ASTERACEAE Tribe EUPATORIEAE Cassini, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris 1815: 173. 1815. [Draft]

泽兰族 ze lan zu

Chen Yilin[1]; Takayuki Kawahara[2], Nicholas Hind[3]

Herbs (rarely aquatic or semi-aquatic), subshrubs, shrubs, climbers, small trees, sometimes epiphytic. Leaves usually opposite, rarely strictly alternate, sometimes rosulate or verticillate, sessile or petiolate, blade usually simple. Inflorescence usually a corymbose panicle, sometimes spicate. Capitula sessile or distinctly pedicellate, homogamous, discoid, rarely with some zygomorphic outer florets; involucre cylindrical, campanulate, or hemispherical, rarely subtended by a subinvolucral bract; phyllaries in 1 to several series, few or numerous, imbricate, subimbricate, or distant, equal, subequal, or markedly gradate[??], persistent or variously deciduous, lanceolate or ovate; receptacle flat to convex, sometimes highly conical, usually naked, glabrous or sometimes pubescent. Florets few, very rarely 1, often 4 or 5 to many, commonly fragrant. Corollas funnelform to tubular, never truly yellow; lobes relatively short, commonly 5, very rarely 4; anther cylinders usually included within corolla tube; apical anther appendages obtuse or acute, rarely emarginate or lobed, ca. as long as broad or shorter, sometimes absent, basal appendages short or almost absent, obtuse or rounded; anther collars indistinct, cylindrical or variously pronounced; nectary rarely visible; style base glabrous or pubescent, sometimes with a swollen node; styles usually very conspicuous and much exserted, glabrous or rarely pubescent; style arms linear to clavate, obtuse, stigmatic surfaces variously papillate. Achenes obovoid or oblong with phytomelanin in achene walls, usually 3–5(or 10)-ribbed, body rarely flattened with 2 ribs or 5 winged ribs, sometimes glandular, glabrous or variously setuliferous; carpopodium often paler than achene body, rarely indistinct or absent, of several layers of variously enlarged, sometimes ornamented cells, usually symmetrical, rarely eccentric, annular, cylindrical, or stopper-shaped; pappus sometimes absent and reduced to an apical callus, rarely a laciniate crown, or vestigial, occasionally coroniform, usually of setae, commonly uniseriate, rarely biseriate or very rarely multiseriate, usually persistent, sometimes fragile, usually numerous, sometimes few, usually equal or subequal, rarely very short, or occasionally of flattened scales or awnlike scales, rarely of two distinct elements, very rarely of broad laciniate setae, or of few clavate apical appendages; setae commonly barbellate or laciniate, rarely plumose, apices acute or obtuse, usually gradually tapering, sometimes dilated, very rarely conspicuously narrowing.

A tribe of 17 subtribes containing ca. 2000 species in 182 genera (Hind & Robinson 2006, King & Robinson 1987), represented in China by nine genera belonging to the Adenostemmatinae, Ageratinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae, Mikaniinae, Oxylobinae, and Praxelinae.

The tribe appears to be nearly restricted to the western hemisphere suggesting a Neotropical origin. The subtribes show a mixed distribution pattern, with explosive speciation in several, especially those occurring in Mexico, the West Indies, Colombia, and Brazil. There are many pantropical and pansubtropical weeds in the tribe. Uses of members of the tribe have been briefly summarized by King and Robinson (1987). More recent references on the topic include Garg and Sastry (1996; Ageratum conyzoides, Mikania micrantha), Huang and Ling (1996; Ageratum houstonianum, Adenostemma), Heinrich (1996; 31 Mexican species) and Vallθs et al. (1996; Eupatorium cannabinum). Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsley, a native of Paraguay, is cultivated in China as the source of a strong sweetener and sugar substitute.

Chu, Shih. 1985. Trib. Eupatorieae in Ling Yong & Chen Yiling (eds.). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 47–70.

Garg, S. & T. C. S. Sastry. 1996. Indian Compositae in foods and flavours – a review. In P.D.S. Caligari & D.J.N. Hind (eds). Compositae: Biology & Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994. (D.J.N. Hind, Editor-in-Chief), vol. 2. pp. 361–382.

Heinrich, M. 1996. Ethnobotany of Mexican Compositae: an analysis of historical and modern sources. In P.D.S. Caligari & D.J.N. Hind (eds). Compositae: Biology & Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994. (D.J.N. Hind, Editor-in-Chief), vol. 2. pp. 475–503.

Hind, D. J. N. & H. Robinson. [2006] 2007. Tribe Eupatorieae in J. W. Kadereit & C. Jeffrey (vol. eds.) The families and genera of vascular plants (gen. ed. K. Kubitzki). Vol. 8. Eudicots: Asterales. pp. 510–574.

Huang, Y.-P., & Y.-R. Ling. 1996. Economic Compositae in China. In  P. D. S. Caligari & D. J. N. Hind (eds). Compositae: Biology & Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994. (D. J. N. Hind, Editor-in-Chief), vol. 2. pp. 431–451.

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1987. The genera of the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. 22.

Vallθs, J., Blanchι, C., Bonet, M. ΐ, Agelet, A., Muntanι, J., Raja, D. & M. Parada. 1996. A contribution to the ethnobotany of the Asteraceae in Catalonia. In P. D. S. Caligari & D. J. N. Hind (eds). Compositae: Biology & Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994. (D. J. N. Hind, Editor-in-Chief), vol. 2. pp. 453–466.

1a.     Phyllaries and florets 4 per capitulum (subtribe Mikaniinae) ..........  2. Mikania

1b.     Phyllaries and florets not of equal number, or if florets 4 then phyllaries more numerous.

2a.    Phyllaries distant, with non-articulate bases (subtribe Adenostemmatinae)

3a.     Pappus of 3–5 clavate glandular knobs .......................  3. Adenostemma

3b.     Pappus absent ........................................................  4. Gymnocoronis

2b.    Phyllaries imbricate or subimbricate, sometimes distant, bases always articulate.

4a.     Phyllaries all deciduous leaving a naked receptacle, remaining appressed until lost and not spreading with age (subtribe Praxelinae).

5a.     Receptacle flat to slightly convex ..........................  9. Chromolaena

5b.     Receptacle conical .......................................................  8. Praxelis

4b.     At least some basal phyllaries persistent, phyllaries usually spreading with age.

6a.     Pappus of scales or awns, rarely absent; receptacle paleaceous ....  5. Ageratum

6b.     Pappus of capillary setae; receptacle epaleaceous.

7a.    Style base pubescent (subtribe Eupatoriinae).

8a.     Carpopodium scarcely differentiated; phyllaries green, sometimes with purplish apex, not evidently ribbed ...............  6. Eupatorium

8b.     Carpopodium prominent; phyllaries straw-colored, weakly ribbed................................................... 7. Austroeupatorium

7b.    Style base glabrous.

9a.     Receptacle conical; corollas usually blue; florets 50–70; carpopodium obsolete ..................................  10. Conoclinium

9b.     Receptacle slightly convex; corollas white; florets 10–60; carpopodium distinct .........................................  1. Ageratina


1. AGERATINA Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. Phan. 10: 286. 1841.

??vernacular name

Shrubs or perennial herbs, usually erect. Leaves usually opposite; blade narrowly elliptical to deltoid, mostly toothed, lobed, serrate, or crenate. Capitula laxly to densely corymbose. Phyllaries ca. 30, 2- or 3-seriate, distant to weakly subimbricate, mostly subequal; receptacle usually slightly convex, glabrous or with minute scattered hairs. Florets 10–60, often sweetly scented; corollas white or lavender, usually with slender basal tube and campanulate limb (in subgenera Ageratina and Klattiella), others narrowly funnelform; lobes distinctly longer than wide, inner surface densely papillose, outer surface smooth, glabrous or glanduliferous, usually with hairs (in subgenus Ageratina); anther collar cylindrical, usually elongate; anther appendage large, ovate-oblong, longer than wide; style base usually enlarged (except in subgenus Apoda); arms rarely slightly broadened distally, densely papillose with projecting cells on lateral and outer surfaces. Achenes prismatic or fusiform, usually 5-ribbed, setuliferous or glanduliferous or both; carpopodium distinct (cylindrical in subgenus Ageratina), in others rounded or broadly stopper-shaped; pappus setae uniseriate, 5–40, barbellate, often easily deciduous, capillary, often enlarged distally, often with outer series of shorter setulae. n = ca. 10, ca. 16, 17, 18, 20, ca. 25, ca. 40, ca. 42.

About 265 species: tropics and subtropics of the New World; one species introduced and naturalized in China.

King & Robinson (1970) first provided an infrageneric division recognizing four subgenera, later raising subgenus Pachythamnus to generic status. Subsequently (King & Robinson 1978), they recognized a further two subgenera. A complete list of species in the five subgenera was provided by King & Robinson (1987).

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1970. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae). XIX. New combinations in Ageratina. Phytologia 19: 208–229.

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1972. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). LXXXIII. Additions to the genus Ageratina with a key to the Costa Rican species. Phytologia 24: 79–104.

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1978. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLXVIII. Additions to the genus Ageratina. Phytologia 38: 323–355.

Turner, B. L. 1997. Eupatorieae. In: Turner, B. L., The Comps of Mexico. A systematic account of the family Asteraceae. Vol. 1. Phytologia Mem. 11: i–iv, 1–272.

1. Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) R. M. King & H. Robinson, Phytologia 19: 211. 1970.

破坏草  po huai cao

Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 3: 420. 1826; Eupatorium glandulosum Kunth (1820), non Michaux (1803).

Shrubs or perennial herbs, 30–90(–200) cm tall. Stems erect; branches opposite, obliquely ascending, white or ferruginous puberulent, upper part and peduncles more densely so, glabrescent or glabrous in lower part by anthesis. Leaves opposite, long petiolate; blade abaxially pale, adaxially green, ovate, triangular-ovate, or rhombic-ovate, 3.5–7.5 Χ 1.5–3 cm, thin, both surfaces sparsely puberulent, abaxially and on veins more densely so, basally 3-veined, base truncate or slightly cordate, margin coarsely crenate, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, corymbose or compound-corymbose, to 12 cm in diam. Capitula numerous, 2–4 cm, 40–50-flowered; involucre broadly campanulate, ca. 3 Χ 4 mm; phyllaries 2-seriate, linear or linear-lanceolate, 3.5–5 mm, apex acute or acuminate; receptacle convex to conical. Corollas purplish, tubular, ca. 3.5 mm. Achenes black-brown, narrowly elliptic, 1–1.5 mm, 5-angled, without hairs and glands; pappus setae 10, basally connate, white, capillary[??], equal to corolla. Fl. and fr. Apr–Oct. 2n = 51.

Moist places or roadsides on slopes, sometimes nearby trees; 900–2200 m. A native of Mexico, introduced and naturalized in Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [pantropical and pansubtropical invasive weed in Canary Islands, India, Indochina Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Indonesia, Philippines; S Africa, ??North and/or South] America, Australia, Pacific islands, South China Sea islands].

This species was introduced and naturalized in China since the middle of the nineteenth century. It is poisonous; oxen and horses have become ill and have sometimes died from consuming it.

2. MIKANIA Willdenow, Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 3: 1742. 1803, nom. cons.

假泽兰属  jia ze lan shu

Carelia Jussieu ex Cavanilles(1802) [1803], non Less. (1832), nec Ponted. ex Fabr. (1759); Corynanthelium Kunze; Kanimia Gardner; Willoughbya Necker ex Kuntze.

Plants usually woody vines, sometimes erect perennial herbs or shrubs, moderately branched, never rosulate. Leaves opposite or whorled, sessile to long petiolate; blade linear to broadly ovate, membranous to leathery, base narrow to cordate. Inflorescence terminal on stems or lateral branches, cymose to corymbose or thyrsoid; capitula clustered, sessile to pedicellate, with subinvolucral bract; phyllaries distant, 4, subequal, persistent, receptacle flat, epaleaceous. Florets 4; corollas white or pink, funnelform or with variously campanulate limb, with or without distinct basal tube, glabrous to pilosulous or glanduliferous on outer surface, with or without papillae on inside of throat or lobes; lobes broadly triangular to narrowly oblong; anther collar broad; anther cylinder exserted from corolla throat; apical anther appendages ca. as long as or longer than wide; style base thick, without distinct basal node, glabrous or sometimes papillose; style arms narrowly linear, not broadened at apex, scarcely to strongly papillose. Achenes prismatic, 4–10-ribbed; carpopodium broadly cylindrical; pappus setae numerous, persistent, capillary[??], apical cells obtuse to acute.

About 430 species: pantropical, mainly in Central America and South America (predominantly Brazil); two species in China.

Holmes, W. C. 1982. Revision of Old World Mikania (Compositae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 211–246.

1a.     Leaves, phyllaries, and corollas eglandular; phyllaries 5–7 mm; corollas narrowly campanulate; pappus usually rather reddish ...............  1. M. cordata

1b.     Leaves, phyllaries, and corollas with pale glands; phyllaries ca. 3.5 mm; corollas broadly campanulate; pappus off-white, never reddish ..............  2. M. micrantha

1. Mikania cordata (N. L. Burman) B. L. Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 65. 1934.

假泽兰  jia ze lan

Eupatorium cordatum N. L. Burman, Fl. Ind. 176. 1768; Mikania volubilis Willdenow.

Herbs, perennial, climbing. Stems slender, many branched, sparsely shortly pubescent or nearly glabrous. Median leaves: petiole 2.5–6 cm; blade triangular-ovate, 4–10 Χ 2–7 cm, both surfaces sparsely shortly pubescent, glabrescent or glabrous by anthesis, base cordate, margin entire or repand-crenate; upper leaves gradually smaller, shortly petiolate, triangular or lanceolate, base truncate or cuneate. Capitula numerous in terminal corymb or compound corymb; peduncle slender, pubescent or glabrous, with linear-lanceolate bracteole leaves. Phyllaries narrowly elliptic, 5–7 mm, sparsely pubescent and glandular, distinctly 3-veined, apex obtuse or slightly acute. Corollas white, 3.5–5 mm, with slender tube and campanulate limb, sparsely puberulous. Achenes narrowly elliptic, ca. 3.5 mm, 4-ribbed, glandular; pappus off-white or rather reddish, 3.5–4 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug–Nov. n = 18; 2n = 34, 36, 38.

Thickets, forests; 100–1700 m. Hainan, Taiwan, SE Yunnan [Cambodia, Indonesia (Java), Laos, Malaysian Archipelago (Borneo), New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam].

2. Mikania micrantha Kunth in Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 105. 1818; (ed. quarto): 134. 1820.

??vernacular name

Vines, slender, branched. Stems yellowish or brownish, usually terete, slightly striate, glabrate to sparsely puberulous. Leaves opposite; petiole 1–6 cm; blade ovate, 3–13 ΄ 10 cm, both surfaces glabrate with numerous glandular punctations, base cordate to deeply so, margin entire to coarsely dentate, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescence a corymbose panicle, capitula clustered on subcymose branches. Phyllaries oblong, ca. 3.5 mm, glabrous to puberulous, apex shortly acuminate. Corollas white, 2.5–3 mm, tube narrow, limb broadly campanulate, inside papillate. Achenes 1.5–2 mm, 4-ribbed, with many scattered glands; pappus setae dirty white, ca. 3 mm. Fl. and fr. throughout the year. n = 17–20; 2n = 36, 72.

Naturalized in China, Himalayas (Nepal), Malaysia, Malesia. Native of Mexico, West Indies, Central America, and South America. Widely introduced into Asia, Indonesia, and the Pacific islands.

3. ADENOSTEMMA J. R. Forster & G. Forster, Char. Gen. 89, t. 45. 1776.

下田菊属  xia tian ju shu

Lavenia Swartz.

Herbs, perennial. Leaf blade narrowly elliptical to broadly ovate or hastate, crenate to strongly serrate, acute to slightly acuminate. Inflorescence very laxly cymose. Phyllaries 10–30, biseriate, ± overlapping, somewhat fused at base, equal to subequal; receptacle covered with discrete oval deeply concave scars. Florets 10–60; corollas usually white, narrowly funnelform or with narrow basal tube and broadly campanulate limb, usually with hairs or glands on outer surface, hairs often moniliform; lobes 5, ca. 1.5 Χ longer than wide, non-papillose; anther collar usually strongly expanded below; apical anther appendages distinctly shorter than wide; style shaft with or without long hairs; arms slightly to strongly clavate, often forming most showy part of head, fleshy, rounded apically, scarcely mamillose below. Achenes slightly curved, usually 3-angled without distinct ribs or 5-angled, often tuberculate; carpopodium forming a prominent asymetrical knob; pappus usually of 3 or 5 terete clavate knobs, knobs with tips and upper outside surface covered with an elongated mass of viscid glands. n = 10.

About 26 species: pantropical; one species in China.

1. Adenostemma lavenia (Linnaeus) O. Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 304. 1891.

下田菊  xia tian ju

Herbs, annual, 30–100 cm tall. Stems erect, solitary, rigid, usually divaricately branched in upper part, white puberulent, glabrous in lower part. Leaves remote; basal leaves persistent or withered at anthesis; median leaves large; petiole narrowly winged, 0.5–4 cm; blade elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic or rhombic-elliptic, or broadly ovate to cordate, 4–12 Χ 2–5 cm, both surfaces sparsely puberulent or glabrescent, usually rather densely hairy on veins, base broadly or narrowly cuneate, margin crenate or incised, serrate, or double-serrate, apex acute or obtuse; upper and lower leaves smaller, shortly petiolate. Capitula few, rarely many, small, in lax or dense corymb or panicle; peduncle 0.8–3 cm, gray-white or ferruginous puberulent; involucre hemispherical, 4–5 Χ 6–8 mm, to 10 mm wide at fruiting; phyllaries 2-seriate, green, subequal, narrowly elliptic, thin, submembranous, outer ones mostly connate, sparsely white villous, apex obtuse. Corollas ca. 2.5 cm, viscid-glandular, pubescent. Achenes blackish brown when mature, oblanceolate, ca. 4 Χ 1 mm, glandular, sometimes densely tuberculate, contracted at base, apex obtuse; pappus elements clavate, ca. 4.1 mm, basally connate into a ring, fulvous viscid-glandular. Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct. 2n = 20.

By water sides, roadsides, forests and thickets on slopes, forest margins; 400–2300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, ??Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ??Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, ??Myanmar, ??Nepal, Philippines; Australia, South China Sea islands].

This is an extremely variable and problematic taxon. Some authorities would regard Adenostemma lavenia as distinct from A. tinctorium and A. viscosum, the latter considered by some to be an endemic to Sri Lanka (cf. King & Robinson 1987), but a pantropic by others.

1a.. Leaves broadly ovate or cordate, margin incised, serrate, or double-serrate; achenes densely tuberculate .........................  1b. var. latifolium

1b.. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic or rhombic-elliptic, margin crenate.

2a.. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, margin crenate; achenes glandular  1a. var. lavenia

2b.. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, rhombic-elliptic, or elliptic, thick; achenes densely tuberculate .........................................  1c. var. parvifolium

1a. Adenostemma lavenia var. lavenia

下田菊 (原变种) xia tian ju (yuan bian zhong)

Verbesina lavenia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 902. 1753; Adenostemma tinctorium (Loureiro) Cassini; A. viscosum J. R. & G. Forster; Anisopappus candelabrum H. Lιveillι; Myriactis candelabrum (H. Lιveillι) H. Lιveillι, as ‘caudelabrum;’ Spilanthes tinctoria Loureiro.

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, margin crenate. Achenes glandular.

By water sides, roadsides, forests and thickets on slopes; 400–2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, ??Nepal, Philippines; Australia, South China Sea islands].

This is a widespread weed.

1b. Adenostemma lavenia var. latifolium (D. Don) Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1086. 1936.

宽叶变种  kuan ye bian zhong

Adenostemma latifolium D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 181. 1825.

Leaves broadly ovate or cordate, margin incised, serrate, or double-serrate. Achenes densely tuberculate.

Forest margins, shaded moist places by rivers, along coast, thickets; 500–2300 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, ??Guizhou, ??Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, ??Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea; South China Sea islands].

This is used medicinally for skin diseases of the foot.

1c. Adenostemma lavenia var. parviflorum (Blume) Hochrentiner, Candollea 5: 298. 1934.

小花变种  xiao hua bian zhong

Lavenia parviflora Blume, Bijdr. 905. 1825; Adenostemma parviflorum (Blume) de Candolle; A. viscosum var. parviflorum (Blume) J. D. Hooker.

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, rhombic-elliptic, or elliptic, thick. Capitula small. Involucre 5–7 mm wide. Achenes small, densely tuberculate.

* Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, ??Taiwan.

4. GYMNOCORONIS de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 106. 1836.

??vernacular name

Herbs, annual to perennial, erect. Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate or deltoid. Inflorescence strongly cymose. Phyllaries ca. 20–50, biseriate, equal to subequal; receptacle with discrete oval scars and with soft tissue between. Florets 50–200; corollas white, narrowly funnelform, with shortly stalked glands on outer surface; lobes ca. as wide as long to wider than long; anther collar slightly enlarged; apical anther appendages small, wider than long; style arms very broadly oar-shaped, surface mamillose below, smooth adaxially. Achenes slightly curved, prismatic (4 or)5-ribbed, glanduliferous between ribs, ribs sometimes corky; carpopodium broadly cylindrical; pappus absent.

Five species: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay; recently naturalized in Japan (Suyama 2001) and China.

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1974. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXVII. Additions to the American and Pacific Adenostemmatinae. Adenostemma, Gymnocoronis and Sciadocephala. Phytologia 29: 1–20.

Gao Tian-gang & Liu Yan. 2007. Gymnocoronis, a new naturalized genus of the tribe Eupatorieae, Asteraceae in China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 45(3): 329–332.

Suyama, C. 2001. A new naturalized plant, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides DC. (in Japanese). J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 49: 183–184.

1. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D. Don ex W. J. Hooker & Arnott) de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 266 1838.

??vernacular name

Herbs, perennial, 1–1.5 m tall. Stems erect, few branched, glabrous, angled, fistulose. Leaves opposite, glabrous, broadly lanceolate to ovate; petiole ca. 2.5 cm; blade 8–12(–18) ΄ 1–2.5(–9) cm, 3-veined or veins pinnate, base attenuate, rarely truncate, margin serrate, apex acute. Inflorescence terminal, cymose. Involucre hemispherical, ca. 4 mm tall ΄ 8 mm in diam.; phyllaries 1-seriate, lanceolate, outside pubescent; receptacle convex. Corollas white, ca. 4 mm, shortly stipitate-glandular throughout; style base lacking basal node, glabrous; style arms clavate to oar-shaped, white or pink. Achenes ca. 3 mm, 5-ribbed, body glandular-punctate. Fl. and fr. Sep–Oct. 2n = 20.

A native of South America, but recently introduced, and now naturalized, in China (Taiwan, elsewhere?), Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.

The species is an emergent plant and prefers marshes or pond sides. It spreads by the stems, which easily produce roots.

5. AGERATUM Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 839. 1753.

藿香蓟属  huo xiang ji shu

Carelia Ponted. ex Fabr. (1759), non Less. (1832), nec Jussieu ex Cavanilles (1802) [1803]; Coelestina Cassini (1817); Isocarpha Less. (1830) non R. Browne (1817).

Subshrubs or annual to perennial herbs. Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate; blade elliptical or lanceolate to deltoid or ovate, margin entire to dentate. Inflorescence cymose to subcymose, sometimes subumbellate. Phyllaries 30–40, distant, 2- or 3-seriate, equal or subequal, lanceolate, markedly indurate, often with scarious margin; receptacle conical, glabrous or paleaceous. Florets 20–125; corollas white, blue, or lavender, funnelform or with distinct basal tube; lobes 5, ca. as long as wide, papillose on inner surface, partially papillose and sometimes hispidulous on outer surface; anther collar cylindrical; style base not enlarged, glabrous, arms linear, usually strongly and densely papillose. Achenes prismatic, 4- or 5-ribbed, glabrous or ribs setuliferous; carpopodium distinct; pappus of 5 or 6 free, flattened, sometimes awnlike, scales or lacking or coroniform. n = 10, 20.

About 40 species: Central and South America. One species (A. houstonianum Miller) widely cultivated, and another (A. conyzoides Linnaeus), although sometimes cultivated, is a widespread weed throughout the tropics in both the Old and New Worlds.

Johnson, M. F. 1971. A revision of the genus Ageratum. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 58: 6–88

Robinson, H. 1990. Notes on Ageratum in Mesoamerica (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae). Phytologia 69: 93–104.

1a.     Leaves basally cordate or truncate; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, apex long acuminate, margin entire, stipitate-glandular, with long hairs ....................  1. A. houstonianum

1b.     Leaves basally obtusely or broadly cuneate; phyllaries broad, oblong or lanceolate-oblong, acute, glabrous or with long, non-viscid hairs, eglandular ..  2. A. conyzoides

1. Ageratum houstonianum Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Ageratum n. 2. 1768.

熊耳草  xiong er cao

Ageratum mexicanum Sims.

Herbs, annual, 30–70(–100) cm tall. Stems erect, simple or branched from middle or lower part; stems and branches purple-red, green, or stramineous, white tomentose or thinly lanate. Leaves broadly ovate or triangular-ovate; petiole 0.7–3 cm; median cauline leaves 2–6 Χ 1.5–3.5 cm, or length equal to width; upper and axillary leaves smaller; basally 3-veined or inconspicuously 5-veined, both surfaces sparsely or densely white pubescent, base cordate or truncate, margin crenate-serrate, apex rounded or acute; petioles of upper leaves and axillary branches usually spreading white long tomentose. Inflorescence corymbose, 2–4 cm in diam.; peduncle densely pubescent or powdery-pubescent. Capitula 5–15 or more; involucre campanulate, 6–7 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, narrowly lanceolate, 4–5 mm, abaxially glandular pubescent, margin entire, apex long acuminate. Corollas tubular, 2.5–3.5 mm; limb purplish; lobes pubescent. Achenes black, 5-angled, 1.5–1.7 mm; pappus of 5 short free scales; scales oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 mm, apex aristate-acuminate, sometimes truncate and 0.1–1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. all year. n = 10, 20; 2n = 20, 40.

Grasslands, roadsides, slopes in valleys; 100–1500 m. Cultivated and naturalized in ??Anhui, ??Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, ??Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, ??Taiwan, Yunnan, ??Zhejiang [India, Myanmar, Nepal; Africa, South China Sea islands; native to tropical America].

This plant is used medicinally to “clear away” heat and toxic materials. People in Central America (Ecuador) use the plant as an antiphlogistic, to relieve swelling and pain in the throat.

2. Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 839. 1753.

藿香蓟 huo xiang ji

Herbs, annual, 50–100 cm tall, sometimes less than 10 cm, with inconspicuous main root. Stems robust, ca. 4 cm in diam. at base, simple or branched from middle, stems and branches reddish, or green toward apex, white powdery puberulent or densely spreading long tomentose. Leaves often with axillary abortive buds; petiole 1–3 cm, densely white spreading villous; median leaves ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 3–8 Χ 2–5 cm; upper leaves gradually smaller, oblong, sometimes all leaves small, ca. 1 Χ 0.6 cm, both surfaces sparsely white puberulent and yellow punctate, basally 3-veined or obscurely 5-veined, base obtuse or broadly cuneate, margin crenate-serrate, apex acute. Capitula small, 4–14, in dense terminal corymbs; peduncle 0.5–1.5 cm, powdery puberulent. Involucre campanulate or hemispherical, ca. 5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2-seriate, oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 3–4 mm, glabrous, margin lacerate. Corollas 1.5–2.5 mm, glabrous or apically powdery puberulous; limb purplish, 5-lobed. Achenes black, 5-angled, 1.2–l.7 mm, sparsely white setuliferous; pappus scales 5 or awned, 1.5–3 mm. Fl. and fr. all year. n = 10, 20; 2n = 20, 38, 40.

Valleys, forests, forest margins on slopes, river sides, grasslands, field margins. Cultivated and naturalized in ??Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, ??Henan, ??Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ??Shaanxi, Sichuan, ??Taiwan, Yunnan; but only cultivated in Hebei and Zhejiang [native to tropical America; widespread weed throughout Africa, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, and the South China Sea islands].

This plant is often used by the Chinese for treating the common cold and headaches, boils, eczema, bleeding wounds, and burns, etc.

6. EUPATORIUM Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 836. 1753.

泽兰属  ze lan shu

Eupatoriadelphus R. M. King & H. Robinson.

Herbs, annual to perennial. Leaves opposite or verticillate, upper ones subopposite to alternate; blade linear to ovate, deltoid, or 3-lobed, serrate to subentire. Inflorescence a corymbose or pyramidal panicle. Phyllaries 10–22, weakly to strongly subimbricate, 2–5-seriate, sometimes inner deciduous; receptacle flat or weakly convex. Florets 3–23; corollas white to purple, lavender, or pink, narrowly funnelform or with constricted basal tube and narrowly to broadly campanulate limb, outer surface with glands often concentrated at base of throat and on outer surfaces of lobes, rarely with a few hairs; lobes 5, usually slightly longer than wide; anther collar cylindrical; apical anther appendages large, ovate-triangular, ca. 1.5 Χ as long as wide; style base puberulous or rarely glabrous, with or without node; style arms filiform to slightly broadened or flattened distally, papillose. Achenes prismatic, 5-ribbed; carpopodium not or slightly differentiated; pappus setae 25–40, barbellate, persistent, apical cells with rounded to shortly acute tips. n = 10, 15, 20.

Forty-five species: Eurasia, North America; 12 species in China (seven endemic).

The results of the studies by Schmidt & Schilling (2000) and those of Ito et al. (2000) are in conflict as to the re-recognition of Eupatoriadelphus. Schmidt & Schilling (2000) favor a distinct Eupatoriadelphus (= the 'Eutrochium group') whereas Ito et al. (2000) imply that Eupatorium s.s. can be divided into three 'morphological species groups,' one of which is the 'Eutrochium group.' There is still much confusion among the Chinese species of Eupatorium with both sexual and agamospermous species; species are simply arranged alphabetically. The presence of the hybrid E. ΄tripartitum (Makino) G. Murata & H. Koyama (E. chinense ΄lindleyanum) has been recorded – a plant with tripartite leaves.

[??]Lamont, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 72: 1–68. 1995.

Schmidt, G.J., Schilling, E.E. 2000. Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data. Amer J. Bot. 87: 716–726.

Ito, M., Watanabe, K., Kita, Y., Kawahara, T., Crawford, D.J., Yahara, T. 2000. Phylogeny and phytogeography of Eupatorium (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae): insights from sequence data of the nrDNA ITS regions and cpDNA RFLP. J. Plant Res. 113: 79–89.

1a.     Leaves glabrous and eglandular on both surfaces, or abaxially sparsely puberulent.

2a.    Leaves undivided, ovate, triangular-ovate, or oblong-ovate, basally 3-veined; shrub ...............................................................................  12. E. tashiroi

2b.    Leaves usually 3-lobed; lobes narrowly elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate, pinnately veined; perennial herb; few branched ....................  5. E. fortunei

1b.     Leaves sparsely or densely puberulent or villous, or tomentose on both surfaces, glandular on both surfaces or at least abaxially; achenes setuliferous or glabrous but usually glandular.

3a.    Leaves basally 3- or 5- veined.

4a.     Phyllaries acute at apex.

5a.     Leaves petiolate ................................................  2. E. cannabinum

5b.     Leaves sessile ...................................................  7. E. lindleyanum

4b.     Phyllaries obtuse or rounded at apex.

6a.     Leaves usually tripartite, with large terminal lobe; achenes sparsely setuliferous above or at apex only ....................  9. E. nanchuanense

6b.     Leaves simple; achenes sparsely long setuliferous.

7a.    Capitula 9–15-flowered; shrub ............................... 1. E. amabile

7b.    Capitula 5-flowered; herb.

8a.     Leaves sessile, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute  ...  11. E. shimadai

8b.     Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate-oblong, apex long acuminate .  8. E. luchuense

3b.    Leaves pinnately veined.

9a.     Phyllaries acute at apex ..........................................  7. E. lindleyanum

9b.     Phyllaries obtuse or rounded at apex.

10a.   Leaves divided.

11a.   Achenes glabrous and eglandular ...................  4. E. formosanum

11b.   Achenes glandular ..............................................  3. E. chinense

10b.   Leaves simple.

12a.   Achenes glabrous and eglandular .......................  10. E. omeiense

12b.   Achenes glandular.

13a.   Leaf base cuneate, apex long acuminate, both surfaces sparsely crisped-pubescent, abaxial surface glandular-punctate; inflorescence of lax corymbs ...........................  3. E. chinense

13b.   Leaf base shallowly cordate or rounded, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate, both surfaces ± glabrous, abaxial surface glandular-punctate; inflorescence of dense corymbs ...  6. E. hualienense


1. Eupatorium amabile Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 283. 1932.

多花泽兰  duo hua ze lan

Shrubs. Stems ca. 1 m tall, not scandent; branches slender, divaricate, striate, densely glandular-villous in upper part. Leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially green, ovate or ovate-oblong, 9–12 Χ 4–3.5 cm, abaxially sparsely villous and glandular, adaxially subglabrous, basally 3-veined, sparsely villous on veins, base rounded, margin mucronate-serrate, apex long acuminate. Inflorescence of divaricate terminal corymbs. Capitula 9–15-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 5 mm; phyllaries 12–15, unequal, linear, apically much obtuse, 2- or 3-seriate, outer ones very short, sparsely glandular villous. Corollas tubular, ca. 4.5 mm, glandular. Achenes black, striate, ca. 2.5 mm, sparsely villous; pappus off-white, 4.5–5 mm, barbellate. Fl. and fr. Jul–Mar. 2n = 20*.

* Grasslands, slopes, rock sides. Taiwan.

2. Eupatorium cannabinum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 838. 1753.

大麻叶泽兰  da ma ye ze lan, 异叶泽兰  yi ye ze lan

Eupatorium cannabinum subsp. asiaticum Kitamura var. heterophyllum (de Candolle) Kitamura; E. heterophyllum de Candolle; E. mairei H. Lιveillι; E. nodiflorum Wallich, nom. nud.; E. wallichii de Candolle var. heterophyllum (de Candolle) Diels.

Herbs, perennial, 50–150 cm tall. Rhizomes robust, with many fibrous roots. Stems erect, purplish red, simple or only apically corymbose branched, puberulent; inflorescence branches and peduncles more dense, glabrescent in median lower part by anthesis. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate; petiole ca. 5 mm; median and lower leaves 3-sect; central lobe elliptic or narrowly lanceolate, large, 6–11 Χ 2–3 cm, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, apex acuminate or long acuminate; lateral lobes same shape as central lobe, smaller; upper cauline leaves gradually smaller, 3-sect or simple; lower stem leaves shed by anthesis; all cauline leaves scabrid, rather thick, sparsely puberulent and glandular, more densely hairy abaxially and on veins, pinnately veined, lateral veins 5- or 6-paired, margin serrate. Inflorescences terminal, of densely compound corymbs. Capitula numerous, 3–7-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 6 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate; outer ones short, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, puberulent; median and inner ones gradually longer, with membranous margin and purplish tip. Corollas purple-red, pink, or whitish, ca. 5 mm, outside sparsely yellow glandular. Achenes black-brown, cylindrical, ca. 3 mm, 5-ribbed, with yellow glands; pappus setae white, ca. 5 mm. 2n = 20.

At summits of small hills, grasslands, among bamboos. Jiangsu, Taiwan, Zhejiang, may be introduced and naturalized [Europe].

3. Eupatorium chinense Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 837. 1753.

多须公  duo xu gong, 白头婆  bai tou po, 白头婆 (原变种) bai tou po (yuan bian zhong), 白头婆三裂变种  bai tou po san lie bian zhong

Eupatorium chinense var. oppositifolium (Koidzumi) G. Murata & H. Koyama; E. chinense var. simplicifolium (Makino) Kitamura; E. chinense var. yuliense C. H. Ou; E. crenatifolium Handel-Mazzetti; E. fortunei Turczaninow var. simplicifolium (Makino) Nakai; E. fortunei var. simplicifolium f. aureo-reticulatum (Makino) Nakai; E. fortunei var. tripartitum (Makino) Nakai; E. japonicum Thunberg ex Murray; E. japonicum var. dissectum Makino; E. japonicum var. simplicifolium f. aureo-reticulatum Makino; E. japonicum var. simplicifolium Makino; E. japonicum var. tozanense; E. japonicum var. tripartitum Makino; E. japonicum var. wallichii (de Candolle) Yamamoto; E. mairei Lιveillι; E. makinoi T. Kawahara & T. Yahara; E. makinoi var. oppositifolium (Koidzumi)) T. Kawahara & T. Yahara; ?E. melanadenium Hance; E. tozanense Hayata; E. wallichii de Candolle.

Herbs, perennial, or small shrubs or subshrubs, (50–)70–100(–250) cm tall. Lower part woody, well-branched, stems often purplish-red; branches ascending, upper branches and corymb sordid-white puberulent, inflorescence branches and peduncles more densely hairy, glabrescent in lower part by anthesis. Leaves opposite, subsessile or petiole to 1–2 cm; median stem leaves simple or 3-lobed, ovate, broadly ovate, or narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 4.5–10(–20) Χ (2–)3–5(–6.5) cm, both surfaces scabrid, white puberulent and glandular, more densely so abaxially and on veins, pinnately veined, veins 3–7-paired, base rounded, apex acuminate or obtuse; upper stem leaves homomorphic with median leaves, but smaller; radical leaves withered by anthesis, margin irregularly crenate. Inflorescences terminal, of large laxly compound corymbs, 20–30 cm diam. Capitula numerous, 5-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 5 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate; outer ones short, ovate or lanceolate-ovate, outside puberulent and sparsely glandular, 1–2 mm; median and inner longer, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 5–6 mm, apically and marginally white, membranous, glabrous, but with yellow glands. Corollas white, pink, red or reddish purple, ca. 5 mm, with yellow glands. Achenes pale black-brown, elliptic, ca. 3 mm, 5-ribbed, yellow glandular; pappus setae white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Nov. n = 10; 2n = 20, 30, 31, 39, 40, 50.

Forest margins on slopes, forests, thickets or grasslands on slopes; 200–1900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, ??Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ??Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Nepal].

King & Robinson (1987) took a broad view of this taxon, which is accepted here, and included E. japonicum, and its varieties, together with many other synonyms within the concept of E. chinense, but excluded E. reevesii, which was synonymized with E. squamosum D. Don. This plant is poisonous, especially the leaves, but it is used medicinally to treat large carbuncles, scabies, poisonous snake bites, and to alleviate pain.

Kawahara et al.(1989) found sexual diploids with restricted distribution and agamospermous polyploids with a broad distribution in this complex. They mentioned sexual populations belonging to different varieties are morphologically distinct from each other and has allopatric distribution, but agamospermous ones may derived from hybrid origin and have large morphological variation.

Kawahara T., T. Yahara & K. Watanabe. 1989. Distribution of sexual and agamospermous populations of Eupatorium (Compositae) in Asia.  Pl. Sp. Biol. 4: 37-46.

4. Eupatorium formosanum Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 122. 1908.

台湾泽兰  tai wan ze lan

Eupatorium cannabinum Linnaeus subsp. asiaticum Kitamura; E. formosanum var. quasitripartitum (Hayata) Kitamura; E. quasitripartitum Hayata.

Herbs, perennial, ca. 2 m tall. Stems erect, fascicled; branches obliquely ascending, divaricate inflorescence branches corymbose, slender; stems and branches green initially, densely ferruginous puberulent, later glabrescent, gray-brown. Leaves opposite; median stem leaves 3-partite; central lobe lanceolate, large, 10–15 Χ 2.5–3 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate; lateral lobes lanceolate, small; upper leaves gradually smaller; lower leaves simple, ovate or broadly ovate; upper leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially green, narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, abaxially with many yellow glands and densely adpressed puberulent, adaxially sparsely scabrid-hairy, pinnately veined, lateral veins 5–7-paired, adaxially slightly prominent. Inflorescence of lax terminal corymbs 8–11 cm in diam. Capitula numerous, 5-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 5 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer ones elliptic, 1–1.5 mm, median and inner ones longer, narrowly elliptic, ca. 5 mm, all phyllaries obtuse, glabrous and eglandular. Corollas white, ca. 3.5 mm. Achenes black-brown, ca. 2.5 mm, angled, without hairs and glands; pappus off-white, ca. 3 mm. Fl. and fr.?? 2n = 20*.

Forest margins, grasslands. Taiwan [Japan (Ryukyu Islands)].

5. Eupatorium fortunei Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 170. 1851.

佩兰  pei lan

Eupatorium caespitosum Migo; E. chinense Linnaeus var. tripartitum Miquel; ??E. fortunei var. angustilobum Y. Ling; E. stoechadosmum Hance.

Herbs, perennial, 40–100 cm tall. Rhizomes procumbent, reddish brown. Stems erect, green or reddish purple, few branched or apically inflorescence branched, sparsely puberulent on more dense inflorescences and peduncles. Median cauline leaves large, 3-sect or 3-partite; petiole 0.7–1 cm; terminal lobe large, narrowly elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, 5–10 Χ 1.5–2.5 cm, apex acuminate; lateral lobes identical to terminal lobe but smaller, pinnately veined; margin coarsely toothed or irregularly finely toothed; lower cauline leaves gradually smaller; radical leaves withered by anthesis. Capitula numerous in apical compound corymbs; inflorescence 3–6(–10) cm in diam. Involucre campanulate, 6–7 cm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, outer ones short, ovate-lanceolate; median and inner ones gradually longer, ca. 7 mm, narrowly elliptic; all phyllaries purple-red, without hairs and glands, apex obtuse. Corollas white or reddish, ca. 5 mm, eglandular. Achenes black-brown, elliptic, 3–4 mm, 5-angled, glabrous and eglandular; pappus white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Nov. 2n = 40.

Rare in wild, but commonly cultivated, usually in thickets by roadsides and furrows by roadsides; ca. 2000 m. ??Anhui, ??Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, ??Hainan, ??Hebei, ??Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [?introduced into Japan, Korea, Vietnam].

The plant and flowers are fragrant like Lavandula angustifolia Mill. when crushed.

The plant is used medicinally for “clearing away” heat and toxic materials, and to eliminate “wetness.” The fragrant stems and leaves are used for making fragrant oils.

6. Eupatorium hualienense C. H. Ou, S. W. Chung & C.-I Peng, Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4: 956. 1998.

??vernacular name

Herbs, perennial. Stems erect, 50–150 cm, simple or branching apically, branches divaricate and ascending. Leaves: petiole short, 2–10 mm; median leaves broadly ovate, thick, 6.5–9 Χ 4.5–6.5 cm, lateral veins 5–7 pairs, both surfaces glabrous, abaxially glandular-punctate, base shallowly cordate or rounded, margin serrate with obtuse teeth, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate. Inflorescence of compact corymbs. Capitula numerous, 5–8-flowered; involucre cylindrical; phyllaries 3-seriate, sparsely glandular-punctate, apices obtuse or rounded. Corolla tubular, ca. 3.5 mm, glandular. Achenes 5-ribbed, black, 3–4 mm, glandular-punctate, sparsely setuliferous; pappus whitish, 3–4 mm, barbellate.

* Cliffs. Taiwan.

7. Eupatorium lindleyanum de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 180. 1836.

林泽兰花  lin ze lan

Herbs, perennial, 30–150 cm tall. Rhizome short, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems erect, red or purplish red in lower and median parts, often branched from base or simple, or with corymbose inflorescence branches, only densely white villous or shortly pubescent. Lower cauline leaves shed by anthesis; median cauline leaves elliptic-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 3–12 Χ 0.5–3 cm, simple or 3-sect, thick, both surfaces scabrid, with white long or shortly scabrous hairs and yellow glands, densely so adaxially and on veins, abaxially with yellow glands, basally 3-veined, base cuneate, apex acute; upward median leaves gradually smaller, homomorphic with median cauline leaves; all cauline leaves basally 3-veined, margin deeply or shallowly dentate, sessile or subsessile. Capitula numerous in apical dense corymb; inflorescence 2.5–6 cm in diam., or large compound corymbs ca. 20 cm in diam.; inflorescence and peduncles purple-red or green, densely white shortly pubescent. Involucre campanulate, 5-flowered; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate; outer ones short, 1–2 mm, lanceolate or broadly lanceolate; median and inner ones longer, 5–6 mm, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate; all phyllaries green or purple-reddish, acute. Corollas white, pink, or purplish red, ca. 4.5 mm, with sparse yellow glands. Achenes black-brown, elliptic, ca. 3 mm, 5-ribbed; pappus white, equal to, or rather longer than, corollas. Fl. and fr. May–Dec. 2n = 20, 30, 40.

Shaded moist places in valleys, moist places in forests or grasslands; 200–2600 m. Throughout China except Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, ??Myanmar, Philippines, Russia (Siberia)].

1a.. Leaves with yellow glands abaxially ......................  7a. var. lindleyanum

1b.. Leaves eglandular abaxially ...............................  7b. var. eglandulosum

7a. Eupatorium lindleyanum var. lindleyanum

林泽兰 (原变种)  lin ze lan (yuan bian zhong)

Eupatorium kirilowi Turczaninow; E. lindleyanum de Candolle f. aureo-reticulatum Makino; E. lindleyanum var. trifoliolatum Makino; E. subtetragonum Miquel.

Leaves with yellow glands abaxially.

Shaded moist places in valleys, forests or grasslands; 200–2600 m. Throughout China except Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Siberia)].

The stems and leaves are used medicinally as a carminative and vasopressin (i.e., to promote water retention).

7b. Eupatorium lindleyanum var. eglandulosum Kitamura, J. Jap. Bot. 11: 169. 1935.

无腺变种  wi xian bian zhong

Eupatorium lindleyanum f. eglandulosum (Kitamura) Murata & H. Koyama.

Leaves eglandular abaxially.

* ??Jiangsu, Zhejiang.

8. Eupatorium luchuense Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 147. 1916.

基隆泽兰  ji long ze lan

Eupatorium kiirunense (Kitamura) C. H. Ou & S. W. Chung; E. luchuense var. kiirunense Kitamura.

Herbs, perennial. Stems 50–120 cm tall, glabrescent. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate; petiole 3–8 cm; blade adaxially shiny, obovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 8–10 Χ 5–7 cm, nearly glabrous, abaxially glandular, 3-veined, base truncate or cordate, margin simple, serrate with obtuse teeth, apex long acuminate. Capitula numerous in terminal corymbs; phyllaries 4–5 mm. Corollas white, 3–4 mm. Achenes 2.5–3 mm; pappus white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jan–Aug. n = 10; 2n = 20. [??additional data to make parallel with other descriptions??]

Open places, often on rock walls. Taiwan [Japan (Ryukyu Islands)].

9. Eupatorium nanchuanense Y. Ling & C. Shih, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 354. 1985.

南川泽兰  nan chuan ze lan

Herbs, perennial, 30–120 cm tall. Rhizomes procumbent; stems erect, brownish, purple-red, or dark purple-red; branches ascending; upper inflorescence branches corymbose; stems and branches white crisped-puberulent, more densely hairy on peduncles, sparsely hairy, or glabrescent in middle-lower part. Leaves irregularly opposite, often with axillary leaf buds, abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green; median stem leaves 3-sect; petiole ca. 1 cm; central lobe large, elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, 6–8 cm, base cuneate, pinnately lobed, partite, apex caudate-acuminate; basal segment large; lateral lobes smaller, 3–5 mm, elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, pinnately lobate, semi-lobed, incised-dentate; upper leaves 3-sect or irregularly 3-partite; lateral lobes unequal in size; central lobe sparsely incised-serrate or sometimes undivided, often lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; basal leaves withered by anthesis; all leaves with both surfaces sparsely white adpressed-puberulent and yellow glandular. Inflorescence terminal or compound corymbs, 8–12 cm in diam. Capitula numerous; involucre campanulate; phyllaries 3-seriate, imbricate, outer ones short, elliptic, ca. 2.5 mm, median and inner ones elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, ca. 5 mm, all phyllaries purple-tinged, apically rounded. Corollas white or reddish, ca. 5 mm, with sparse yellow glands. Achenes black-brown, elliptic, ca. 3 mm, 6-angled, sparsely white setuliferous apically. Fl. and fr. Jun–Jul.

* Slopes of hills; 1200–1700 m. Chongqing (Nanchuan), Yunnan (Da Guan).

10. Eupatorium omeiense Y. Ling & C. Shih, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 74: 354. 1985.

峨眉泽兰  e mei ze lan

Herbs, perennial. Rhizomes robust, with numerous adventive roots. Stems erect, 1–2 m tall, multi-branched; branches ascending, slender; inflorescence branched, corymbose in upper part. Stems and branches pulverous dirty-white puberulent; inflorescence branches and peduncles rather densely hairy, sparsely hairy, or glabrous in lower part by anthesis. Leaves opposite, thickly papery; median stem leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, elliptic or ovate-oblong, 6–9 Χ 2–3.5 cm, both surfaces sparsely white puberulent and with yellow glands, pinnately veined, lateral veins 4- or 5-paired, base cuneate, margin subentire or repand-crenate, apex acuminate; upper leaves homomorphic with middle leaves, but smaller, basal leaves withered by anthesis. Inflorescence of terminal compound corymbs. Capitula numerous, 5-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 4 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, outer ones short, elliptic, ca. 1 mm, median and inner ones gradually longer, elliptic, ca. 4 mm, puberulous, without glands, apex rounded. Corollas white, ca. 4 mm, sparsely yellow glandular. Achenes blackish brown, subelliptic, 5-ribbed, glabrous and eglandular; pappus white, ca. 4 mm. Fl. and fr. Sep.–Nov.

* Roadsides on slopes of hills; 700–900 m. Sichuan (Emei, Tianchuan).

11. Eupatorium shimadai Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 284. 1932.

毛果泽兰  mao guo ze lan

Herbs, perennial, 40–80 cm tall. Rhizomes short, procumbent. Stems erect, fulvous or purple-tinged, ca. 4 mm in diam. at base, usually simple, or with terminal corymbose inflorescence branches, rarely few branched, white puberulent in upper part, densely hairy on inflorescences and peduncles, glabrescent in lower part. Leaves opposite, thick, simple, abaxially pale green, adaxially green, sessile or nearly so; median leaves large, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-oblong, or ovate, 8–10 Χ 5–7 cm, base rounded or truncate, apex caudate-acuminate; from middle part upward or downward gradually smaller, but homomorphic with median stem leaves; all leaves abaxially with yellow glands, both surfaces white puberulent, densely hairy on veins, basally 3-veined, margin coarsely or shallowly serrate. Inflorescences terminal, of compound corymbs, 8–18 cm in diam. Capitula numerous, 5-flowered; involucre campanulate, ca. 6 mm; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, imbricate, outer ones short, oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 2–2.5 mm, median and inner ones oblong, ca. 6 mm, all phyllaries sparsely shortly pubescent, without glands, apex obtuse or rounded. Corollas white or purplish, ca. 4 mm, with few yellow glands. Achenes black-brown, elliptic, 3–3.5 mm, 5-ribbed, sparely villous, eglandular; pappus off-white, ca. 4 mm. Fl. and fr. May–Jun. 2n = 20.

* Grasslands on slopes and on rocky places. Fujian, Taiwan.

12. Eupatorium tashiroi Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 18, no. 8, 9. 1904.

泽兰  ??pinyin transliteration

Eupatorium clematideum (Wallich ex de Candolle) Schultz-Bipontinus var. gracillimum (Hayata) C. I. Peng & S. W. Chung; E. gracillimum Hayata; E. tashiroi var. gracillimum (Hayata) Yamamoto; E. tashiroi f. gracillimum (Hayata) Sasaki.

Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, scandent. Stems terete, slender, glabrous; branches divaricate, flexuous. Leaves opposite, petiole 4–6 mm; blade 4–8 ΄ 2–3 cm, thin, 3-veined, base obtuse or rounded, margin dentate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence a lax corymb. Capitula 5-flowered, 1 cm; peduncle 1–1.5 cm, pubescent; involucre narrowly campanulate; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, 1- or 2-seriate, outer ones ca. 1.5 mm, inner ones ca. 5 mm, margin scarious. Corollas white, ca. 4 mm. Achenes black, cylindrical, ca. 2.5 mm, 5-ribbed, glabrous; pappus 1-seriate, 3–4 mm, barbellate. 2n = 20.

* Mountains. C and S Taiwan.

Eupatorium clematideum (Wallich ex de Candolle) Schultz-Bipontinus (= E. squamosum D. Don) was recognized in the Flora of Taiwan; however, this species is a native of Nepal, and the Taiwanese element belongs to the taxon recognized by Hayata.

7. AUSTROEUPATORIUM R. M. King & H. Robinson, Phytologia 19: 433. 1970.

??vernacular name

Eupatorium sect. Austroeupatorium (R. M. King & H. Robinson) Cabrera.

Subshrubs or herbs, erect. Leaves opposite below, often subopposite or alternate above; blade ovate to narrowly oblong, usually crenulate to serrulate. Inflorescences of terminal flattened corymbose panicles. Involucre campanulate, 5–6 ΄ 4–5 mm; phyllaries ca. 12–18, 2- or 3-seriate, mostly unequal; receptacle flat or slightly convex. Florets 9–23, fragrant; corolla white, rarely lilac, narrowly funnelform with rather narrow tube, glands on outer surface; lobes ca. 1.5 Χ as long as wide, without stomata; lower part of filaments slender and flexuous; anther collar narrowly cylindrical; apical anther appendages ovate-oblong, longer than wide, style base not enlarged, densely puberulous; style filiform. Achenes prismatic, 5-ribbed; carpopodium distinct; pappus setae 30–40, slender, barbellate, persistent, apical cells often enlarged, with rounded tips. n = 10.

Thirteen species: southern South America, one species adventive in the palaeotropics including China.

Hsu, Tsai-Wen, Ching-I Peng & Chiu-Mei Wang. 2006. Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) King & Robinson (Asteraceae), a newly naturalized plant in Taiwan. Taiwania 51(1): 41–45.

1. Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Robinson, Phytologia 19(7): 434. 1970 [King & Robinson (1987) are using A. inulaefolium (H.B.K.) R.M.King & H. Robinson. I do not know which is legal. Please check].

Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth in Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 85 1818.

Subshrubs or perennial herbs, to 3 m tall. Stems erect, few branched, brownish, terete, densely puberulous. Leaves mostly opposite; petiole ca. 15 mm, winged toward blade; blade narrowly ovate to lanceolate, ca. 15 ΄ 6 cm, adaxially sparsely to densely puberulous, glandular-punctate, abaxially densely puberulous and glandular-punctate, 3-veined, base rounded to cuneate, abruptly narrowed, margin serrulate to crenate-serrate, apex narrowly acuminate. Inflorescence a broad dense corymb; pedicels 2–5 mm, densely puberulous. Capitula 6–7 mm, 8–15 florets; phyllaries 3-seriate, subimbricate, broadly oblong, 1.5–6 mm, margin and tip scarious, weakly 2–4-ribbed, puberulous outside, apex shortly acute to rounded. Corollas white, 4–4.5 mm, tube and lobes sparsely glandular-punctate, lobes with few hairs. Achenes 1.8–2 mm, glabrous or very sparsely glandular-punctate; carpopodium short; pappus 1-seriate, persistent, 3.5–5 mm, barbellate, off-white. Fl. and  fr ?? [Oct–May in South America].

Introduced and naturalized, Taiwan [widespread in South and Central America, naturalized in Indonesia and Sri Lanka].

8. PRAXELIS Cassini, Dict. Sci. Nat. 43: 261. 1826.

??vernacular name

Eupatorium sect. Praxelis (Cassini) Bentham ex Baker.

Subshrubs or annual or perennial herbs, erect to decumbent. Leaves opposite or whorled; blade ovate to elliptical or filiform, subentire to sharply serrate. Inflorescences of solitary capitula on long erect peduncles or laxly thyrsoid or rather densely corymbose. Involucre usually campanulate; phyllaries 15–25, 3- or 4-seriate, unequal, gradate, outer phyllaries falling first; receptacle highly conical, glabrous. Florets 25–30; corollas white, blue, or lavender, narrowly funnelform or with cylindrical throat and slightly narrower basal tube, outer surface mostly smooth, with a few glands; lobes 1.5–3 Χ as long as wide, densely long papillose on inner surface, usually with some projecting cells on outer surface at tip; anther collars with enlarged bases, narrowed apically; apical anther appendages slightly longer than wide to distinctly longer than wide, often toothed at tip; style base not enlarged; arms long, narrowly linear, more broadened in distal half, densely long papillose. Achenes slightly to strongly obcompressed, 3- or 4-ribbed, sparsely setuliferous; carpopodium distinct, broad, highly asymmetrical; pappus setae ca. 40, persistent, not or scarcely broadened distally. 2n = 30, 48, 51, c. 80.

Sixteen species: South America; one species adventive in E Asia and Australia.

1. Praxelis clematidea R. M. King & H. Robinson, Phytologia 20: 194. 1970.

??vernacular name

Eupatorium catarium Veldkamp, nom. nov. pro E. clematideum Grisebach; E. clematideum Grisebach (1879), nom. illegit. non (de Candolle) Schultz-Bipontinus (1866); E. clematideum var. gracillimum (Hayata) C. I. Peng & S. W. Chung.

Subshrubs or annual herbs, to 0.6 m tall. Stems erect or ascending, bright green, simple or poorly branched at base, leafy throughout except at base, pubescent throughout, hairs simple, eglandular. Leaves opposite, rank-smelling; petiole 3–7 mm; blade ovate, 20–35 ΄ 12–25 mm, pubescent below, hairs long, simple, eglandular along venation, stipitate-glandular and glandular-punctate between veins, base attenuate, margin coarsely serrate, apex acute. Inflorescence terminal, corymbose, capitula pedicellate; pedicels 4–7 mm, pubescent; involucre narrowly campanulate, 4–5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, with scattered short simple eglandular hairs at base, glabrous apically, margin ciliate, apex long attenuate; receptacle conical, epaleaceous. Florets ca. 35–40; corollas bright lilac-blue, ca. 4.5 mm; corolla lobes long papillose on inner surface, usually glabrous outside or with few simple eglandular hairs; anther appendages longer than wide, apex acute; style base not swollen, glabrous, bright lilac-blue; style arms coarsely papillose. Achenes 2–2.5 mm, 3–5-ribbed, ribs pale, setuliferous or glabrous, body black, with scattered setulae; pappus setae 3.5–4.5 mm, coarsely barbellate, off-white. Fl. and fr. often throughout the year.

Widespread in South America, becoming weedy in many cultivated areas; introduced and becoming naturalized in Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan) and Northern Australia.

9. CHROMOLAENA de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 133. 1836.

??vernacular name

Eupatorium sect. Chromolaena (de Candolle) Bentham ex Baker; Eupatorium sect. Cylindrocephala de Candolle; Eupatorium sect. Osmia (Schultz-Bipontinus) Bentham ex Baker.

Subshrubs, shrubs, or perennial herbs, erect to somewhat scandent. Leaves usually opposite; blade mostly ovate or triangular to elliptical, sometimes linear, subentire to lobed. Inflorescences usually thyrsoid to candelabriform or with lax to densely corymbose branches, rarely of solitary capitula on long erect peduncles. Phyllaries 18–65, 4–6-seriate, markedly unequal, gradate, often with expanded herbaceous or colored tips; receptacle flat to slightly convex, glabrous, sometimes paleaceous. Florets 6–75; corollas white, blue, lavender, or purple, rather cylindrical with scarcely narrower base, outer surface smooth below lobes, with few to many shortly stalked glands, often with rather stiff hairs; lobes slightly to distinctly longer than wide; usually densely papillose on inner surface, or smooth (subgenus Osmiella R. M. King & H. Robinson); anther collars usually broader below, narrowed apically, or not broadened below (subgenus Osmiella); apical anther appendages large, oblong, ca. 1.5 Χ as long as wide, entire or crenulate at tip; style base not enlarged; arms narrowly linear to slightly broadened distally, slightly mamillose to densely long papillose. Achenes prismatic, (3–)5-ribbed, with setulae mostly on ribs; carpopodium distinct, broadly cylindrical or narrowed below; pappus setae ca. 40, slender, persistent, not or scarcely broadened distally. n = 10, 20, 29, c. 40, 50.

About 165 species: New World tropics and subtropics; one species a pantropical weed, which is present in China.

King & Robinson (1987) noted two subgenera and provided characters in their generic description to separate species of subgenus Osmiella. Concern is growing in many tropical countries over the alarming spread of the weed Chromolaena odorata (e.g., Zachariades et al. 2002). The taxonomy and distribution of this species has been well documented by Gautier (1992).

Gautier, L. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution of a tropical weed: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. King & H. Robinson. Candollea 47: 645–662.

Zachariades, C., Muniappan, R. & L. W. Strathie. (eds). 2002. Proceedings 5th International Workshop Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena odorata, Durban, South Africa, 23–25 October 2000. Pretoria: ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, 186 pp.

1. Chromolaena odorata (Linnaeus) R. M. King & H. Robinson, Phytologia 20: 204. 1970.

飞机草  fei ji cao

Eupatorium odoratum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1205. 1759.

Herbs, perennial. Rhizomes robust, procumbent. Stems erect, 1–3 m tall, striate; branches robust, often opposite, spreading and horizontal, rarely alternate forming an acute angle with stem; stems and branches densely fulvous tomentose or shortly pubescent. Leaves opposite; petiole 1–2 cm; blade abaxially pale, adaxially green, ovate, triangular, or ovate-triangular, 4–10 Χ 1.5–5 cm, rather thick, both surfaces scabrid, villous with red-brown glands, abaxially and on veins more densely so, basally 3-veined, lateral veins fine, abaxially slightly raised, base truncate or shallowly cordate, margin sparsely coarsely and irregularly crenate or entire, or serrate on one side, or with one coarse tooth or 3-fid on each side, apex acute; leaves below inflorescence small, often entire. Inflorescence of numerous or few capitula in corymbs compound corymbs; peduncle thick, densely shortly pubescent. Capitula ca. 20-flowered; involucre cylindrical, ca. 10 Χ 4–5 mm; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, outer ones ovate, ca. 2 mm, puberulent, apex obtuse, median and inner ones stramineous, oblong, 7–8 mm, broadly 3-veined, eglandular, apex acuminate. Corollas white or pink, ca. 5 mm. Achenes black-brown, ca. 4 mm, 5-ribbed, without glands, sparsely white adpressed setuliferous along ribs. Fl. and fr. Apr–Dec. 2n = 58, 60.

Forest margins, roadsides, open disturbed land; introduced into Hainan during World War II; naturalized in ??Fujian, Hainan, Yunnan [Nepal; native of Mexico, widely naturalized in tropical Asia].

It is a destructive weed in the field because of very strong propagation.

10. CONOCLINIUM de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 135. 1836.

??vernacular name

Herbs, perennial, erect, rhizomatous. Leaves opposite; blade ovate to deltoid-ovate, crenate to bipinnatifid. Inflorescence laxly cymose below, with densely cymose branches. Phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate, ca. 25, distant, mostly subequal, lanceolate; receptacle highly conical, glabrous or rarely pubescent. Florets 50–70; corollas blue or white, narrowly funnelform, with glands on outer surface; basal tube not constricted above nectary; lobes slightly longer than wide, inner surface with short bulging cells, mamillose to shortly papillose, outer surface papillose in distal half, anther collars cylindrical, often narrow; apical anther appendages ovate to ± quadrate, ca. as long as wide; style base not enlarged, glabrous; arms narrowly linear to filiform, slightly broadened distally, densely papillose. Achenes prismatic, 5-ribbed, glabrous or with a few scattered glands, rarely setuliferous above; carpopodium usually obsolete, rarely distinct and asymmetrical; pappus setae uniseriate, ca. 30, barbellate, persistent, often with slightly to distinctly enlarged tips, apical cells obtuse to rounded. n = 10.

Four species: native of United States of America and Mexico; one species is often cultivated and sometimes escapes.

1. Conoclinium coelestinum (Linnaeus) de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 135. 1836.

??vernacular name

Eupatorium coelestinum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 838. 1753.

Herbs, perennial, 0.3–2 m. Stems usually erect, sometimes decumbent or procumbent and rooting at nodes. Leaves opposite, petiolate, petiole [??] cm; leaf blade triangular to deltate or ovate, 2–7(–13) ΄ 1.5–3 cm, base usually cuneate to truncate, rarely subcordate, margin serrate to serrate-dentate or crenate, apex acute. Phyllaries 3.5–4 mm. Corollas blue to blue-violet or rosy-violet, (1.6–)2–2.5 mm. Achenes 1–1.5 mm, glabrous; pappus setae not dilated at apices. Fl. and fr. ??

Cultivated and escaped, now growing in wet areas on slopes and roadsides. Guizhou, Yunnan [U.S.A.].

[1] Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China.

[2] Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 7 Hitsuji-ga-oka, Toyohira, Sapporo 062-8516, Japan.

[3] Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, England, United Kingdom.