, pubescent with very dense long, to 4.5 mm, soft intricate multicellular hairs. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 10–15 mm, tube 2.3–3.5 mm, pubescent on upper half with short appressed hairs, ligules 1–1.5 mm wide, blue, straight, flat, linear, acuminate; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, upper part of tube pubescent with very short hairs. Cypselas oblanceolate 2.5–3 × 0.5–0.6 mm, flattened, with appressed rigid hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles short, inner ones 4–4.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Alpine meadows, stony slopes; 2800–4500 m. Xinjiang [C Asia].

5. Erigeron aurantiacus Regel, Gartenfl. 289. 1879.

橙花飞蓬 cheng hua fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, branching. Stems several, straight, 5–35 cm tall or more, erect or slightly curved, not branching or very rarely branched, green or violet-colored below, rather plentifully pubescent with ± long squarrose multicellular hairs and, especially in upper part, short appressed hairs. Leaves scattered, entire, both surfaces and margin pubescent with rather plentiful or scattered long squarrose rigid multicellular hairs, radical leaves conferted, rosulate, present at anthesis, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, sometimes obovate, 1–16 × 0.4–1.6 cm, long petiolate, apex acute or obtuse, cauline leaves rather numerous, 7–17, semiamplexicaul, apex acute, lower leaves lanceolate with rather long broad petioles, middle and upper leaves lanceolate, sessile, 0.7–15 × 1.5–1.7 cm. Capitula 13–15 × 23–35(–42) mm, solitary. Involucre hemispheric, 7–9 × 15–22 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, almost equal and somewhat exceeding disc florets, linear-lanceolate, 7–9 × ca. 1 mm, acute or acuminate, densely pubescent with squarrose rigid rather long multicellular hairs. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, ca. 7.8 × 12 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm with sparse appressed hairs, ligules flat, yellow to brick-red, more often orange-colored, 1–1.4 mm wide, with 2–3 small denticles at apex; disc florets tubular, 4–5.5 mm, pubescent with sparse appressed hairs in upper half of tube, lobes glabrous. Anthers and style arms exserted from corolla. Cypselas linear-lanceolate, flattened, with ± short appressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles short, inner ones 3.5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Forest margins, alpine meadows; 2100–3400 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia].

6. Erigeron allochrous Botschantzev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 18: 259. 1957.

异色飞蓬 yi se fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, branching. Stems more often several, erect, simple, 7–28 cm tall, 1–3 mm in diam. at base, pubescent with rather long squarrose rigid multicellular hairs, denser in upper part, with long hairs, also mixed with short appressed hairs, rather densely leafy. Leaves petiolate, pubescent with rather long rigid squarrose multicellular hairs on petiole, along margins, and along nerves abaxially or sometimes on both surfaces, margins entire, radical leaves rather dense, present at anthesis, obovate or oblanceolate, 1.2–12 × 0.3–1.4 cm, apex obtuse or acute, lower leaves shortly petiolate, oblanceolate, middle and upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, sessile, 0.8–7 × 0.1–0.8 cm, apex acute or acuminate. Capitula solitary, 1.1–1.8 × 2.4–4 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries, green or purplish at tip, linear-lanceolate, acute, often exceeding disc florets, 6.5–8 × 0.7–1 mm, outer ones slightly shorter than inner ones, densely pubescent with rigid squarrose rather long multicellular hairs. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, 9–13 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, pubescent with sparse hairs in upper part, ligules flat, lilac-colored, linear, ca. 1.3 mm wide, usually with 2 teeth at apex; disc florets yellow, bisexual, tubular, 3.5–4.5 mm, pubescent with sparse appressed hairs in middle part. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner 2.5–5 mm. Fl. Jun–Sep.

Abies forests, subalpine meadows; ca. 2800 m. N Xinjiang (Urumuqi) [C Asia].

7. Erigeron komarovii Botschantzev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 16: 321. 1954.

山飞蓬 shan fei peng

Aster consanguineus Ledebour; A. dubius Onno subsp. glabratus Kitamura; Erigeron alpicola Makino; E. consanguineus Kitamura; E. dubius Makino var. apicola Makino; E. thunbergi A. Gray var. glabratum A. Gray.

Perennial herbs, rhizomes short, branching. Stems several, 10–35 cm tall, erect, simple, green, striate, 1–2.5 mm in diam. at base, pubescent with scattered rather long multicellular hairs, rather dense in upper part of stems, mixed with capitate glands, sometimes almost glabrous. Radical leaves conferted, rosulate, obovate, spatulate, or oblanceolate, 2–10 × 0.3–1.6 cm, both surfaces and margin pubescent with scattered rather long multicellular hairs, sometimes subglabrous, conspicuously 3-nerved, attenuate at base and narrowed into winged long petiole, margin entire or sometimes sparsely mucronate, apex obtuse, lower leaves oblanceolate, shortly petiolate, apex acute, upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1–4 × 0.1–0.9 cm, sessile, apex acute. Capitula 0.9–1.7 × 2–4 cm, solitary. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, 6–10 × 0.8–1.6 mm, outer ones somewhat shorter than inner ones. Marginal florets female, arranged on 2 discs, ligulate, 8–14 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, pubescent with scattered appressed hairs, ligules flat, lilac-colored, rarely white, 1–2 mm wide, linear, with 3 denticles at apex; disc florets yellow, bisexual, tubular, 3–4.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, pubescent with scattered appressed hairs on middle part of tube. Cypselas oblanceolate, flattened, pubescent with rather dense appressed hairs. Pappus double, dirty white, outer bristles very short, inner ones 2.5–4.7 mm Fl. Jul–Sep.

Alpine lawns or forest margins, along riverbanks; 1700–2600 m. Jilin (Changbai Shan) [Russia (Kamchatka, E Siberia)].

8. Erigeron morrisonensis Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 126. 1908.

玉山飞蓬 yu shan fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, ascending. Stems several-fascicled, 6–10 cm tall, or more, erect, striate pubescent with puberulence mixed with scattered fine rigid hairs, 0.8–1.5 mm in diam. at base, simple or sparsely branched above middle; branchlets slender, ascending. Basal leaves persistent during flowering, rosulate, linear-spatulate or spatulate, 2–6 × 0.2–0.7 cm, both surfaces near margin with rigid short hairs or glabrescent, base attenuate, margin sparsely mucronulate or entire, apex obtuse; cauline leaves linear or oblong-lanceolate, 1–3(–5) × 0.15–5 mm, with scattered rigid short hairs on both surfaces or almost glabrous, base dilated, margin entire, apex obtuse or acuminate, upper leaves gradually diminished, uppermost leaves ca. 5 mm. Capitula few, usually 1–6, at apex of stems and branches, 15–20 mm in diam., long pedunculate. Involucre hemispheric, 5–7 × 11–15 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, slightly exceeding disc florets, acuminate, pubescent with dense rigid long hairs, outer ones shorter. Marginal florets female, 3-seriate, ligulate, lilac-colored, 6–7 × ca. 0.5 mm, tube puberulent; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, ca. 3.5 mm, with 5 short teeth at apex. Cypselas oblong, flattened, ca. 2 mm, with scabrous short hairs. Pappus dirty white, or pubescent, outer bristles short, inner ones ca. 3.5 mm. Fl. Jul.

* Alpine grasslands. Taiwan.

9. Erigeron taipeiensis Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 406. 1973.

太白飞蓬 tai bai fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome vertical, ascending, branching. Stems several or solitary, erect, 20–35 cm tall, 1–2.5 mm in diam. at base, simple, green, striate, pubescent with scattered multicellular long soft hairs and mixed with capitate glands on stalks. Leaves green, radical leaves dense, rosulate, conspicuously 3-nerved, margin entire or with 1–2 fine teeth, lower leaves oblanceolate, shortly petiolate, middle and upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 0.8–5 × 0.3–1.4 cm, sessile, both surfaces and margins pubescent with scattered long hairs and appressed short hairs, margin entire, apex acute or acuminate, uppermost leaves pubescent with rather dense soft long hairs at apex and on margins. Capitula solitary, 1–1.3 × 2–2.5 cm. Involucre hemispheric, 7–10 × 15–20 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, apex and midvein purplish, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent with dense and intricate multicellular long hairs, outer ones shorter, inner ones exceeding disc florets or as long as them, ca. 0.5 mm wide, 1-nerved. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, 7–8.5 mm, tube ca. 3 mm, with scattered fine hairs in upper part, ligules flat, lilac-colored, ca. 0.4 mm wide, entire; disc florets bisexual, tubular yellow, ca. 5 mm, with scattered fine hairs in upper part of tube. Cypselas narrowly oblong, flattened, 2–2.2 × 0.3–0.4 mm, with densely subappressed short hairs. Pappus double, dirty white, outer bristles very short, inner 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul.

* Alpine meadows; ca. 3200 m. S Shaanxi (Taipei Shan).

10. Erigeron breviscapus (Vaniot) Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1093. 1936.

短葶飞蓬 duan ting fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, thick or tortuous, ascending or procumbent, branching or simple. Stems several or solitary, 5–50 cm tall, or less than 1 cm, 1–1.5 mm in diam. at base, erect or somewhat curved at base, green or rarely purplish, simple or sometimes with few (2–4) branches, pubescent with scattered or rather dense rigid short hairs, mixed with capitate stalked glands and appressed short hairs. Leaves mainly conferted at base, radical leaves rosulate, present at anthesis, obovate-lanceolate or broadly spatulate, 1.5–4 × 0.5–2.5 cm, pubescent with dense or scattered rigid short hairs on both surfaces and mixed with inconspicuously glandular hairs, more rarely subglabrous, 3-nerved, gradually or abruptly narrowed into winged petiole, margin entire, apex obtuse or rotund, mucronulate, cauline leaves few (2–4, rarely absent), sessile, narrowly oblong-lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 1–4 × 0.5–1 cm, semiamplexicaul at base, apex obtuse or arcuate, upper leaves gradually diminished, linear. Capitula 2–2.8 cm in diam., solitary at apex of stems or branches. Involucre hemispheric, 0.5–0.8 × 1–1.5 cm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 1 mm, acute, exceeding disc florets or as long as them, green or purplish-reddish at apex, outer ones shorter, abaxially pubescent with dense or sparse rigid short hairs, mixed with rather dense appressed hairs and capitate glands on stalks, inner ones with rather dense appressed hairs and capitate glands on stalks, narrowly membranous margins, almost glabrous. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, 10–12 × 0.8–1 mm, ligules flat and patent, blue or pinkish purple, or white, tube 2–2.5 mm, sparsely puberulent in upper part of tube; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.5–4 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, sparsely puberulent in middle part, lobes glabrous. Anthers exceeding corolla. Cypselas narrowly oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, flattened, often 1-ribbed on abaxial surface, with dense short hair. Pappus double, brownish, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 4 mm. Fl. Mar–Oct.

* Mid-altitude mountains, subalpine open slopes, grasslands, forest margins; 1200–3600 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan.

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing). See Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 409. 1973 (diagnoses are completely different from those here).

10a. Erigeron breviscapus var. breviscapus

短葶飞蓬(原变种) duan ting fei peng (yuan bian zhong)

Aster breviscapus Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 12: 495. 1903; Erigeron bellidioides Grisebach var. integrifolius Franchet ex H. Léveillé; E. dielsii H. Léveillé; E. praecox Vierhapper & Handel-Mazzetti.

Phyllaries green or purplish-reddish at apex. Ligules blue or pinkish purple.

* Mid-altitude mountains, subalpine open slopes, grasslands, forest margins; 1200–3500 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, E Xizang, Yunnan.

10b. Erigeron breviscapus var. tibeticus Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 409. 1973.

西藏变种 xi zang

Plants very short. Stems less than 1 cm. Leaves entire, conferted at base, pubescent with dense rigid short hairs and glandular hairs.

* About 3600 m. S Xizang (Qüxü).

10c. Erigeron breviscapus var. alboradiatus Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 409. 1973.

白舌短葶飞蓬 bai she duan ting fei peng

Stems more slender. Phyllaries purplish at apex. Ligules white.

* EC Yunnan (Songming).

11. Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindley ex Candolle) Bentham, Gen. Pl. 2: 281. 1873.

多舌飞蓬 duo she fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, 3–6 mm in diam., ascending or procumbent. Stems several or solitary, 20–60 cm tall, 2–4 mm in diam. at base, erect, branched or sometimes unbranched, purplish at base, pubescent with rather scattered, or rather dense, rigid short hairs, mixed with appressed short hairs and capitate glands on stalks. Radical leaves conferted, rosulate, often withered at anthesis, oblong-oblanceolate or oblanceolate, 5–15 × 0.7–1.5 cm, covered with scattered rigid short hairs and capitate stalked glands, 3–5-nerved, attenuate at base into long petiole, margin entire or with few teeth, apex acute or slightly obtuse, lower leaves identical to radical leaves, shortly petiolate, middle leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, or rarely narrowly lanceolate, 4–6 × 0.6–2 cm, base dilated, semiamplexicaul, margin entire or sparsely dentate, apex acute or acuminate, upper leaves sessile, very small, linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–2 cm, apex acuminate. Capitula 3–4 cm in diam., or more, usually 2 to several arranged in corymbose inflorescences, or solitary. Involucre hemispheric, 8–10 × 15–20 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, distinctly exceeding disc, linear-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm wide, acuminate, green, apex or entire surface purplish, outer ones shorter, pubescent with squarrose multicellular long hairs and dense capitate stalked glands. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2 × as long as involucre, ligules flat and patent, lilac-colored, 14–17 × 0.6–1 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, sparsely puberulent in upper part, entire at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, tube 1–1.5 mm, sparsely puberulent above, lobes glabrous. Anthers exceeding disc corollas. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 mm, flattened, 1-ribbed abaxially, sparsely pilose. Pappus double, dirty white or brownish, outer bristles very short, inner ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Alpine and subalpine meadows, slopes, forest margins; 2500–4600 m. Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Nepal].

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing).

11a. Erigeron multiradiatus var. multiradiatus

多舌飞蓬(原变种) duo she fei peng (yuan bian zhong)

Stenactis multiradiatus Lindley ex Candolle, Prodr. 5: 229. 1836; Aster inuloides D. Don; A. multiradiatus Wall. nom. nud.; A. roylei Onno; Erigeron inuloides Poiret; E. multiradiatus var. platyphyllus Franchet ex H. Léveillé, nom. nud.

Insert diagnosis.

Alpine and subalpine meadows, slopes, forest margins; 2500–4600 m. Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Nepal].

11b. Erigeron multiradiatus var. ovatifolius Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 411. 1973.

卵叶 luan ye

Stems rather thick, leaves numerous, conferted in middle part, internode 1–2 cm. Leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, 4–5.5 × ca. 2.6 cm, distinctly trinerved, base broad, apex rounded-obtuse, mucronate.

* SW Sichuan (Muli).

11c. Erigeron multiradiatus var. salicifolius Chang ex Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 411. 1973.

柳叶 liu ye

Stems densely leafy, internode 1.5–3 cm. Leaves thin, narrowly lanceolate, 6–9 × 0.6–1 cm, covered with scattered long hairs, attenuate and somewhat amplexicaul at base, broader in middle part, apex acute or acuminate. Peduncles slender.

* Forests; ca. 2900 m. NW Yunnan (Weixi).

11d. Erigeron multiradiatus var. glabrescens Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 411. 1973.

无毛 wu mao

Stems green, almost glabrous in lower part, or with scattered appressed short hairs, upper part and involucre covered with scattered multicellular long hairs, mixed with capitate stalked glands. Leaves entire, glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces.

* Alpine meadows; ca. 3200 m. NW Yunnan (Zhongdian).

12. Erigeron leucoglossus Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 411. 1973.

白舌飞蓬 bai she fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, woody. Stems solitary, rather thick, erect or curved at base, 35 cm tall, 3–4 mm in diam. at base, often with corymbose branches, pubescent with scattered, multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs mixed with dense capitate glands on stalks. Radical leaves withered or present at anthesis, oblanceolate-spatulate, 6–9 × 1–1.6 cm, trinerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged long petiole, margin entire, apex obtuse or mucronulate, lower leaves identical to radical leaves, shortly petiolate, margin entire or above middle with 1–3 fine teeth, middle and upper leaves sessile, ovate-elliptic, 2.5–5 × 1–1.8 cm, 3–5-nerved, slightly narrowed and almost semiamplexicaul at base, margin entire, apex obtuse or arcuate, uppermost leaves narrowly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.2–0.4 cm, abaxially along nerves or at margin with scattered short hairs or subglabrous, often mixed capitate stalked glands at apex, adaxially covered with appressed short hairs, 1-nerved, margin long ciliate. Capitula 2.5–3 cm in diam., 3–7 in corymbs. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 6 × 12–17 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, dark green, purplish at apex and margins, linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.3 mm, acuminate, distinctly exceeding disc, with dense capitate stalked glands and scattered multicellular long hairs at base, outer ones shorter, inner 5–6 mm, with narrowly membranous margins. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, 10–11 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, sparsely puberulent above, ligules white, flat and patent, 1–1.2 mm wide, 2- or 3-denticulate at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, ca. 4.2 mm, tube ca. 1.2 mm, sparsely puberulent in middle part of tube, lobes glabrous. Cypselas (immature) oblong, ca. 1.2 mm, flattened, ± with scattered appressed short hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ca. 3.8 mm. Fl. Aug.

* Alpine grasslands; ca. 3350 m. Xizang (Pekang and Sundo).

13. Erigeron kiukiangensis Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 412. 1973.

俅江飞蓬 qiu jiang fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, ascending or procumbent, ca. 6 mm in diam. Stems several or solitary, to 55 cm tall, erect or curved at base, often with corymbose branches above, green, surface, especially upper part, pubescent with dense rigid multicellular long hairs and capitate glands on stalks. Radical leaves conferted, rosulate, withered or present at anthesis, oblanceolate or oblanceolate-spatulate, 4–8 × 0.8–1.2 cm, 3–5-nerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged petiole, margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate, apex obtuse and mucronulate, lower and middle leaves oblanceolate, 3.5–6 × 0.6–1.5 cm, ± petiolate, margin 3–6-denticulate above middle, rarely entire, upper leaves gradually diminished, narrowly lanceolate or linear, sessile, pubescent with appressed short hairs, often mixed capitate stalked glands on both surfaces, 1–3-nerved. Capitula several corymbose, or sometimes solitary, 2–2.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 6–8 × 12–15 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.8 mm wide, acuminate, often overtopping disc, densely with stalked glands, rarely with multicellular short hairs. Marginal florets 2- or 3-seriate, female, 9–10 mm, tube 2–2.5 mm, sparsely puberulent above, ligules reddish, ca. 0.6 mm wide, patent and flat, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.5–4 mm, tube ca. 1 mm, sparsely puberulent in middle part of tube, lobes triangular, glabrous. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 × 0.6 mm, flattened, with densely appressed short hairs. Pappus white, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 3.5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

* Open mountain slopes, rocky places; 3000–3200 m. SE Xizang (Zayü), NW Yunnan (Gongshan).

14. Erigeron patentisquamus J. F. Jeffrey, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 185. 1912, p.p.

展苞飞蓬 zhan bao fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, ca. 10 mm in diam., ascending or procumbent. Stems solitary or several, 20–45 cm tall, erect or curved at base, ca. 3 mm in diam., purplish or green, branched from middle or upper part, rarely simple, pubescent with rather dense multicellular patent long hairs and appressed short hairs, mixed with densely stalked glandular hairs in upper part, especially at top. Radical leaves dense, rosulate, spatulate or oblanceolate-spatulate, 4–15 × 1–2 cm, trinerved and with 2–4 lateral veins, attenuate at base into winged long petiole, margin entire, apex arcuate, mucronulate, middle and upper leaves narrowly lanceolate or lanceolate, sessile, 2–7 × 0.5–1 cm, dilated and semiamplexicaul at base, apex acuminate, uppermost leaves diminished, linear or linear-lanceolate, pubescent with scattered or denser multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs on both surfaces, mixed with densely stalked glandular hairs. Capitula ca. 2.5 cm in diam., solitary or 2–4 in corymbs. Involucre hemispheric, 1–1.5 × 1.5–1 cm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, distinctly exceeding disc, subequal or outer ones somewhat longer, ca. 1 mm wide, patent, often reflexed at apex, covered with densely multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs, mixed with stalked glandular hairs, inner ones with narrowly membranous margins. Marginal florets female, ligulate, ca. 3-seriate, ± exceeding involucre, 8–10 mm, tube 2–2.5 mm, scattered puberulent above, ligules narrow, ca. 0.4 mm wide, purplish red, not patent, involute into tube; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, tube ca. 1 mm, limb or lobes purplish, lobes puberulent, anthers exceeding corollas. Cypselas oblong, 2.5–3 mm, slightly flattened, 1-ribbed on back, puberulent. Pappus yellowish, double, outer bristles very short, inner 4–4.5 m. Fl. Jul–Sep.

* Forest margins, alpine and subalpine meadows; 2700–4000 m. SW and W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

15. Erigeron multifolius Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 627. 1937.

密叶飞蓬 mi ye fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome thick, ca. 10 mm in diam. Stems solitary or several, erect or ascending, 9–25 cm tall, 2–3 mm in diam., simple, rarely branched, entirely, especially upper part, covered with densely villous and appressed short hairs, or ± mixed with glandular hairs, densely leafy. Radical leaves often withered at anthesis, spatulate or oblanceolate, subequal, margin entire, rarely sparsely dentate, lower cauline leaves oblong or oblanceolate-oblong, 3–7 × 0.3–0.7 cm, attenuate at base into narrowly winged petiole, apex rotund or obtuse, middle and upper leaves sessile, oblong-linear or linear-lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.5–1 cm, covered with scattered multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs, dilated and semiamplexicaul at base, apex obtuse or arcuate. Capitula solitary, or sometimes 2–4 in corymbs, 2–3 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 6–8 × 15–25 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, exceeding or as long as disc, outer ones slightly shorter, green, linear-lanceolate, 7–10 × 0.5–1 mm, acuminate, reddish, with scattered or denser multicellular long hairs and mixed with appressed short hairs, but without glandular hairs. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3-seriate, 8–10 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, sparsely puberulent above, ligules white, ca. 1 mm wide, with 2 fine teeth at apex, involute into tube when dry; disc florets bisexual, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, sparsely puberulent above. Cypselas oblong, 2–3 mm, flattened, with sparse short hairs. Pappus double, yellowish, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 5 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug.

* Forest margins, alpine and subalpine meadows; 2800–4100 m. NW Yunnan (Deqin, Gongshan).

Make diagnoses of varieties parallel and insert key to varieties (if the varieties are worth recognizing).

15a. Erigeron multifolius var. multifolius

密叶飞蓬(原变种) mi ye fei peng (yuan bian zhong)

Insert diagnosis.

* Forest margins, alpine and subalpine meadows; 2800–4100 m. NW Yunnan (Deqin, Gongshan).

15b. Erigeron multifolius var. pilanthus Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 415. 1973.

毛花 mao hua

Limb of disc florets with scattered long hairs, base of lobes puberulent.

* 3500–3600 m. NW Yunnan (Weixi).

15c. Erigeron multifolius var. amplisquamus Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 416. 1973.

阔苞 kuo bao

Outer phyllaries very broad, 1.5–2 mm wide, as long as ligulate florets or somewhat longer. Ligules purplish.

* Alpine meadows; 3400–3800 m. NW Yunnan.

16. Erigeron porphyrolepis Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 416. 1973.

紫苞飞蓬 zi bao fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome robust, woody, ca. 1 cm in diam. Stems caespitose, or solitary, erect, 8–15 cm tall, 1.5–2 mm in diam. at base, simple, pubescent with intricate, soft, multicellular long hairs below and mixed with densely appressed short hairs above. Radical leaves rosulate, withered or present at anthesis, spatulate or oblanceolate, 1.5–3 × 0.5–1 cm, 3-nerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged petiole, margin entire or 1–3-denticulate, apex obtuse and mucronulate, cauline leaves 5–7, lower leaves oblong-oblanceolate or narrowly oblong, 2–3.5 × 0.3–0.4 cm, shortly petiolate or subsessile, covered with soft, intricate long hairs on both surfaces and at margins, semiamplexicaul at base, uppermost leaves with cottony hairs. Capitula solitary, 2–2.3 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 9–20 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, purple, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, abaxially with soft long hairs, outer ones shorter, middle and inner ones subequal, often exceeding disc. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, 6.5–7 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, puberulent above, ligules purple, ca. 0.3 mm wide, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4.5–5 mm, tube 2.3–2.6 mm, puberulent in middle part of tube, lobes purple, glabrous. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm, flattened, with appressed short hairs, glandular. Pappus white or brownish, double, outer bristles very short, inner longer than disc corollas. Fl. Aug.

* Alpine meadows; ca. 3900 m. E Xizang (Bomi).

17. Erigeron lanuginosus Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(1): 89. 1980.

棉毛飞蓬 mian mao fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, thick, to 1 cm in diam., ascending. Stems caespitose, 18–25 cm tall, green, purplish striate, simple or branched above, pubescent with intricate multicellular long hairs and mixed with appressed short hairs, much more in upper part. Radical leaves rosulate, withered or present at anthesis, spatulate or oblanceolate, 2–7 × 0.5–0.8 cm, 3-nerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged petiole, margin entire or with 1–3 fine teeth, apex obtuse and mucronulate, lower leaves oblong-oblanceolate or oblong, 3–5 × ca. 0.7 cm, shortly petiolate or subsessile, middle and upper leaves elliptic-ovate, pubescent with intricate multicellular long hairs on both surfaces and margins, slightly narrowed and semiamplexicaul at base, apex acuminate, uppermost leaves with cottony hairs. Capitula solitary or several in corymbs, 1.5–2 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate or linear, 1–1.5 mm wide, acuminate, distinctly exceeding disc, outer ones slightly shorter, abaxially and marginally with multicellular long cottony hairs, middle and inner ones subequal, often patent and relaxed at apex. Marginal florets female, 2- or 3-seriate, ligulate, 7–8 mm, tube puberulent above, ligules bright purple, 0.3–0.4 mm wide, somewhat exceeding involucre, involute in tube; disc florets bisexual, tubular, 4–4.5 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, lobes purplish, puberulent. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm, flattened, with appressed short hairs, glandular. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones as long as disc corollas. Fl. Aug.

* Alpine grassland on slopes; 3200–4200 m. Xizang (Zayü, Zham).

18. Erigeron kunshanensis Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 417. 1973.

贡山飞蓬 gong shan fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, rather thick, ca. 10 mm in diam. Stems numerous, rarely 1–2-caespitose, 10–20 cm tall, 1–1.5 mm in diam., erect or curved, purplish, rarely green, simple, pubescent with patent multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs, densely leafy at base. Cauline leaves 3–6, radical leaves withered at anthesis, spatulate, 2–6 × 0.5–1.2 cm, 3-nerved, conspicuously reticulate, attenuate at base into winged long petiole, margin entire, apex obtuse or arcuate, lower and middle leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.3–3.5 × 0.4–0.7 cm, sessile, semiamplexicaul at base, apex acute, upper leaves gradually diminished, linear-lanceolate or linear, abaxially along nerves and petioles with scattered pubescence, adaxially pubescent with multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs. Capitula solitary, ca. 2 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 8 × 15–20 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, as long as disc or somewhat long, purplish or green, subequal, 1–1.5 mm wide, outer ones linear-oblanceolate, distinctly reticulate, ± acute, abaxially with multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs, middle and inner ones linear-lanceolate, acuminate, with narrowly membranous margins, 1–3-nerved, puberulent or subglabrous. Marginal florets female, 3-seriate, ligulate, 7–8 mm, tube 2–2.5 mm, puberulent above, ligules purplish, involute in tube when dry, ca. 0.5 mm wide, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.5–4 mm, sparsely puberulent, lobes purplish. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 mm, flattened, with densely short hairs. Pappus brownish, double, outer bristles very short, inner ca. 4 mm. Fl. Aug–Sep.

* Alpine meadows, rocky slopes; 3000–3800 m. NW Yunnan (Gongshan).

19. Erigeron himalajensis Vierpapper, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19: 491. 1906.

珠峰飞蓬 zhu feng fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, 3–5 mm, simple. Stems solitary or several, 15–50(–60) cm tall, 1.5–2 mm in diam., erect or ascending, purple or green above, striate, corymbose-branched in middle or upper part, with abortive branches in leaf axils of lower part, pubescent with scattered multicellular long hairs and appressed short hairs, or almost glabrous at base. Radical leaves conferted, rosulate, withered and fallen at anthesis, cauline leaves rather numerous, thin, lower leaves oblanceolate, 2–3.5 × 0.2–0.4 cm, ± distinctly 3-nerved, attenuate at base and narrowed into winged short petiole, margin entire, apex obtuse or acute, middle and upper leaves linear-oblong, 2–5 × 0.2–0.3 cm, sessile, base slightly narrow and semiamplexicaul, margin entire or with 1–2 small teeth, apex rounded-obtuse, upper most leaves diminished, linear, entirely covered with scattered short hairs and appressed short hairs on both surfaces and margins, or sometimes almost glabrous. Capitula 1–1.5 cm in diam., 2 to numerous, corymbose; peduncles slender, with 1–2 linear bracteoles. Involucre hemispheric, 5–7 × 10–15 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, abaxially and marginally with sparsely short hairs and appressed short hairs or subglabrous. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, slightly longer than or equal to disc, 5–6 mm, tube ca. 3 mm, puberulent above, ligules purplish, ca. 0.3 mm involute in tube when dry, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, yellow, ca. 5 mm, tube fine, ca. 1/2 as long as corollas, lobes purple, glabrous. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 mm, flattened, with patent short hairs. Pappus brownish, double, outer bristles very short, inner ca. 5 mm. Fl. Aug–Sep.

Forest margins, stony slopes; 2000–3600 m. W Sichuan, E Xizang, NW Yunnan [Afghanistan].

20. Erigeron tenuicaulis Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 418. 1973.

细茎飞蓬 xi jing fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, ca. 1 cm in diam., tortuous or conferted in tuber, collar clad with brown base of petiole remains, simple or branched, producing rosulate phyllome and 1–2 stems at top. Stems slender, 9–25 cm tall, 0.6–1.5 mm in diam., erect or curved below, branched in middle part or simple, green, striate, pubescent with scattered short hairs and stalked glandular hairs, denser in upper part, sometimes almost glabrous below. Radical leaves rosulate, present at anthesis, oblanceolate or oblanceolate-spatulate, 1.5–9 × 0.2–0.4 cm, 3-nerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged long petiole, margin entire or sometimes 2–4 dentate, apex obtuse or arcuate, lower leaves identical to radical leaves, shortly petiolate, middle and upper leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.1–0.2 cm, pubescent with hispidulous and stalked glandular hairs, 1–3-nerved, narrowed at base, sessile, margin with upward curved rigid short hairs, apex arcuate. Capitula small, 1–1.5 mm in diam., solitary, or 2–3 in corymbs; peduncles slender, with 1–3 linear or subulate bracteoles. Involucre hemispheric, 3–4 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm wide, green, shorter than disc, acute, abaxially with sparsely short hairs and densely stalked glandular hairs, outer ones ca. 1/2 as long as inner, inner ones 3–4 mm, with narrowly membranous margins, 1-nerved. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, as long as disc or ± longer, 6–7 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, puberulent above, ligules much narrower, reddish, ca. 0.3 mm wide, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, ca. 4 mm, tube fine, 1–1.5 mm, lobes short, reddish. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 mm, flattened, with sparse short hairs. Pappus yellowish brown, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

* Stony open slopes; ca. 2200 m. SW and W Sichuan (Tongolo, Muli).

This species mainly differs from Erigeron himalajensis by its leaf margin with upward curved rigid hairs, leaf surface with glandular hairs, and stems slender.

21. Erigeron purpurascens Ling & Y. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 419. 1973.

紫茎飞蓬 zi jing fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome subwoody or tuberiform, 3–5 mm in diam., collar clad with brown leaf base remains. Stems several or solitary, 5–7 cm tall, ca. 1 mm in diam., purple, erect or ascending, branched in middle part, rarely unbranched, pubescent with scattered short hairs and appressed short hairs, mixed with stalked glandular hairs. Radical leaves conferted, rosulate, present at anthesis, spatulate or oblanceolate, 1.5–2.5 × 0.3–0.6 cm, trinerved, attenuate at base into narrowly winged petiole, margin entire, or with 2–3 teeth, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves 3–5, linear-lanceolate or linear, 0.5–2 × 0.1–0.3 cm, covered with appressed short hairs and stalked glandular hairs on both surfaces, 1- or inconspicuously 3-nerved, sessile, margin with upward curved rigid short hairs. Capitula 2–3 in corymbs, rarely solitary, 0.8–1.5 cm in diam. Involucre hemispheric, 5–8 × 5–12 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, purple, linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm wide, acuminate, not overtopping disc, or inner ones as long as disc, abaxially covered with scattered long hairs and appressed short hairs, often mixed with stalked glandular hairs at base, outer ones 2–3 mm, inner ca. 8 mm, with narrowly membranous margins. Marginal florets female ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, 6–7 mm, tube ca. 3 mm, puberulent above, ligules almost filiform, purple, ca. 0.3 mm wide, not patent, convolute into tube when dry, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, limb narrowly funnel-shaped, sparsely puberulent, lobes purplish. Anthers exserted from disc corollas. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, flattened, with sparsely short hairs. Pappus yellowish, double, outer bristles very short, inner ca. 5 mm. Fl. Aug–Sep.

* Grassland on mountain slopes. Sichuan (Kangding).

22. Erigeron petiolaris Vierhapper, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19: 522. 1906.

柄叶飞蓬 bing ye fei peng

Erigeron pseudoneglectus Popov, Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS Ser. 1, 7: 11. 1948.

Perennial herbs, rhizome short. Stems several, 5–28 cm tall, erect, simple, green or reddish, pubescent with numerous long multicellular squarrose or fine appressed short hairs. Leaves pubescent with numerous long multicellular squarrose hairs on margins, petiole, and on both surfaces, radical leaves present at anthesis, oblanceolate or oblanceolate-spatulate, 1.5–2 × 0.2–0.4 cm, 3-nerved, long petiolate, rarely pubescent at margins only, margin entire, or sometimes 2–4-dentate, apex obtuse or arcuate, upper leaves 3–12, 0.7–7.2 × 0.1–0.8 cm, lower leaves oblanceolate, petiolate, apex obtuse or acuminate, upper leaves lanceolate, sessile, apex acute. Capitula small, 1–1.5 cm in diam., solitary, or 2–3 in corymbs; peduncles slender, with 1–3 linear or subulate bracts. Involucre hemispheric, 3–4 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm wide, green, shorter than disc, acute, pubescent with numerous long multicellular straight squarrose rigid hairs, outer ca. 1/2 as long as inner, inner ones 3–4 mm, with narrowly membranous margins. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, 8–9 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, puberulent on upper part of tube, with short scattered hairs, ligules pink, rarely white, ca. 0.4 mm wide, convolute into tube when dry; disc florets bisexual, tubular, narrowly conical, yellow, ca. 4 mm, pubescent with short scattered hairs on upper half. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, flattened, pubescent with subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Alpine and subalpine meadows. N Xinjiang (Qinghe) [Russia (N Siberia), C Asia].

23. Erigeron eriocalyx (Ledebour) Vierhapper, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19: 522. 1906.

棉苞飞蓬 mian bao fei peng

Erigeron alpinus var. eriocalyx Ledebour, Fl. Alt. 4: 91. 1833.

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, branched. Stems several, rarely solitary, straight or ascending, 5–25 cm tall, green or reddish, simple, sometimes branched, pubescent with soft long multicellular hairs and mixed with short appressed hairs. Leaves green, entire, sparingly pubescent with long soft squarrose, multicellular hairs, radical leaves rosulate, withered at anthesis, oblanceolate, 1.5–9.5 × 0.2–0.8(–1.3) cm, long petiolate, apex obtuse, cauline leaves 2–8, lower leaves identical to radical but shortly petiolate, middle and upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1–5(–7.5) × 0.2–0.8 cm, sessile, base ± amplexicaul, apex acute. Capitula solitary, rarely 2–3 in corymbs, 9–14 × 19–25 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, approximately as long as disc florets, linear-lanceolate, acuminate. compact, plentifully pubescent with thin soft intricate long multicellular hairs with dark colored septa, outer ones slightly shorter, inner ones 5–9 × 0.6–1 mm. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 7–10 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, ligules violet or lilac, very rarely white, ca. 0.5 mm wide, convolute into tube when dry, pubescent with not many short appressed hairs in lower part; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.5–4 mm, cylindrical, abruptly narrowed into cylindrical tube. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 × ca. 0.6 mm, with ± appressed short hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 3.6–4.3 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Alpine or subalpine meadows; 2400–2600 m. Nei Mongol, W Xinjiang [Russia (W Siberia); Europe].

24. Erigeron lachnocephalus Botschantzev, Fl. URSS 25: 230. 1959.

毛苞飞蓬 mao bao fei peng

Erigeron turkestanus Vierhapper, non O. Fedtschenko (1903).

Perennial herbs, rootstock short, branching. Stems several, rarely solitary, 5–10(–15) cm tall, erect or ascending at base, ca. 2 mm in diam. at base, simple, green or reddish, plentifully pubescent with long soft multicellular squarrose hairs, mixed with short appressed ones. Leaves green or grayish, pubescent with long multicellular hairs on both sides, rarely subglabrous, maring entire, radical leaves present at anthesis, oblanceolate, 1–7 × 0.2–0.9 cm, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves 4–8, lanceolate, 0.7–4 × 0.1–0.8 cm, sessile, apex acute. Capitula solitary, sometimes 2, 1–1.7 × 2–3 cm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, equal, exceeding disc, linear-lanceolate, 7–9.5 × 0.8–1 mm, acute, reddish, pubescent with yellowish soft long multicellular intricate hairs. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 7.2–8.5 mm, including ca. 2.7 mm tube, pubescent with short hairs in upper part of tube, ligules pink or lilac, ca. 0.5 mm, entire; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellowish, cylindrical, abruptly narrowed into a cylindrical tube, with scattered appressed hairs, lobes glabrous, with same color as ligules. Cypselas narrowly oblong, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, flattened, with ± subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones ca. 4 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug.

Alpine and subalpine meadows, stony slopes; 2500–3600 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia].

25. Erigeron lonchophyllus Hooker, Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 18. 1834.

矛叶飞蓬 mao ye fei peng

Erigeron armeriifolius Turczaninow ex Candolle; E. armeriifolius var. elatior Ledebour; E. podolicus Besser var. pusillus Ledebour; Trimorpha armeriifolia (Turczaninow ex Candolle) Vierhapper; T. lonchophylla (Hooker) G. L. Nesom.

Biennial or short-lived perennial herbs, rhizome weak, fibrillose. Stems usually several, caespitose, 3–30 cm, 1–1.5 mm in diam., erect or ascending, branching, branches slender, green or tinged with purplish, sparsely pubescent with scattered squarrose long multicellular hairs, especially upper ones, sometimes pubescent on both sides. Radical leaves rosulate, linear-lanceolate or spatulate, 1–10 cm × 0.15–6 mm, acute, sessile or subsessile. Capitula 8–10 mm, 1.5–2 cm in diam., solitary or several, racemose, rarely paniculate, long peduncled, largest capitula developing before others in an inflorescence, apical. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, inner ones yellowish green, dark violet at apex, often exceeding pappus, sometimes almost as long, 5.5–8.5 × 0.5–0.75 mm, outer ones almost 2 × shorter than inner ones. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 3- or 4-seriate, 5–7 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, pubescent with short appressed hairs on upper part of tube, ligules lilac, violet-white, with 2 denticles, convolute into tube; disc florets bisexual, tubular, pallid yellow, narrowly conical or subcylindrical, tube ca. 2 mm, pubescent with scattered short appressed hairs in middle part or along upper half of tube, lobes glabrous, often colored violet. Cypselas narrowly oblong, 1.5–2 × ca. 0.3 mm, with scattered appressed hairs. Pappus white, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4.5–5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Meadows on banks of rivers, lakes, and marshes, lower mountain plains. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia)].

26. Erigeron oreades (Schrenk) Fischer and C. A. Meyer, Suppl. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 9: 17. 1846.

山地飞蓬 shan di fei peng

Erigeron uniflorus Linnaeus, Boreades Schrenk., Enum. Pl. Nov. 2: 39. 1842; Erigeron alpinus Linnaeus var. oreades Trautvetter.

Biennial or short-lived perennial herbs, rhizome weak, fibrillose. Stems solitary, 2.5–25 cm tall, 1–2.5 mm in diam. at base, erect or ± curved above, simple, or rarely branching, green or sometimes purplish reddish, densely pubescent with numerous strict, rather long, straight hairs, and with short appressed hairs above. Leaves few, margins and petiole ciliately pubescent with long multicellular hairs, glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces, radical leaves withered at anthesis, obovate or oblanceolate, 1–3(–7) × 0.2–0.4 cm, attenuate at base into long petiole, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves few, 4–7, linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–4 × 0.1–0.3 cm, 1-nerved, sessile, apex acute, uppermost leaves often distinctly overtopping capitula. Capitula smaller, ca. 0.8 × 1.5–1.8 cm, usually solitary, or sometimes 2–8 in racemes, without peduncle. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, (5–)8–9 × 0.6–1 mm, green or purple at apex, abaxially sparsely villous, inner ones conspicuously exceeding disc, outer ones 1/2 as long as inner or somewhat shorter. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2- or 3-seriate, 6–7 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, scattered puberulent in upper part of tube, ligules slender and narrow, pallid violet, not patent, convolute in tube when dry, with 2 fine teeth at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellowish, 4–4.5 mm, cylindrical, tube ca. 1.5 mm, middle part of tube pubescent with scattered short appressed hairs. Cypselas developed in all florets, narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 × ca. 0.6 mm, flattened, pubescent with rather plentiful overlapping hairs. Pappus double, white, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4.5–5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Subalpine meadows, moist places on slopes; ca. 2500 m. N Xinjiang (Qinghe) [C Asia, Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia)].

2. Erigeron sect. Phalacroloma (Cassini) Torrey & Gray, Fl. North Amer. 2: 176. 1841.

一年蓬组 yi nian peng zu

Phalacroloma Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 39: 404. 1829.

Female ligulate florets with ligules bent, flat, white to sky-bluish. Pappus heteromorphic: cypselas of ligulate florets with pappus monostichous, very short, united in a ring, fimbriate above, with membranous coronet; cypselas of disc florets with pappus monostichous consisting of very short paleolae and 10–15 long bristles.

One species: North America; introduced in China.

27. Erigeron annuus (Linnaeus) Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 43. 1807.

一年蓬 yi nian heng

Aster annuus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 815. 1753; Erigeron heterophyllus Muhlenberg ex Willdenow; Stenactis annua Nees.

Annual, sometimes biennial, herbs. Stems robust, 30–100 cm tall, ca. 6 mm in diam. at base, erect, branching in upper part, green, pubescent below with rather long scattered simple rigid hairs, but with shorter crowded bent rigid hairs above. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, elliptic or broadly ovate, rarely subrotund, 4–17 × 1.5–4 cm or more, attenuate at base and narrowed in winged petiole, margin large serrate-toothed, apex acute or obtuse, lower cauline leaves similar, but with shorter petioles, middle and upper cauline leaves smaller, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 1–9 × 0.5–2 cm, shortly petiolate or sessile, margin irregularly toothed or almost entire, apex acute, uppermost leaves linear, both surfaces with scattered short rigid hairs, or sometimes subglabrous, margins with short rigid hairs. Capitula several, arranged in loose panicles, 6–8 × 10–15 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, herbaceous, lanceolate, 3–5 × 0.5–1 mm, subequal or outer ones shorter, greenish or ± brownish, with few long strict multicellular hairs on abaxial side. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 2-seriate, 6–8 mm, tube 1–1.5 mm, with scattered appressed hairs in upper part, ligules flat, white, or sometimes sky-bluish, linear, ca. 5 × 0.6 mm, with 2 denticles at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, subconical, tube ca. 2 mm, with scattered short appressed hairs in middle part of tube, lobes glabrous. Cypselas developed in all florets, lanceolate, flattened, ca. 1.2 mm, with scattered soft appressed hairs. Pappus heteromorphic: those of ligulate florets very short, united in a ring, fimbriate above, with membranous coronet; those of disc florets consisting of very short paleolae and 10–15 long (ca. 2 mm) bristles. Fl. Jun–Sep.

Littered places or roadsides. Naturalized in China; widely distributed in Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Shandong, Sichuan, Xizang [native to America].

Another North American species, Erigeron strigosus Muhlenberg, is probably naturalized in China as well.

2. Erigeron subg. Trimorpha (Cassini) Popov, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 10. 1948.

三型花亚属 san xing hua ya shu

Trimorpha Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 137. 1817.

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, often with numerous finely narrowed pistillate florets. Capitula with 3 kinds of florets. Marginal pistillate florets ligulate, ligules violet, lilac to pink, convolute into tube when dry; middle–inner florets finely tubular, not colored or of same color as marginal florets, not patent; disc florets tubular, narrowly conical, yellow, with glabrous teeth. Cypselas 2 × shorter than pappus. Pappus often exceeding disc corollas.

About ?? species: Asia, Europe, North America; eight species (one endemic) in China.

Key to sections

1a.       Ray florets short, ligules as long as or slightly longer than disc; phyllaries shorter than disc; biennial or perennial herbs ................................................................................  1. E. sect. Trimorpha

1b.       Ray florets long, ligules distinctly longer than disc, rarely only slightly longer than disc; phyllaries shorter or almost as long as disc; perennial herbs
                                                                                                                                             2. E. sect. Macroglossae

1. Erigeron sect. Trimorpha (Cassini) Candolle, Prodr. 5: 290. 1836 [“Trimorphaea”].

三型花 san xing hua zu

Trimorpha Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 137. 1817; Erigeron sect. Brachyglossae Vierhapper.

Biennial or perennial herbs. Capitula numerous. Involucre and phyllaries shorter than disc. Ray florets short, ligulate, ligule often as long as disc or slightly exceeding it. Pappus 3–4 × as long as cypselas.

About ?? species: Asia, C and N Europe, North America; three species in China.

1a.       Stems and involucre usually purple, rarely green; phyllaries densely with stipulate glandular hairs, mixed with appressed short hairs and sparsely spreading villous hairs, sometimes almost glabrous below; capitula rather few, corymbose-paniculate ......................................................................  30. E. elongatus

1b.       Stems and involucre green, rarely purplish; phyllaries densely or sparsely villous, mixed with appressed short hairs; capitula numerous, paniculate or racemose.

2a.       Capitula larger, loosely and broadly paniculate; phyllaries densely with stipitate glandular hairs; basal and lower leaves sparsely serrate  ........................................................  29. E. kamtschaticus

2b.       Capitula smaller, densely and narrowly paniculate; phyllaries densely or rather densely villous; basal and lower leaves entire  .......................................................................................  28. E. acris

28. Erigeron acris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753 [“acre”].

飞蓬 fei peng

Erigeron kamtschaticus Candolle var. hirsutus Y. Ling; Trimorpha acris (Linnaeus) Gray; T. vulgaris Cassini, nom. illeg. superfl.

Biennial herbs. Stems solitary, rarely several, 5–60 cm tall, 1–4 mm in diam. at base, erect, branching in upper part, green or sometimes purplish, distinctly striate, rather densely pubescent with not very rigid long squarrose multicellular and scattered short appressed hairs, and mixed with capitate glands on stalks below capitula, or sometimes subglabrous. Leaves pubescent with rather dense or scattered rigid long squarrose multicellular hairs on both sides, radical leaves rather dense, often present at anthesis, oblanceolate, 1.5–10 × 0.3–1.2 cm, inconspicuously trinerved, long petiolate, margin entire or very rarely with 1 to several denticles, apex obtuse or acute, middle and upper cauline leaves lanceolate, 0.5–0.8 × 0.1–0.8 cm, sessile, apex acute, uppermost and branch leaves very small, linear. Capitula numerous, arranged in dense and narrow, or rarely loose and broad, panicles, or sometimes several in corymbs, 6–10 × 11–21 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, green, more or rarely reddish, acute, rather densely pubescent with not very ridged long squarrose multicellular hairs, often with mix of capitate glands on short stalks, inner ones shorter than disc, 5–7 × 0.50–0.8 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner ones. Marginal florets female, ligulate, 5–7 mm, tube 2.5–3.5 mm, ligules pink, rarely white, ca. 0.25 mm wide; middle–inner florets tubular, uncolored, 3–3.5 mm, style exceeding tube by 1–1.5 mm; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–5 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, with scattered fine appressed hairs in upper half of tube. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, flattened, ca. 1.8 × 0.4 mm, with subappressed hairs. Pappus double, white, outer bristles very short, inner ones 5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Meadows, pastures, forests margins; 1400–3500 m. Gansu, Hebei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [C Asia, Japan, Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia); SW Asia (Caucasus), North America].

29. Erigeron kamtschaticus Candolle, Prodr. 5: 290. 1836.

堪察加飞蓬 kan cha jia fei peng

Erigeron kamtschaticus var. manshuricus (Komarov) Koidzumi.

Biennial herbs. Stems solitary or several, 30–70(–100) cm, 1–6 mm in diam. at base, erect, branching in upper part, green, or sometimes reddish brown, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs and plentiful fine appressed hairs, especially in upper part of stem, and with plentiful capitate glands on short stalks below capitula, sometimes long hairs in lower part of stem only. Leaves green, thin, radical leaves often withered at anthesis, oblanceolate, 2–13 × 0.3–1.8 cm, long petiolate, margin serrate-toothed or teeth solitary, apex acute, middle and upper leaves lanceolate, 0.3–8.5 × 0.4–1 cm, sessile, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs on both sides or only ciliate on margins, margin entire. Capitula numerous, in broad panicles, or sometimes few in corymbs, 6–10 × 10–19 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, green or reddish, linear-lanceolate, acute, densely pubescent with capitate glands on short stalks and sometimes with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs, inner ones shorter than disc, 5–6.5 × 0.6–0.7 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner ones. Marginal florets female ligulate, 5–6.2 mm, tube 3–3.5 mm, with fine appressed hairs in upper part of tube, ligules pink, ca. 0.25 mm wide; middle–inner florets tubular, uncolored, 2.5–3 mm, style exceeding tube by 15–22 mm; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–4.5 mm, tube 2–2.5 mm, with short appressed hairs on upper part of tube. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, 1.6–2.5 mm, flattened, with ± appressed hairs. Pappus whitish, 2-seriate, outer bristles very short, inner ones 5.5–6 mm. Fl. Jun–Sep.

Grasslands on slopes and forest margins; 700–1200 m. Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi [Mongolia, Russia (Kamchatka, W Siberia)].

30. Erigeron elongatus Ledebour, Icon. Fl. Ross. 1: 9. tab. 31. 1833.

长茎飞蓬 chang jing fei peng

?Trimorpha angulosa Vierhapper; T. elongata (Ledebour) Vierhapper; T. polita Vierhapper.

Biennial or perennial herbs, rhizome woody, ascending. Stems usually several, 10–50 cm tall, 1–4 mm in diam. at base, erect, branching in upper part, reddish brown, more rarely green, pubescent with dense fine appressed hairs, sometimes mixed with scattered rigid long squarrose multicellular hairs, but only with capitate glands on short stalks below capitula. Leaves green, or with reddish petioles, rigid, glabrous on both sides, margins entire, often ciliate, radical and lower leaves oblanceolate or oblong, 1–10 × 0.1–1.1 cm, obtuse, long petiolate, middle and upper leaves oblong or lanceolate, 0.5–7 × ca. 0.8 cm, sessile, apex arcuate or obtuse. Capitula not numerous, arranged in corymbiform or corymbiform-paniculate inflorescences, often on long sprigs, 9–13 × 17–25 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, reddish brown or rarely green, arcuate, plentifully pubescent with capitate glands on short stalks, or sometimes mixed with more scattered squarrose multicellular hairs, inner ones shorter than disc, 5.5–7.5 × 0.7–1 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner ones. Marginal florets female, in 2 forms, outer florets ligulate, 6–8 mm, tube 3–4.3 mm, ligules pink or lilac-colored, 0.3–0.5 mm, middle–inner florets tubular, uncolored, 2.5–4.5 mm, style exceeding tube by 1–1.7 mm, sometimes with shortened ligules; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.5–5 mm, with scattered fine appressed hairs on upper part, teeth dark lilac. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, flattened, 2–2.5 mm, with plentiful subappressed hairs. Pappus white, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4.5–6 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Meadows on slopes of low mountains, forest margins; 1900–2600 m. Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [C Asia, Russia (Siberia); C and N Europe].

2. Erigeron sect. Macroglossae Vierhapper, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19. 2: 424. 1956.

长舌组 chang she zu

Perennial herbs. Capitula few, rarely numerous, in corymbs. Involucre and phyllaries shorter than or almost as long as disc. Ray florets long, ligulate, ligules much longer than disc, rarely only slightly exceeding it. Pappus 2–2.5 × as long as cypselas.

About ?? species: C Asia to Siberia; five species (one endemic) in China.

1a.       Ray florets blue .................................................................................  33. E. tianschanicus

1b.       Ray florets purplish or reddish.

2a.       Stems and phyllaries densely with stipitate glandular hairs and sparsely spreading villous; leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate.

3a.       Stems densely with stipitate glandular hairs and sparsely spreading villous; ray florets reddish .....  31. E. krylovii

3b.       Stems sparsely with stipitate glandular hairs and rather densely villous, lower part almost entirely densely villous; ray florets purplish  ................................................  32. E. pseudoseraschanicus

2b.       Stems with densely or sparsely appressed short hairs or almost glabrous at base; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate.

4a.       Stems purple, curved, densely with appressed short hairs, almost glabrous below; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire; phyllaries purplish, densely villous, inner ones shorter than disc  .  34. E. schmalhausenii

4b.       Stems green, erect, sparsely with appressed short hairs or almost glabrous; leaves linear-oblanceolate, sparsely serrate; phyllaries green, with densely appressed short hairs, inner ones slightly longer or almost as long as disc
                                                                                                           35. E. fukuyamae

31. Erigeron krylovii Serguis, Syst. Zap. Gerb. Tomsk. Univ. 1: 2. 1945.

西疆飞蓬 xi jiang fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, many-headed. Stems several, 14–60 cm tall, 1–4 mm in diam. at base, erect or ascending, green or reddish, branching in upper part, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs and plentiful capitate glands on short stalks, more dense above. Leaves green, both sides densely covered with capitate glands on short stalks and long squarrose multicellular hairs, margin entire, ciliate with long multicellular hairs, radical leaves oblanceolate, 3–13 × 0.4–1.4 cm, long petioled, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves 0.5–10 × 0.7–1 cm, lower leaves similar to radical leaves, upper leaves lanceolate, sessile, apex acute. Capitula 3–6 arranged in corymbiform-racemose inflorescences, 9–13 × 17–25 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, linear-lanceolate, acute, plentifully pubescent with capitate glands on stalks, sometimes with long squarrose multicellular hairs, inner ones shorter or sometimes as long as disc, 5.5–7.5 × 0.7–1 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner. Marginal florets female, in 2 forms, outer florets ligulate, 7.5–10 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, ligules bright pink, 0.4–0.6 mm wide, middle–inner florets finely tubular, uncolored, 2–3.8 mm, style exceeding tube by 0.5–1.2 mm; disc florets bisexual, tubular, pubescent with short appressed hairs on upper part of tube, teeth pink. Cypselas lanceolate, flattened, 2.2–2.5 mm, densely with subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4–5 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Open grasslands on slopes, subalpine meadows; 1700–2800 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia (Siberia)].

32. Erigeron pseudoseraschanicus Botschantzev, Fl. URSS 25: 585. 1959.

假泽山飞蓬 jia ze shan fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, branching. Stems several, 5–60 cm tall, 1–3 mm in diam. at base, erect, branching, green, sometimes reddish, pubescent with long squarrose multicellular hairs and capitate glands on stalks, sometimes mixed with short appressed hairs, more rarely subglabrous. Leaves green, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs on both sides, sometimes only ciliately pubescent at margin, but covered with capitate glands on stalks on both sides, margin entire, radical leaves lanceolate, 1–15 × 0.3–1.6 cm, long petiolate, apex acute or obtuse, cauline leaves 0.3–13 × 0.5–1.1 mm, lower leaves similar to radical leaves, upper leaves lanceolate, sessile, apex acute. Capitula usually many, arranged in corymbiform-racemose inflorescences, 7–14 × 13–30 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, sometimes reddish, slightly shorter than disc, linear-lanceolate, acute, pubescent with long squarrose multicellular hairs and mixed with capitate glands on stalks, rarely only with capitate glands on stalks, inner ones 5–7 × ca. 0.8 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner. Marginal florets female, in 2 forms, outer florets ligulate, 5.8–8.5 mm, tube 2.2–3.5 mm, ligules pink or lilac ca. 0.3 mm wide, middle–inner florets tubular, uncolored, tube 2.2–3 mm, style exceeding tube by 1–1.5 mm, uncolored; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 4–4.7 mm, tube 1.5–2 mm, with short scattered appressed hairs on upper of tube. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, 2–2.2 mm, flattened, plentifully pubescent with subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4–5.3 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Subalpine or alpine meadows, forest margins; 1700–2800 m. N Xinjiang [C Asia, Russia (Siberia)].

Two forms have been recognized in China: f. pseudoseraschanicus and f. glabrescens Ling & Y. L. Chen (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11: 426. 1973). The latter has stems and leaves glabrous or subglabrous, only upper part and phyllaries with capitate glands on stalks (Qinghe in Xinjiang).

33. Erigeron tianschanicus Botschantzev, Fl. URSS 25: 259. 1959.

天山飞蓬 tian shan fei peng

Erigeron coeruleus Popov, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, 7: 11. 1948, non. Urban (1913).

Perennial herbs, rhizomes woody, branching. Stems several, 50–60 cm tall, 1–3 mm in diam., green or reddish, branching, pubescent with squarrose long multicellular hairs and capitate glands on stalks, sometimes mixed with short appressed hairs. Leaves green, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs on both sides, mixed with capitate glands on stalks, sometimes only margin with cilia, but both sides covered with stalked capitate glands, margin entire, radical leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate, 2–15 × 0.2–0.8(–1.7) cm, long petiolate, apex acute or obtuse, lower leaves similar to radical ones, upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2 × 0.1–0.3 cm, sessile, apex acute. Capitula several, arranged in corymbiform-racemose inflorescences, 7–11 × 14–23 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, green, slightly shorter than disc, linear-lanceolate, acute, pubescent with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs and numerous capitate glands on stalks, inner ones 5–7 × 0.5–0.8 mm, outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner. Marginal florets female, in 2 forms, outer florets ligulate, 5.9–8 mm, tube 2.5–3 mm, ligules sky-blue, ca. 0.5 mm wide, middle–inner florets tubular, 2.3–2.9 mm, sky-blue, style exceeding tube by 0.5–1.7 mm; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, 3.4–4.1 mm, with scattered fine appressed hairs on upper part of tube. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, flattened, 2–2.2 mm, ± with subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 4–4.8 mm. Fl. Jul–Sep.

Open slopes; ca. 2900 m. W Xinjiang [C Asia].

34. Erigeron schmalhausenii Popov, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8: 51. 1940.

革叶飞蓬 ge ye fei peng

Perennial herbs, rhizome long, woody, branching. Stems usually many, 10–45 cm tall, 1–3 mm in diam., ascending or erect, sinuate, especially in upper part, brownish-reddish, rarely green, branching, plentifully pubescent with short appressed hairs, sometimes mixed with scattered long squarrose rigid multicellular hairs below capitula. Leaves coriaceous, green or reddish, glabrous on both sides, margins sometimes ciliately pubescent with long multicellular or short hairs, radical leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 1.5–6(–9) × 0.1–0.4(–0.8) cm, long petiolate, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves linear or narrow linear-lanceolate, 0.5–7(–9) × 0.3–0.5 cm, sessile, apex acute. Capitula usually numerous, arranged in corymbiform-racemose inflorescences, 7–12 × 14–25 mm. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 3-seriate, reddish or rarely green, linear-lanceolate, acute, plentifully pubescent with very long squarrose rigid multicellular hairs, inner ones shorter than disc, 6–9 × 0.6–1.1 mm outer ones almost 1/2 as long as inner. Marginal florets female, in two forms; outer florets ligulate, 6–8 mm, tube 2.8–3.5 mm, ligules pink or lilac, ca. 0.5 mm wide, middle–inner florets tubular, uncolored, tube 2–4.6 mm, style exceeding tube by 1.3–2.2 mm; disc florets bisexual, yellow, 4.5–5.9 mm, tube ca. 2 mm, with scattered fine appressed hairs, teeth pink or lilac. Cypselas oblong-lanceolate, flattened, ca. 3 mm, densely with rather long subappressed hairs. Pappus double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 5–6.7 mm. Fl. Jun–Sep.

Glacial moraines and mountains; ca. 2100 m. W Xinjiang [Russia (W Siberia), C Asia].

35. Erigeron fukuyamae Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 2: 42. 1933.

台湾飞蓬 tai wan fei peng

Erigeron morrisonense Hayata var. fukuyamae Kitamura.

Perennial herbs, rhizome short, procumbent or ascending. Stems several, caespitose, 10–30 cm tall, 1–1.5 mm in diam., erect or ascending, branching above, green, striate, pubescent with scattered appressed short hairs, or sometimes subglabrous below, capitate glands on stalked hairs. Radical leaves rosulate, coriaceous, withered, rarely present at anthesis, linear, 2–7 × 1–1.5 cm, subglabrous or with appressed fine hairs on both sides, 1-nerved, long petiolate, margin serrate with acute denticles or subentire, apex acute or obtuse, cauline leaves usually many and denser, upper leaves gradually diminished, 2–6 × 0.1–0.3 cm, sessile, margin entire or sometimes scattered serrulate, leaves on inflorescence branches very small, 5–6 mm. Capitula 3–9 in loose corymbs, 1.5–2.3 cm in diam.; peduncles 3–10 cm. Involucre hemispheric, 5–8 × 10–18 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, equal, acuminate, 0.5–0.7 mm wide, green or reddish at apex, abaxially with appressed short hairs, sometimes mixed with scattered long squarrose multicellular hairs, outer ones shorter than inner ones, 4–5 mm, inner ones 5–8 mm, with membranous margins. Marginal florets female in 2 forms, outer florets ligulate, ca. 6 mm, tube ca. 2.5 mm, with scattered appressed fine hairs above, ligules reddish, ca. 0.5 mm wide, middle–inner florets, tubular, ca. 2 mm; disc florets bisexual, tubular, yellow, ca. 4 mm, with scattered appressed fine hairs. Cypselas oblong, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, flattened, with appressed fine hairs. Pappus white or brownish, double, outer bristles very short, inner ones 3.5–4 mm. Fl. Apr–Jul.

* Alpine meadows; ca. 3000 m. Taiwan (Taichung).

37. MICROGLOSSA Candolle, Prodr. 5: 320. 1836.

小舌菊属 xiao she ju shu

Subshrubs, erect or climbing. Leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate-oblong, margin entire or indistinctly serrate. Capitula smaller, numerous, conferted in compound-corymbs, radiate, heterogamous. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries multi-seriate, imbricate, scabrous, oblong-lanceolate or linear, apex obtuse, outer ones shorter. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, glabrous. Florets fertile. Marginal pistillate florets numerous, ligulate, ligules white, filiform, shorter than style; disc florets bisexual, few, tubular, yellow, limb dilate, 3–5 lobed. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arms compressed, acute, lanceolate. Cypselas cylindrical-oblong, margin angled, 1-ribbed on both sides, pilose. Pappus reddish, 1- or 2-seriate, numerous, ± equal, finely scabrous.

About ten species: Africa and Asia; one species in China.

1. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lamark) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 353. 1891.

小舌菊 xiao she ju

Conyza pyrifolia Lamark, Encycl. 2: 89. 1786; Blumea conyzoides H. Léveillé & Vaniot; C. syringaeifolia Meyen & Walpers; Erigeron pyrifolius (Lamark) Bentham; Microglossa volubilis Candolle.

Subshrubs, 70–150 cm tall. Stems elongate, ± climbing, divaricately branched, distinctly striate, glandular pilose, later ± glabrescent. Leaves alternate, papyraceous, ovate or ovate-oblong, 5–10 × 2.5–4 cm, abaxially pale green, densely ferruginous pilose and glandular, adaxially green, sparsely pilose, later glabrescent, base cuneate or cuneate-rotund, petioles 7–13 mm, pilose, margin with ± distinct fine teeth or subentire, apex acuminate. Capitula numerous, 5–6 mm in diam., arranged in densely compound-corymbose inflorescences; peduncles 2–5 mm, pilose. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries ca. 5-seriate, scarious, outer ones ovate-lanceolate, ca. 0.7 mm, obtuse, abaxially pilose, middle and inner ones linear, obtuse or arcuate, margin hyaline, midrib brown. Receptacle slightly convex, alveolate. Ray florets numerous, filiform, 3–3.5 mm ligules fine; disc florets bisexual, 2–3 mm, tubular, tube puberulent, 5-lobed. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1 mm, slightly compressed, margin nerved, 1-ribbed on both side, puberulent. Pappus ± reddish, ca. 4 mm, finely scabrous. Fl. Jun–Aug.

Thickets on slopes, lax forests; 400–1800 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

38. CONYZA Lessing, Syn. Comp. 203. 1832.

白酒草属 bai jiu cao shu

Erigeron Linnaeus sect. Conyza (Linnaeus) Baillon; Erigeron subg. Caenotus Nuttal; Caenotus (Nuttal) Rafinesque.

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Stems erect or ascending, simple or multi-branched above. Leaves alternate, margin entire or dentate, or pinnately lobed. Capitula heterogamous, discoid, usually numerous or very numerous, racemose, corymbose, or paniculate, rarely solitary. Involucre hemispheric to cylindrical; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate or indistinctly 2- or 3-seriate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, usually herbaceous, margin membranous. Receptacle hemispheric, alveolate or fimbriate-ciliate. Florets fertile. Pistillate florets numerous, corolla filiform, eligulate or shortly ligulate, often shorter than style or ligules shorter than tube and almost exceeding pappus; disc florets bisexual, few, tubular, apically 5-denticulate. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arms with short appendages, papillose. Cypselas small, oblong, margin nerved, not ribbed, puberulent or mixed with glands. Pappus dirty white or pubescent, finely bristled, simple, subequal or rarely double, outer ones very short.

About 80–100 species: tropical and subtropical regions of the world; ten species (three endemic) in China.

1a.       Pistillate florets ligulate, usually with fine ligules.

2a.       Pappus double, outer one very short; capitula very small, 2–3 mm in diam.; leaves pinnatilobate or coarsely dentate  ..........................................................................................  7. C. stricta

2b.       Pappus simple; capitula larger, 3–10 mm in diam.; leaves sparsely serrate or entire.

3a.       Plants green, with sparsely rigid hairs; leaves on both surfaces or only adaxially sparsely pilose; capitula small, 3–4 mm in diam.  ......................................................................  8. C. canadensis

3b.       Plants gray-green, appressed pilose and sparsely villous; leaves on both surfaces with canescent scabrous short hairs; capitula larger, 5–10 mm in diam.

4a.       Stems thick, 80–150 cm tall; cauline leaves narrowly oblanceolate or broadly linear; capitula numerous, long paniculate; involucre ca. 4 mm; pappus yellowish brown  9. C. sumatrensis

4b.       Stems thin, 30–50 cm tall; cauline leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate; capitula very numerous, racemose or racemose-paniculate; involucre ca. 5 mm; pappus reddish brown  10. C. bonariensis

1b.       Pistillate florets filiform, eligulate.

5a.       Leaves pinnatilobate or pinnatipartite.

6a.       Plants canescent-villous, mixed with glandular hairs; middle leaves pinnatilobate, semiamplexicaul at base; capitula 12–15 in diam., corymbose
                                                                                                             1. C. aegyptiaca

6b.       Plants densely with viscid-glandular hairs and spreading villous; middle leaves pinnatipartite, not amplexicaul at base; capitula 7–10 mm in diam., shortly narrowly paniculate ..  2. C. blinii

5b.       Leaves crenate, coarsely serrate, or shallowly denticulate.

7a.       Annual or biennial herbs, roots fusiform.

8a.       Plants viscid glandular-pilose; cauline leaves shortly petiolate, not amplexicaul; capitula ca. 7 mm in diam., broadly paniculate; pistillate florets 1/5 as long as style .............  3. C. leucantha

8b.       Plants villous or scabrous-pilose; cauline leaves sessile, amplexicaul at base; capitula ca. 11 mm in diam., arranged in glomerate or corymbose inflorescences; pistillate florets 2.5 × shorter than style  ............................................................................................................  4. C. japonica

7b.       Perennial herbs, rhizomes woody.

9a.       Capitula small, 4–5 mm in diam.; phyllaries almost without or only with narrowest membranous margins; leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, lobes of disc florets glandular  .............................................................................................  5. C. perennis

9b.       Capitula larger, 6–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries with broadly membranous margins; leaves linear or liner-oblanceolate, sparsely denticulate or almost entire; lobes of disc florets sparsely puberulent        6. C. muliensis

1. Conyza aegyptiaca (Linnaeus) Aiton, Hort. Kew, ed. 1. 3: 183. 1789.

埃及白酒草 ai ji bai jiu cao

Erigeron hispidum Candolle.

Annual herbs, axial root fusiform, woody, with many fibrous roots. Stems erect, 20–60 cm tall, branching from base or middle part, striate, covered with gray-white spreading villous hairs, mixed with glandular hairs, branches obliquely ascending, densely leafy. Lower leaves withered at anthesis, middle leaves narrowly oblong or obovate-oblong, 4.5–9.5 × 1.4–3 cm, gray villous on both surfaces, nerves slightly prominent, base gradually narrowed and semiamplexicaul, margin pinnatilobate, lobes 6- or 7-paired, narrowly oblong, obtuse, terminal lobe larger, apex obtuse, upper leaves gradually diminished, oblanceolate, pinnatilobate, uppermost leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, only dentate at base. Capitula 12–15 mm in diam., 2–4 in dense corymbs; peduncles fine, 1.5–4.5 cm, densely gray-villous. Involucre hemispheric-campanulate, 8 × 15 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, linear, acuminate, slightly reflexed, with membranous margins, abaxially villous, outer ones ca. 3 mm. Pistillate florets numerous, fertile, corolla filiform, 2.5–3 mm, puberulent at apex, ca. 1/2 as long as style; bisexual florets few, ca. 25, fertile, corolla ca. 4.5 mm, tube puberulent above, 5-lobed, apically puberulent. Anthers obtuse at base, entire; style arms fine and compressed, papillose. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1 mm, compressed, margin nerved, without ribs on both surfaces, puberulent. Pappus dirty white or pubescent, simple, bristles fragile, ca. 6 mm, connate in a ring.

Seasides, riverbanks. Fujian, Guangdong, Taiwan [Afghanistan, India, Indochinese peninsula, Japan, Malaysia; Africa (Egypt), SW Asia (Iran), Australia].

2. Conyza blinii H. Léveillé, Fedde Repert, Sp. Nov. 8: 4451. 1910.

熊胆草 xiong dan cao

Conyza dunniana H. Léveillé; C. pinnatifida Franchet (1896) and Dunn (1903), not Buchanan-Hamilton ex Roxburgh (1832)[??nor (Thunberg) Lessing (1832)].

Annual herbs, axial root cylindrical, simple or rarely branched, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems erect, 40–90(–100) cm tall, striate, branched or unbranched, center covered with white spreading villous and dense glandular hairs, densely leafy. Leaves villous and densely glandular on both surfaces, pinnatipartite, rarely pinnatilobate, lobes usually 4–6 pairs, linear or linear-lanceolate, distinctly oblique, acute, entire or sparsely dentate, terminal lobe large, obovate-lanceolate, sparsely dentate, lower leaves petiolate, often withered at anthesis, papyraceous, middle and upper leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, 4–7.5(–10) × 2.5–3(–4) cm, sessile, attenuate at base. Capitula 7–10 mm in diam., arranged in narrow short paniculate inflorescences; peduncles shortly densely spreading villous and glandular. Involucre hemispheric-campanulate, ca. 6 × 10 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, green, linear, acuminate, with white membranous margins, abaxially villous and glandular, outer ones shorter, ca. 3.5 mm, inner ones 6–7 mm, longer than disc, reddish violet at apex, slightly reflexed. Florets fertile. Pistillate florets numerous, filiform, 2–2.5 mm, sparsely puberulent above, almost 1/2 as long as style; disc florets ca. 40, bisexual, 4–4.5 mm, limb narrowly campanulate, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, tube puberulent above. Cypselas oblong, ca. 1 mm, compressed, margin nerved, puberulent on both surfaces. Pappus simple, dirty white, scabrous, bristles slightly longer than disc corollas, connate in a ring at base.

* Grasslands on slopes, open places, roadsides; 1800–2600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan.

3. Conyza leucantha (D. Don) Ludlow & Raven, Kew Bull. 17. 1: 71. 1963.

粘毛白酒草 zhan mao bai jiu cao

Erigeron leucanthum D. Don, Prod. Fl. Nepal 171, 1825; Blumea conyzoides H. Léveillé & Vaniot; Conyza viscidula Wallich; Vernonia ampla Vaniot.

Annual herbs, axial root fusiform, woody, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems erect, 40–120 cm tall, striate, densely covered with pulverulent glandular pilose hairs, branched, upper branches divaricate, densely leafy. Lower leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, middle leaves elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 7–14 × 2.5–3.5 cm, glandular-puberulent on both surfaces, lateral veins 4–6-paired, abaxially prominent, gradually narrowed at base into short petiole or almost sessile, margin mucronate-serrate, apex acuminate, upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, upward diminished, uppermost (on inflorescence branches) leaves 3–5 cm, sessile or subsessile, margin entire or only with fine teeth. Capitula ca. 7 mm in diam., numerous, conferted in broadly glomerate-paniculate inflorescences; peduncles slender, 3–9 mm, densely glandular-puberulent. Involucre campanulate or hemispheric, ca. 4 × 7 mm; phyllary outer seriess green, somewhat, short, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, abaxially glandular-puberulent, inner ones much shorter than style or almost as long as style, linear-lanceolate, scarious, acuminate, often purplish. Florets white, fertile. Pistillate florets numerous, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm, lacerate at apex, 1/5 as long as style; disc florets bisexual, few (6–9), tubular, 3.5–4 mm, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, tube sparsely puberulent above. Cypselas oblong, ca. 0.6 mm, compressed, margin nerved, both surfaces without ribs, sparsely puberulent. Pappus simple, pallid reddish, bristles 3.5–4.5 mm, connate in a ring, deciduous. Fl. Sep–Dec.

Open slopes, field margins, roadsides; 1000–1800 m. Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].

4. Conyza japonica (Thunberg) Lessing, Syn. Comp. 204. 1832.

白酒草 bai jiu cao

Erigeron japonica Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 3412. 1784; Blumea subcapitata Matsumura & Hayata; Conyza asteroides Candolle; C. multicaulis Candolle; C. stricta Wallich ex Candolle, non Willdenow; C. vernonicaefolia Wallich ex Candolle.

Annual or biennial herbs, roots ascending, simple. Stems erect, (15)20–45 cm tall or more, striate, branched from base or middle above, rarely unbranched, branches ascending or spreading, covered with white villous or shortly scabrous hairs, or ± glabrescent below. Leaves usually conferted in lower part, rosulate, radical leaves obovate or spatulate, 6–7 cm, gradually narrowed at base, apex rounded, lower leaves long petiolate, oblong or elliptic-oblong or oblanceolate, 3–13 cm, white villous on both surfaces, lateral veins 4- or 5-paired, abaxially prominent, base cuneate, often decurrent into a broadly winged petiole, margin crenate or coarsely serrate, apex rounded, middle leaves scattered, oblanceolate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3.5–5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, sessile, base broad and semiamplexicaul, margin mucronulate, apex obtuse, upper leaves diminished, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, covered with appressed long hairs on both surfaces. Capitula numerous, usually conferted in glomerate or corymbose inflorescences, ca. 11 mm in diam.; peduncles fine, 4–6 mm, densely villous. Involucre hemispheric, 5–5.5 × 8–10 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer ones shorter, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, inner ones linear-lanceolate, 4–5 mm, acute or acuminate, margin membranous or ± purplish, abaxially villous, often reflexed when dry. Florets yellow, fertile. Pistillate florets numerous, corolla filiform, 1.7–2 mm, puberulent at tip, 2.5 times shorter than style; disc florets bisexual, few (15–16), tubular, ca. 4 mm, 5-lobed, lobes ovate, apically puberulent. Cypselas oblong, yellow, 1–1.2 mm, compressed, margin nerved, both surfaces without ribs, puberulent. Pappus dirty white or reddish, ca. 4.5 mm, scabrous, equal. Fl. May–Sep.

Forest margins, grasslands on slopes, field margins; 700–2500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand].

5. Conyza perennis Handel-Mazzetti, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 630. 1937.

宿根白酒草 su gen bai jiu cao

Perennial herbs, rhizomes thick, woody, erect or ascending, to 15 cm, producing a few branching roots from article, collar woody, surrounded by withered leaf remains. Stems solitary, erect, 25–40 cm tall, striate few branched above or unbranched, covered with spreading white rigid hairs, often mixed with appressed hairs. Leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 5–9 × 1.5–2.5 cm, apex acute or arcuate, radical leaves present at anthesis, densely rosulate, lower leaves cuneate, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, base narrowed into narrowly winged petiole, petioles usually 1/2 as long as blade, margin short and broadly serrate, ciliate with white long rigid hairs, upper leaves gradually diminished, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, uppermost leaves almost rotund at base, margin entire, apex acuminate. Capitula hemispheric at anthesis, 4–5 mm in diam., rather numerous, usually arranged in cymose or partly in densely glomerate inflorescences; peduncles 5–6 mm, with 1 lanceolate bracteole, with appressed short hairs or sometimes subglabrous. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 4 mm in diam.; phyllaries ca. 3-seriate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, outer ones ca. 1/2 as long as inner, almost without or with narrowly membranous margins, abaxially densely puberulent, inner ones subscarious, ca. 3 mm, acuminate, with membranous and ± fimbriate margins. Florets yellow when dry, fertile. Pistillate florets very numerous, corolla filiform, ca. 1.5 mm, puberulent at tip, ca. 1/2 as long as style; disc florets few (ca. 23), tubular, ca. 3 mm, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, with brown glands. Cypselas oblong, ca. 0.7 mm, sparsely pilose or subglabrous. Pappus white, almost as long as disc corollas. Fl. Feb–Apr.

* Thickets on sandy ground by riverbanks; ca. 1600 m. SW Guizhou, S Yunnan.

6. Conyza muliensis Y. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 361. 1985.

木里白酒草 mu li bai jiu cao

Perennial herbs, rhizome woody, branched above, ascending, with numerous fibrous roots collar surrounded by leaf base remains. Stems solitary or 2–4-caespitose, 3–13 cm tall, slender, erect, simple, covered with gray-white shortly rigid hairs and appressed puberulence. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces, with scabrous short hairs at margins, radical leaves present at anthesis, identical to leaves of abortive stem, rosulate, oblanceolate or spatulate, 2–5 × 0.3–0.5 cm, base cuneate-attenuate in winged fine petiole, margin often mucronulate-denticulate above, rarely entire, apex obtuse or arcuate, cauline leaves scattered, lower leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, 2–3.5 × 0.1–0.3 cm, narrowed at base, sessile or subsessile, not amplexicaul, margin sparsely finely denticulate, apex acute or arcuate, upper leaves gradually diminished, linear, margin entire or with 1–2 inconspicuously fine teeth. Capitula few, usually 3 or 4 in corymbs, rarely solitary, 6–7 mm in diam.; peduncles fine, 3–8 mm. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 4 × 6–8 mm; phyllaries ca. 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate or somewhat obtuse and ± lacerate, apex and margin broadly membranous, abaxially sparsely hairy, outer ones ca. 1/2 as long as inner. Florets fertile. Pistillate florets very numerous, corolla filiform, ca. 2 mm, sparsely puberulent at tip, ca. 1/2 as long as style; disc florets bisexual, few (13–23), tubular, yellowish, 3–3.5 mm, tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ovate, sparsely puberulent at tip. Cypselas oblong, 1–1.2 mm, compressed, margin nerved, sparsely pilose and glandular. Pappus simple, dirty white, scabrous, bristles 3–3.5 mm. Fl. Jun.

* Riverbanks; ca. 2200 m. SW Sichuan (Muli).

7. Conyza stricta Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 1922. 1803.

劲直白酒草 jing zhi bai yiu cao

Annual herbs, roots woody, fusiform, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems erect, 30–65 cm tall, finely striate, multi-branched, branches corymbose or virgate, slender and strict, plants covered with gray-white scabrous puberulence, densely leafy. Basal leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, lower or sometimes middle leaves spatulate-obovate, rarely oblanceolate, 3–5.5 × 0.5–1.3 cm, with gray-white scabrous short hairs on both surfaces, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, abaxially distinct, base cuneate-attenuate into fine petiole, margin coarsely toothed or pinnatilobate, rarely entire, apex obtuse, mucronate, or apiculate, 2–4 leaves linear-oblanceolate, 1.2–2 × 0.2–0.4 cm, 1-nerved, sessile, margin entire, apex obtuse and mucronate, upper leaves gradually diminished, or those on branches trifid, uppermost leaves linear. Capitula very small, (2–)3 mm in diam., very numerous, arranged in densely compound-corymbose inflorescences; peduncles 2–4 mm, with 1 linear or subulate bracteole, densely scabrous-pilose. Involucre hemispheric, ca. 3 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, shorter than disc, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, outer ones green, slightly shorter, shortly hairy, inner ones scabrous, 1.5–1.8 mm, somewhat reflexed at apex. Florets yellow, fertile. Pistillate florets numerous, ligulate, ca. 1.5 mm, ligules white, very short, sometimes 2–3 lacerate, often shorter than style, tube sparsely puberulent; disc florets 4–5(–7), bisexual, tubular, ca. 2 mm, tube puberulent, lobes lanceolate, glandular. Cypselas oblong, ca. 0.6 mm, densely glandular. Pappus reddish, double, outer very short, inner ones with bristles almost as long as disc corollas. Fl. Sep–Nov.

Grassland on slopes, field margins. Hainan, Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand; E Africa].

1a. Lower leaves with margin coarsely toothed, rarely entire; upper leaves gradually diminished  7a. var. stricta

1b. Lower leaves with margin deeply repand-pinnatilobate, lobes 2-paired, oblong-oblanceolate or cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse and mucronulate, terminal lobe larger; upper leaves and those on branches 3-fid; uppermost leaves linear ............................................................................  7b. var. pinnatifida

7a. Conyza stricta var. stricta

劲直白酒草(原变种) jing zhi bai yiu cao (yuan bian zhong)

Stems erect, 30–65 cm tall, multi-branched; branches corymbose. Lower leaves with margin coarsely toothed, rarely entire. Upper leaves gradually diminished. Fl. Sep–Nov.

Grassland on slopes, field margins. Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan [India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand; E Africa].

7b. Conyza stricta var. pinnatifida (D. Don) Kitamura, Hara’s Fl. E. Himalaya, 337. 1966.

羽裂 yu lie

Erigeron pinnatifidus D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 172. 1825; Conyza absinthifolia Candolle; C. mairei H. Léveillé; C. pinnatifida Buchanan-Hamilton ex Roxburgh (1832), not Franchet (1896), nor Dunn (1903)[??nor (Thunberg) Lessing (1832)]; E. trisulcum D. Don.

Stems erect, 30–45 cm, usually branched from middle part or from base, rarely unbranched; branches corymbose or virgate. Lower leaves with margin deeply repand-pinnatilobate; lobes 2-paired, oblong-oblanceolate or cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse and mucronulate; terminal lobe larger. Upper leaves and those on branches 3-fid. Uppermost leaves linear. Fl. Aug–Nov.

Grassland on slopes; 1800–2600 m. Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [India, Nepal].

8. Conyza canadensis (Linnaeus) Cronquist, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 70: 632. 1943.

小蓬草 xiao peng cao

Erigeron canadensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753.

Annual herbs, root fusiform, with fibrous roots, Stems erect, 50–100 cm tall or more, terete, ± angled, striate, sparsely rigid-hairy, branched above, densely leafy. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves oblanceolate, 6–10 × 1–1.5 cm, base attenuate into petiole, margin sparsely serrate or entire, apex acute or acuminate, middle and upper leaves smaller, linear-lanceolate or linear, both surfaces or only adaxially sparsely pilose, subsessile or sessile, margin entire or rarely 1- or 2-toothed, often with upward curved rigid-hairs. Capitula small, numerous, 3–4 mm in diam., arranged in terminal multi-branched large paniculate inflorescences; peduncles slender, 5–10 mm. Involucre subcylindrical, 2.5–4 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, greenish, linear-lanceolate or linear, acuminate, outer ones ca. 1/2 as long as inner, abaxially sparsely hairy, inner ones 3–3.5 × ca. 0.3 mm, margin scarious, glabrous. Pistillate florets numerous, white, ligulate, 2.5–3.5 mm, ligules small, slightly longer than disc, linear, 2-denticulate at apex; disc florets yellowish, tubular, 2.5–3 mm, 4- or 5-denticulate, tube sparsely puberulent. Cypselas linear-lanceolate, 1.2–1.5 mm, rather compressed, puberulent. Pappus simple, dirty white scabrous, 2.5–3 mm. Fl. May–Sep.

Common weed of open places, field margins, roadsides. Widespread in China [native to North America].

9. Conyza sumatrensis (Retzius) Walker, J. Jap. Bot. 46(3): 72. 1971.

苏门白酒草 su men bai jiu cao

Erigeron sumatrensis Retzius, Obs. Bot. 5: 28. 1789.

Annual or biennial herbs, root fusiform. Stems thick, erect, 80–100 cm tall, angled, green or reddish purple below, branched from middle part, densely covered with gray-white upwardly curved scabrous hairs and mixed with sparsely spreading pubescence, densely leafy. Radical leaves withered and fallen at anthesis, lower leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate, 6–10 × 1–3 cm, attenuate at base into petiole, margin often with 4–8 coarse teeth on each side, entire at base, apex acute or acuminate, middle and upper leaves diminished in size, narrowly lanceolate or almost linear, both surfaces, especially abaxially, with densely scabrous short hairs, margin dentate or entire. Capitula numerous, 5–8 mm in diam., arranged in large and long paniculate inflorescences; peduncles 3–5 mm. Involucre ovate-cylindrical, ca. 4 × 3–4 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, gray-green, linear-lanceolate or linear, acuminate, abaxially with scabrous short hairs, outer somewhat short or ca. 1/2 as long as inner, inner ones ca. 4 mm, with scarious margins. Pistillate florets numerous, 4–4.5 mm, tube fine and long, ligules yellowish or purplish, very short, filiform, 2-lobulate at apex; disc florets 6–11, corolla yellowish, ca. 4 mm, 5-denticulate, tube sparsely puberulent. Cypselas linear-lanceolate, 1.2–1.5 mm, compressed, appressed hairy. Pappus simple, white, later yellow-brown. Fl. May–Oct.

Common weed of grasslands on slopes, open places, roadsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to South America; widely distributed as a weed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world].

10. Conyza bonariensis (Linnaeus) Cronquist, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 70: 632. 1943.

香丝草 xiang si cao

Erigeron bonariensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753; Conyza leucodasys Miquel; E. crispus Pourret; E. linifolius Willdenow.

Annual or biennial herbs, roots fusiform, with fibrous roots. Stems erect or acending, 20–50 cm tall, rarely more, often branched from middle above, with ascending abortive lateral branches, densely covered with appressed short hairs and mixed with sparsely spreading villous hairs, densely leafy. Radical leaves withered at anthesis, lower leaves oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 3–5 × 0.3–1 cm, attenuate at base into long petiole, margin usually coarsely dentate or pinnatilobate, apex acute or slightly obtuse, middle and upper leaves shortly petiolate or sessile, narrowly lanceolate or linear, 3–7 × 0.3–0.5 cm, middle leaves dentate, upper leaves entire, both surfaces densely with appressed scabrous-hairs. Capitula numerous, 3–10 mm in diam., racemose or racemose-paniculate; peduncles 10–15 mm. Involucre elliptic-ovate, ca. 5 × 8 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, linear, acute, abaxially densely gray-white scabrous hairy, outer ones slightly short or ca. 1/2 as long as inner, inner ones ca. 4 × 0.7 mm, with scarious margins. Pistillate florets numerous, white, corolla finely tubular, 3–3.5 mm, without ligules or only 3- or 4-denticulate at apex; disc florets bisexual, tubular, ca. 3 mm, tube sparsely puberulent, 5-denticulate at apex. Cypselas linear-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 mm, compressed, sparsely hairy. Pappus simple, reddish, ca. 4 mm. Fl. May–Oct.

Common weed of field margins, roadsides. Widespread in China [native to South America; widely distributed as a weed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world].

39. THESPIS Candolle, Guill., Arch. Bot. 2: 517. 1833.

歧伞菊属 qi san ju shu

Dwarf annual herbs, glabrous. Stems erect, multi-branched. Leaves alternate, dentate or entire. Capitula small, globose, several, fascicled in corymbs at dichasial branches, sessile or shortly pedunculate, discoid, heterogamous. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, herbaceous, broad and obtuse, margin scarious, 3-nerved, usually slightly shorter than disc. Receptacle flat or convex, glabrous, with fine process. Florets yellow. Pistillate florets multi-seriate, fertile; disc florets bisexual, few, sterile, corolla tubular, tube very short, limb narrowly campanulate, 4- or 5-denticulate. Anthers obtuse at base, auriculate; style arms short, compressed, arcuate. Cypselas small, ribbed, compressed, papillose. Pappus with 6–13 short bristles.

One species: Cambodia, China, India, Nepal.

1. Thespis divaricata Candolle, Guill., Arch. Bot. 2: 517. 1833.

歧伞菊 qi san ju

Annual herbs, root fusiform, with fibrous roots. Stems erect, 4–23 cm tall, branched at base, finely striate, glabrous. Leaves obovate-lanceolate to obovate-spatulate, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, both surfaces sparsely hispidulous on veins or almost glabrous, lateral nerves 2–4-paired, attenuate at base into winged petiole, margin coarsely serrate or entire, apex acuminate. Capitula very small, 2–3 mm in diam., usually 5–10 fascicled in divaricate-branched corymbs, sessile or very shortly pedunculate, discoid, heterogamous. Involucre hemispheric; phyllaries 1- or 2-seriate, ovate-oblong, 1.5–2 mm obtuse or arcuate, margin scarious, 3-nerved, glabrous. Pistillate florets multi-seriate, usually without corolla, fertile; disc florets few, corolla tubular, tube very short, limb funnel-shaped, 5-denticulate at apex. Cypselas oblong-fusiform, ca. 1 mm, compressed, papillose. Pappus with short bristles, ca. 13 in pistillate florets, 6–8 in disc florets.

Field margins, roadsides; ca. 1000 m. S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna) [Cambodia, India, Nepal].

40. FORMANIA W. W. Smith & J. Small, Trans. Bot. Soc.; Edinburgh. 28: 91–92. pl. 2. 1922.

复芒菊属 fu mang ju shu

Small shrubs. Branchlets gray-brown. Leaves alternate, thickly papyraceous, pinnatilobed. Capitula terminal, corymbose, heterogamous, pedunculate, radiate. Involucre cylindrical; phyllaries many-seriate, oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse, scarious, pale green in middle, white ciliate above. Receptacle flat, fimbrillate. Ray florets pistillate, ligulate, ligule ca. 4.5, pale yellow, style arm broad; disc florets hermaphrodite, anthers sagittate, with short acute auricles at base and long acute appendage at apex, style arms lanceolate. Cypselas obovate, 3-ribbed, 2 ribs abaxially and 1 adaxially, puberulent; pappus bristles: enlarged at base, unequal, 5 more than 3 mm, 10–12 less than 3 mm.

* One species: China.

Due to the systematic position of this genus being uncertain, it has not been placed in the key to genera [Nevertheless, please add it. Note: it was in the Anthemideae in FRPS 76(1): 81. 1983].

1. Formania mekongensis W. W. Smith ex J. Small, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 28: n 91. t. 2. 1922.

复芒菊 fu mang ju

Shrubs 30–100 cm tall. Branchlets grayish, slender, pubescent when young. Leaves ovate in outline, 1–1.5 × 0.5–1 cm, thickly papery, glabrous on both surfaces, attenuate at base into short petiole, margin pinnately incised at middle or above, 5–9-lobed, often 2 × incised; lobes triangular to subquadrate; lobules apiculate. Capitula 3–12, cylindric, ca. 7 mm; peduncle puberulent, 1–10 mm, sometimes with leaflike bracteoles. Phyllaries pale green in middle, oblong to linear-oblong, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, scarious, margin white ciliate in distal 1/2, apex obtuse. Ray florets: ligule whitish-yellowish, ca. 4.5 mm; disc florets ca. 8, ca. 6 mm including cypsela. Cypsela ca. 2 mm.

* Valley of Jinsha Jiang on rocky slopes. W Sichuan (Batang), NW Yunnan.



[1] Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China.

[2] Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, 4101, rue Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec H1X 2B2, Canada.

[3] Herbarium, Biology Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.