CUCURBITACEAE [Draft]

葫芦科  hu lu ke

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming)[1], Huang Luqi (黄璐琪)[2], Chen Shukun (陈书坤)[3]; Charles Jeffrey[4]

Herbs or weakly woody shrubs with watery sap, scandent or prostrate, annual or perennial. Roots fibrous or tuberous. Stem often angular. Leaves alternate, undivided or variously palmately or pedately divided, often cordate; tendrils lateral, solitary, simple or branched, spirally twisted, rarely absent; stipules absent. Flowers unisexual, very rarely bisexual, monoecious or dioecious, paniculate, racemose or subumbellate, rarely solitary. Calyx-tube (hypanthium) adnate to ovary; tube rotate, campanulate or saucer-shaped, usually 5-lobed, lobes imbricate, corolla usually sympetalous, inserted on calyx-tube, lobes valvate or involute. Stamens inserted at base or mouth of calyx-tube, usually 5 or 3, of which one often 1-locular and other two 2-locular; filaments separate or variously united into a column; anthers separate or coherent into a head, locules straight to conduplicate, extrorse; rudimentary ovary often present in male, staminodes often in female flowers. Ovary inferior or nearly completely so, mostly composed of 3 carpels, 3-locular, rarely 1-2 or spuriously 4–6-locular; placentas parietal, fleshy, often confluent in middle of ovary; style terminal, simple or branched at apex or styles free; stigma enlarged or 2-fid; ovules usually numerous, rarely few or solitary, horizontal, pendulous or ascending, often immersed in pulp. Fruit usually a fleshy berry or corky, indehiscent or rarely opening by valves or by an operculum, rarely fibrous. Seeds often numerous, rarely few or solitary, horizontal, pendulous or ascending, often compressed, rarely winged; endosperm absent; embryo with foliaceous cotyledons and short radicle.

About 123 genera and over 800 species: most in tropics and subtropics, very rare in temperate regions; 36 genera and 150 species in China.

Lu An-ming & Zhang Zhi-yun. 1986. Cucurbitaceae. In: Lu An-ming & Chen Shu-kun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(1): 84–280.

The following 2 names are missing from the account. Should they be accepted species or synonyms?

Hemsleya kunmingensis H. T. Li et al. (Ann. Bot. Fenn. 44: 486. 2007), described from Yunnan (Kunming, Xishan, under secondary forest, H. T. Li 043, KUN).

Trichosanthes okamotoi Kitamura (J. Jap. Bot. 19: 40. 1943), described from Taiwan (according to IPNI).

The following 12 names are also missing from the account. C. Jeffrey assumes they are synonyms of accepted names but has not been able to place them. If any of the names should be included here, please incorporate them into the text.

Hemsleya graciliflora var. tianmuensis X. J. Xue & H. Yao, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33(2): 208. 1995.

Juppia borneensis Merrill, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 85: 170. 1922.

Melothria argyi H. Léveillé, Mem. Real Acad. Ci. Barcelona 12: 548. 1916.

Melothria perpusilla var. deltifrons Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 1117. 1953.

Momordica indica Linnaeus, Herb. Amb. 24. 1754.

Momordica surculata Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 4: 21. 1790.

Thladiantha villosula var. nigrita A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 78–79. 1981.

Trichosanthes bracteata var. scotanthus (C. B. Clarke) Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7(4): 1065. 1936.

Trichosanthes brevibracteata Kundu, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 43: 373. 1942.

Trichosanthes pachyrrhachis Kundu, J. Bot. 77(10): 9. 1939.

Trichosanthes stylopodifera C. Y. Cheng & C. H. Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 341. 1980.

Trichosanthes yixingense Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(4): 483. 1981.

1a.       Petals fimbriate at their margins.

2a.       Ovules and seeds numerous; calyx tube less than 7 cm .............................  21. Trichosanthes

2b.       Ovules 12, seeds usually 6, each with one abortive seed attached to its side; calyx tube 7–10 cm    20. Hodgsonia

1b.       Petals not fimbriate.

3a.       Stamens 5, anther-locule ovate and straight.

4a.       Leaves palmately compound, rarely simple.

5a.       Plants woody, scandent; leaflets almost entire, with 2 glands at base; seeds with membranous wing at apex .....................................................................................................  4. Neoalsomitra

5b.       Plants herbaceous, scandent; leaflets distinctly denticulate, eglandular at base; seeds without wing or rarely winged.

6a.       Fruits indehiscent; seeds horizontal ......................................................  11. Thladiantha

6b.       Fruits 3-valved, dehiscent at apex or rarely not dehiscent but then smaller in size; seeds pendulous.

7a.       Corolla-lobes more than 5 mm; fruits clavate-cylindric, obovate or globose; seeds more than 6 in each fruit ........................................................................................................  1. Hemsleya

7b.       Corolla-lobes less than 3 mm; fruits turbinate or globose, 1–3-seeded.

8a.       Flowers monoecious; fruits turbinate, 3-valved, dehiscent at apex
.......................................................................................................  2. Gomphogyne

8b.       Flowers dioecious; fruits globose, indehiscent ..................................  3. Gynostemma

4b.       Leaves simple.

9a.       Flowers with corolla lobes less than 10 mm; fruit dehiscent, operculate or 3-valved.

10a.     Leaf blade entire; fruit 6–10 cm, truncate at apex, 3-valved; seeds surrounded by a membranous wing                                                                                                                       5. Zanonia

10b.     Leaf blade divided; fruit 1–3.5 cm, operculate; seed not winged or with membranous wing at apex.

11a.     Flowers monoecious; leaf blade cordate-hastate, eglandular at base; fruit operculate, dehiscent near middle; seeds not winged ................................................................  7. Actinostemma

11b.     Flowers dioecious; leaf blade with 1–2 pairs of glands at base; fruit operculate, dehiscent near apex; seeds with membranous wing at apex
.........................................................................................................  6. Bolbostemma

9b.       Flowers with corolla lobes ca. 2 cm or if smaller then calyx longer than corolla; fruit baccate, indehiscent; seed not winged.

12a.     Flowers with calyx longer than corolla; anthers reniform, fruit more than 10 cm  8. Indofevillea

12b.     Flowers with corolla longer than calyx; anthers oblong; fruit less than 10 cm.

13a.     Plants with black glandular scales ................................................................  9. Siraitia

13b.     Plants without glandular scales.

14a.     Tendrils spiraling only above point of branching; anther-locules straight
.......................................................................................................  11. Thladiantha

14b.     Tendrils spiraling also below point of branching, anther-locules reniform-curved ...  10. Sinobaijiania

3b.       Stamens 3 or 1, anther-locules horizontal when only one stamen, or rarely 5 but then anther-locules conduplicate.

15a.     Stamens united into a central column and pollen sac fusing into ring; leaf blade pedatipartite  22. Cyclanthera

15b.     Stamens 3, or rarely 5 but then anther-locules conduplicate; leaves not pedately compound.

16a.     Flowers less than 10 mm in diam.

17a.     Flowers dioecious or rarely bisexual; fruits 3-valved from apex to base when mature; seeds 1–3, pendulous ...........................................................................................  14. Schizopepon

17b.     Flowers usually monoecious, rarely dioecious; fruits indehiscent; seeds often horizontal.

18a.     Male flowers without pistillode; anther-locules conduplicate, male and female flowers fasciculate in leaf axil ..............................................................................................  30. Diplocyclos

18b.     Male flowers with globose or subuliform pistillode; anther-locules straight, curved or conduplicate.

19a.     Anther-locules incurved or reflexed .........................................................  34. Solena

19b.     Anther-locules straight.

20a.     Male flowers in sessile or subsessile fascicles; ovary hispid .....................  27. Mukia

20b.     Male flowers in pedunculate cymes, racemes or umbels, or solitary; ovary glabrous or with fine hairs.

21a.     Filaments as long as or longer than anthers, 1 mm or more long.

22a.     Corolla yellow; filaments and staminodes glabrous except at very base; seeds scrobiculate                                                                                                    29. Scopellaria

22b.     Corolla white or pale yellow; filaments and staminodes hairy above base; seeds smooth     25. Zehneria

21b.     Filaments shorter than anthers, 0.5–1 mm.

23a.     Anther connective not produced beyond thecae; stigmas glabrous, apically shortly 2-lobed; fruit black when ripe ....................................................................  24. Melothria

23b.     Anther connective usually shortly produced beyond thecae; stigmas papillose, rounded; fruit white or red when ripe
                                                                                            28. Neoachmandra

16b.     Flowers more than 10 mm in diam.

24a.     Anther-locules straight; calyx tube narrowly funnelform ...............................  17. Edgaria

24b.     Anther-locules conduplicate.

25a.     Tendrils absent ....................................................................................  13. Ecballium

25b.     Tendrils present.

26a.     Corolla campanulate.

27a.     Leaf blade hirsute, eglandular at base; flowers yellow; fruit large
                                                                                                          36. Cucurbita

27b.     Leaf blade glabrous, with a few glands at base; flowers white; fruit ca. 5 cm  31. Coccinia

26b.     Corolla rotate or rarely campanulate but then lobes almost free.

28a.     Calyx-tube in male flower elongate, tubular or funnelform.

29a.     Flowers white; petiole apex 2-glandular ........................................  32. Lagenaria

29b.     Flowers yellow; leaf blade eglandular at base.

30a.     Corolla rotate; lamina less than 10 cm .................................  19. Gymnopetalum

30b.     Corolla campanulate; leaf blade over 10 cm.

31a.     Leaf blade deeply lobed; seeds many, horizontal ........................  15. Biswarea

31b.     Leaf blade undivided; seeds few, pendulous ..................  16. Herpetospermum

28b.     Calyx rotate.

32a.     Flowers with foliaceous bract on pedicel; fruits usually muriculate, often 3-valved when mature ...................................................................................................  12. Momordica

32b.     Flowers without bract on pedicel.

33a.     Male inflorescence racemose or subumbellate.

34a.     Annual herbs; fruits many-seeded .....................................................  18. Luffa

34b.     Perennial climber; fruits one-seeded; seed large ...........................  23. Sechium

33b.     Flowers solitary or fascicled.

35a.     Sepals subfoliaceous, dentate, reflexed .....................................  35. Benincasa

35b.     Sepals subulate, entire, not reflexed.

36a.     Tendrils 2–3-fid; connective not produced ................................  33. Citrullus

36b.     Tendrils simple; connective produced beyond anther locules
                                                                                                  26. Cucumis

1. HEMSLEYA Cogniaux ex Forbes & Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 490. 1888.

雪胆属  xue dan shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Perennial scandent herbs. Roots enlarged, oblate or rarely cylindric. Stem and branches slender or moderately robust. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Leaves pedately (3–)5–9(–11)-foliolate; leaflets narrowly oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate, membranous or papery. Flowers dioecious. Inflorescence cymose-racemose to paniculate, axillary. Male flowers: calyx-tube short, segments ovate to ovate-lanceolate, ascending, spreading, rotate, recurved or reflexed; corolla rotate, discoid, turbinate, bowl-shaped, inverted bowl-shaped, Chinese lantern-like, or umbelliform, pale yellow, yellow-green or orange-red, segments herbaceous or subsucculent, ovate-lanceolate to broadly ovoid; stamens 5, filaments exserted. Female flowers: calyx and corolla usually as in male, sometimes slightly larger; ovary subglobose or conical, smooth or muriculate, styles 3, stigmas 2-lobed. Fruit globose, cylindric or tubular-cylindric, longitudinally 9–10-striate or 9–10-angular, almost smooth or verrucose. Seeds elliptic or broadly ovate, usually with woody wings, sometimes wings membranous or absent.

About 24 species: subtropical or tropical Asia: 24 species in China.

1a.       Roots without tuber; seeds with broadly membranous wing ..........................  1. H. graciliflora

1b.       Roots with tuber; seeds without wing or with thin woody wing.

2a.       Infructescence larger; fruit walls thin; corolla 5–7 mm in diam. ........................  2. H. delavayi

2b.       Infructescence with 1–3-fruits; fruit walls thick; seeds with or without wing; corolla-segments spreading or reflexed to involute; corolla 8–15 mm in diam.

3a.       Corolla-segments spreading, explanate, or ascending, corolla bowl-shaped or rotate.

4a.       Seeds strongly biconvex, almost without wing, margin slightly broad, 1–1.3(–2) cm; fruit conical to terete-elliptic.

5a.       Corolla 15–20 cm, yellow-green, segments broadly ovate ....................  5. H. panlongqi

5b.       Corolla 10–13 cm, green or pale green, segments strap-shaped; fruit conical or terete-conical.

6a.       Corolla segments ascending, flower-buds apex obtuse ....................  3. H. macrocarpa

6b.       Corolla segments spreading or reflexed; flower-buds apex acute ............  4. H. mitrata

4b.       Seeds oblong, lenticular, or strongly biconvex, margin narrower, less than 1 cm in diam.; fruits globose, long elliptic or long conical.

7a.       Seeds oblong, with thin corky wing; fruit long elliptic to long conical
                                                                                                              6. H. dipterygia

7b.       Seeds biconvex, without wing; fruit globose or conical.

8a.       Seeds lenticular; corolla bowl-shaped ........................................  10. H. sphaerocarpa

8b.       Seeds ovate-globose, corolla rotate.

9a.       Fruit globose, pedicel with an articulation ...........................................  7. H. amabilis

9b.       Fruit conical or cylindric, pedicel without an articulation.

10a.     Fruit apex with distinct style; corolla-segments lanceolate
                                                                                                 8. H. heterosperma

10b.     Fruit apex without distinct style; corolla-segments ovate-rounded
                                                                                                     9. H. lijiangensis

3b.       Corolla-segments reflexed or revolute, corolla umbelliform or ± globose.

11a.     Seeds margin narrower, corolla red-brown or pale red-brown, base often dark red-brown.

12a.     Leaflets 9–11, corolla bowl-shaped, 8–10 mm in diam. .................  24. H. endecaphylla

12b.     Leaflets 5–9.

13a.     Corolla Chinese lantern-like.

14a.     Fruit elliptic; corolla 10–15 mm in diam. ..........................................  19. H. chinensis

14b.     Fruit ovoid to rounded-globose; corolla 20–25 mm in diam. ............  20. H. gigantha

13b.     Corolla bowl-shaped (H. dulongjiangensis corolla unknown).

15a.     Fruit elliptic, 5–8 cm; seed margin erose .......................................  21. H. longicarpa

15b.     Fruit ovoid to globose, 3–4 cm.

16a.     Seed margin smooth; fruiting pedicel with an articulation; leaflets 5–7, elliptic-lanceolate    22. H. macrosperma

16b.     Seeds margin erose; fruiting pedicel without an articulation; leaflets 3–5, rhombic  23. H. dulongjiangensis

11b.     Seed margin smooth; corolla pale yellow or yellow-green.

17a.     Fruit globose or subglobose.

18a.     Corolla umbelliform, 10–12 mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel with an articulation ..........  11. H. panacis-scandens

18b.     Corolla Chinese lantern-like or bowl-shaped, 6–12 mm in diam.

19a.     Corolla Chinese lantern-like; fruit smaller, 2–2.5 cm in diam.
......................................................................................................  12. H. omeiensis

19b.     Corolla bowl-shaped; fruit larger, 3–3.5 cm in diam. ...............  13. H. pengxianensis

17b.     Fruit conical, elliptic to claviform-elliptic.

20a.     Fruit elliptic or claviform, over 7 cm.

21a.     Fruit claviform-long-elliptic, distinctly longitudinally costate, 7–8 cm, pedicel with indistinct articulation ................................................................................  17. H. chengyihana

21b.     Fruit broadly elliptic to long elliptic, costae obscure, (6–)11–17 cm, pedicel with distinct articulation ................................................................................................  18. H. zhejiangensis

20b.     Fruit conical to elliptic, 3.5–5 cm.

22a.     Corolla bowl-shaped; segments carnose, 8–9 mm; fruit elliptic to ovoid
..................................................................................................  16. H. carnosiflora

22b.     Corolla Chinese lantern-like, segments thinner.

23a.     Fruit conical, base cuneate; corolla-segments 14–17 mm
                                                                                                      14. H. turbinata

23b.     Fruit elliptic; base obtuse; corolla-segments 10–15 mm
                                                                                                    15. H. ellipsoidea

1. Hemsleya graciliflora (Harms) Cogniaux, Engl., Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 275. 1): 24. 1916.

马铜铃  ma tun ling

Alsomitra graciliflora Harms, Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 29: 602. 1901; Hemsleya longgangensis X. X. Chen & D. R. Liang.

Perennial plants. Root fibrous, tuber absent. Leaves pedately 7-foliolate, petiole 1.8–3 cm; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate, 5–10 × 2–3.5 cm; petiolule 4–7 mm. Inflorescence largely cymose; peduncle 5–20 cm, densely pubescent. Male flowers: pedicel filiform, 1–2 mm; calyx-segments triangular, ca. 2 × 1 mm, spreading; corolla rotate, yellowish to pale yellow-green, 5–6 mm, spreading, segments obovate, thinly membranous, 3–4 × ca. 2 mm; stamens 5, filaments short, ca. 1 mm. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary narrowly cylindric, base attenuate. Fruit conical, 2.5–3.5 cm, 1–1.5 cm in diam., fruit-pedicel curved, 5–6 mm. Seeds oblong, 12–14 × 5–6 mm, compressed, with membranous wing, wing 3–4 mm at both ends of seed, seed-body obovate. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Nov. 2n = 28.

* Mountain slopes; 500–2400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang.

Fruits used as a medicine.

2. Hemsleya delavayi (Gagnepain) C. Jeffrey ex C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 134. 1985.

短柄雪胆  duan bing xue dan

Tuber oblate to conical. Stem and branchlets slender. Tendrils glabrous, 2-fid. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 2–5 mm; leaflets lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, median 3–10 × 8–15 mm, petiolule 2–3 mm. Flowers dioecious. Inflorescence dichotomous, to 30 cm; pedicels filiform, 2–5 mm. Male flowers: calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, 2–4 mm, apex acute, glabrous; corolla bowl-shaped, orange-yellow to pale yellow, 5–7 mm in diam., segments ovate, revolute, 5–6 mm; stamens 5, filaments short, 0.5–1 mm. Female flowers: slightly larger than male; ovary cylindric to conical, 4–5 mm, 2–2.5 mm in diam. Fruits conical to cylindric, base attenuate, slightly curved, 2.4–3.5 cm, 8–10 mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 4–7 mm. Seeds dark brown, long elliptic, 10–12 × 4–6 mm, compressed, with corky wing; wing 3–4 mm at apex, ca. 1 mm wide on both sides; seed-body shortly elliptic to ovate. Fl. Jul–Sep, fl. Aug–Oct.

* Forests, valleys; 1600–2200 m. SW Sichuan, C and W Yunnan.

1a. Leaves subglabrous; corolla-segments in male acute at apex ...............................  2a. var. delavayi

1b. Leaves densely pubescent; corolla-segments in male rounded-obtuse at apex
.....................................................................................................................  2b. var. yalungensis

2a. Hemsleya delavayi var. delavayi

短柄雪胆  duan bing xue dan

Gomphogyne delavayi Gagnepain, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. 24: 373. 1918. Hemsleya brevipetiolata Handel-Mazzetti.

Leaves subglabrous; corolla-segments in male acute at apex.

* Forests, valleys; 1800–2000 m. SW Sichuan, C and W Yunnan.

2b. Hemsleya delavayi var. yalungensis (Handel-Mazzetti) C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta. Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 134. 1985.

雅砻雪胆  ya long xue dan

Hemsleya brevipetiolata Handel-Mazzetti var. yalungensis Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1059. 1936.

Leaves densely pubescent; corolla-segments in male rounded-obtuse at apex.

* Mountain slopes; 1600–2200 m. SW Sichuan.

3. Hemsleya macrocarpa (Cogniaux) C. Y. Wu ex C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 36(4): 739. 1982.

圆锥果雪胆  yung zhui guo xue dan

Tuber oblate or ovoid. Stem sometimes slightly thickened at nodes. Leaves pedately 7–9-foliolate, petiole sparsely puberulent or subglabrous, 3–7 cm; leaflets obovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, median 6–10 × 2.5–4 cm, petiolule 2–6 mm. Inflorescence dichotomously cymose, 4–12 cm, peduncle and branches slightly flexuous. Male flowers: bud obtuse at apex, calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, 4–5 × 2–3 mm, spreading; corolla rotate, green to pale yellow-green, 7–15 mm in diam., segments fleshy, strap-shaped, 6–7 × 2–3 mm, base with a pair of glands; stamens 5, filaments less than 1 mm. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary conical, 5–7 mm, 3–4 mm in diam. Fruits campanulate to conical, (3–)4–7 cm, 3–4 cm in diam., with distinct ribs, fruit-pedicel 8–10 mm. Seeds dark brown, irregularly orbicular, 12–15 × 8–12 mm, 3–4 mm thick, with very narrow wing. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov. 2n = 28.

Evergreen forests; 1000–2300 m. NW and SW Yunnan [NE India].

1a. Fruit (3–)4.5(–6) cm, (1.3–)1.6(–1.85) × as long as broad ...........................  3a. var. macrocarpa

1b. Fruit (4–)6.2(–6.5) cm, (1.5–)2.5(–3) × as long as broad.

2a. Corolla 7–9 mm in diam. ...............................................................................  3b. var. clavata

2b. Corolla 12–15 mm in diam. .....................................................................  3c. var. grandiflora

3a. Hemsleya macrocarpa var. macrocarpa

圆锥果雪胆  yuan zhui guo xue dan

Gomphogyne macrocarpa Cogniaux in Engler, Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 275. 1): 40. 1916; Hemsleya changningensis C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen; H. obconica C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen.

Fruit (3–)4.5(–6) cm, (1.3–)1.6(–1.85) × as long as broad.

Evergreen forests; 1000–2200 m. SW Yunnan [NE India].

3b. Hemsleya macrocarpa var. clavata (C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen) D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsleya, 76. 1993.

棒果雪胆  bang gua xue dan

Hemsleya clavata C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 124. 1985.

Fruit (4–)6.2(–6.5) cm, (1.5–)2.5(–3) × as long as broad; corolla 7–9 mm in diam.

* Broad-leaved forests; 1400–1500 m. SW Yunnan.

3c. Hemsleya macrocarpa var. grandiflora (C. Y. Wu) D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsl. 76. 1993.

大花雪胆  da hua xue dan

Hemsleya grandiflora C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23: 130. 1985.

Fruit (4–)6.2(–6.5) cm, (1.5–)2.5(–3) × as long as broad; corolla 12–15 mm in diam.

* Thickets on mountain slopes; ca. 2300 m. NW Yunnan.

4. Hemsleya mitrata C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 128. 1985.

帽果雪胆  mao gua xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem and branchlets stout, sparsely puberulent, ultimately glabrous; stem-nodes thickened, densely pubescent. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate; petioles 5–8 cm; leaflets lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, margin serrate, median 5–11 × 2.5–4 cm, petiolule 2–5 mm. Flowers dioecious. Inflorescence-peduncle slightly reflexed, 5–11 cm. Male flowers: buds apex acute, calyx-segments lanceolate, ca. 6 × 3 mm; corolla fleshy, rotate, pale yellow-green, 10–11 mm, segments more or less strap-shaped, base with 2 distinct glands. Female unknown. Fruit cap-like, 4–5 cm, 3–3.6 cm in diam. Seeds dark brown, broad-ovate, 12–13 × 9–10 mm, 3–3.5 mm thick, almost unwinged. Fl. Jul–Oct, fr. Sep–Dec.

* Thickets on mountain slopes; 2400–2700 m. SW Yunnan.

5. Hemsleya panlongqi A. M. Lu & W. J. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(2): 183. 1983.

盘龙七  pang long qi

Tuber oblate-spheroid. branches slender, sulcate-angular, densely pubescent at nodes. Tendrils 2-fid. Leaves pedately 7-foliolate, petiole 2–4 cm; leaflets elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, median 8–12 × 2–3.5 cm, lateral smaller, base cuneate, apex acuminate, margin serrate, petiolule 3–6 mm, densely pubescent. Inflorescence-peduncle filiform; pedicel linear, 12–15 mm. Male flower unknown. Female flowers: bracts very small, subuliform; calyx-segments 5, ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, ca. 10 × 3 mm; corolla rotate, 15–20 mm in diam., pale yellow to yellow-green; segments spreading, broadly ovate, ca. 12 × 8 mm; ovary ovate-rounded to long ovate, 8–11 mm, 4–6 mm in diam. Fl. Sep.

* Broad-leaved forests; ca. 1800 m. S Sichuan.

6. Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A. M. Lu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20(1): 88. 1982.

翼蛇莲  yi she lian

Hemsleya cissiformis C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 125. 1985.

Tuber enlarged. Stem usually thickened at nodes, densely pubescent, ultimately glabrous. Tendrils glabrous. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 2–6 cm; leaflets broadly lanceolate to rhomboid, margin serrate or crenate, median 7–11 × ca. 2.5 cm, lateral smaller, petiolule 2–4 mm. Inflorescence-peduncle and branches filiform. Male flowers: pedicel 5–10 mm; calyx-segments ovate, ca. 7 mm; corolla rotate to bowl-shaped, pale yellow to pale yellow-green, 12–13 mm in diam.; corolla-segments broadly obovate, apex obtuse, ca. 8 × 7.5 mm, spreading; stamens 5, filaments less than 1 mm. Female flower unknown. Fruit oblong-claviform or claviform, 4–5.5 cm, 0.6–1.7 cm in diam., densely pubescent when immature, glabrous when mature, with indistinct ribs. Seeds oblong, dark brown, ca. 14 × 15 mm, 3–4 mm thick. Fl. Jun–Oct; fr. Aug–Nov.

Broad-leaved forests; 100–1500 m. N Guangxi, S Guizhou, C to S Yunnan [N Vietnam].

7. Hemsleya amabilis Diels, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 206. 1912.

曲莲  qu lian

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets very slender. Tendrils 8–12 cm. Leaves pedately 5–9-foliolate, petiole 2–4 cm; leaflets lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, median 4–5 × 1–1.5 cm. Male flowers dichotomously cymose, peduncle slightly flexuous, 5–15 cm; calyx-segments 5, ovate-triangular, 4–5 × ca. 2 mm; corolla rotate, pale yellow to pale yellow-green, 10–12 mm in diam., segments broadly obovate, spreading, 5–6 × 4–5 mm; stamens 5, filaments ca. 2 mm, exserted. Female flowers in simple dichotomously cymose inflorescence, larger than male, 11–12(–15) mm in diam.; ovary subglobose, 4–5 mm. Fruits spheroid, 12–20 mm; fruit-pedicel filiform, 2–3 mm. Seeds dark brown, broadly ovate-globose, 6–8 × 5–7 mm, 3–4 mm thick, unwinged. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Aug–Nov. 2n = 28.

* Forests; 1800–3000 m. SW Sichuan, C and W Yunnan.

8. Hemsleya heterosperma (Wallich) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 36(4): 739. 1982.

异子雪胆  yi zi xue dan

Zanonia heterosperma Wallich, Pl. As. Rar. 2: 29. 1831; Gomphogyne heterosperma (Wallich) Kurtz; Alsomitra heterosperma Roemer.

Tuber unknown. Stem slender, glabrous. Leaves pedately 3–5-foliolate; petiole 3–4 cm, glabrous; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, base attenuate, apex short-acuminate, median 5–7 × ca. 1.5 cm; petiolule 3–6 mm. Flowers dioecious. Inflorescence complex or simple, peduncle slender, slightly flexuous, glabrous, 5–15 cm. Male flowers: calyx segments subulate, apex apiculate, ca. 1 mm; corolla rotate, 3–4 mm in diam., pale yellow to pale yellow-green; segments ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, glabrous, ca. 3 × 1 mm; stamens 5, filaments free, ca. 1 mm. Female flowers similar to male, peduncle 5–11 cm; ovary conical. Fruit narrowly campanulate or claviform, pale yellow-green, glabrous, with distinct ribs, 12–35 × 6–12 mm, dehiscent at apex, 3-seeded in each locule. Seeds small, irregularly ovate, ca. 3 × 2 mm, ca. 1 mm thick. Fl. Sep–Oct, fl. Oct–Nov. 2n = 28.

Rain forests, evergreen broad-leaved forests; 100–2300 m. Yunnan [Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].

9. Hemsleya lijiangensis A. M. Lu ex C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 129. 1985.

丽江雪胆  li jiang xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem and branchlets filiform, sparsely pubescent, ultimately subglabrous. Tendrils apically 2-fid. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 2–4 cm; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, median 6–12 × 2–2.2 cm, petiolule 2–4 mm. Male flowers: inflorescence peduncle and branchlets flexuous, densely pubescent, 4–5 cm; pedicel filiform; calyx-segments 5, ovate-triangular, apex acuminate, ca. 4 × 2 mm, spreading; corolla rotate, pale yellow, 8–10 mm, segments spreading, obovate, ca. 5 × 4 mm; stamens 5, filaments ca. 2 mm. Female flowers solitary or few dichotomously cymose in leaf axils; pedicel 5–30 mm; ovary long campanulate or conical, ca. 3 × 2 mm, densely white-punctate. Fruits campanulate to conical, 2.2–4 cm × 13–18 mm. Seeds dark brown, irregularly rounded, compressed, 4–6 × 4–5 mm, 2–3 mm thick. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Forests; 2000–3000 m. NW Yunnan.

10. Hemsleya sphaerocarpa Kuang & A. M. Lu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20(1): 87. 1982.

蛇莲  she lian

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets slender, nodes densely pubescent. Tendrils 8–24 cm. Leaves pedately 5–9-foliolate, petiole 1.6–4 cm; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, median 7–16 × 2.5–4 cm. Male flowers in a large dichotomous cyme, 5–25(–45) cm (varying in different subspecies); calyx segments ovate-triangular, ca. 4 × 3 mm; corolla bowl-shaped, pale yellow-green, 7–15 mm in diam., segments broadly ovate, apex acuminate. Female flowers usually in a short inflorescence; ovary spheroid to ovoid, 3–5 mm. Fruits spheroid to ovoid, 2–3 cm in diam., fruit-pedicel 4–5 mm, with distinct articulation. Seeds lenticular, 8–9 mm in diam., unwinged. Fl. May–Sep, fr. Jul–Nov. 2n = 28.

* Broad-leaved forests; 400–2400 m. S and SE Guizhou, E and NE Guangxi, S Hunan, C and S Yunnan.

1a. Male inflorescence 20(14–44) cm ..........................................................  10b. subsp. megathyrsa

1b. Male inflorescence 9(5–15) cm.

2a. Corolla 8(7–9) mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 1–2 mm .........................  10c. subsp. wenshanensis

2b. Corolla 12(9–15) mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 8–9 mm .....................  10a. subsp. sphaerocarpa

10a. Hemsleya sphaerocarpa subsp. sphaerocarpa

蛇莲  she lian

Inflorescence (5–)9(–15) cm; corolla (9–)12(–15) mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 8–9 mm.

* Broad-leaved forests; 400–1600 m. S and SE Guizhou, E and NE Guangxi, S Hunan, SE and SW Yunnan.

10b. Hemsleya sphaerocarpa subsp. megathyrsa (C. Y. Wu) D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsl. 84. 1993.

大序雪胆  da xu xue dan

Hemsleya megathyrsa C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 131. 1985; H. megathyrsa var. major C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen.

Male inflorescence (14–)20(–44) cm; corolla 8–12 mm in diam.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2200–2400 m. SW Yunnan.

10c. Hemsleya sphaerocarpa subsp. wenshanensis (C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen) D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsl. 85. 1993.

文山雪胆  wen shan xue dan

Hemsleya wenshanensis A. M. Lu ex C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 130. 1985.

Inflorescence (5–)9(–15) cm; corolla (9–)12(–15) mm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 8–9 mm.

* Evergreen forests; 1800–2300 m. C and S (Jingdong) and SE (Wenshan) Yunnan.

11. Hemsleya panacis-scandens C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 135. 1985.

藤三七雪胆  teng san qi xue dan

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets robust, stem-nodes stout, sparsely pubescent. Tendrils 8–15 cm. Leaves pedately 7–9-foliolate, petiole 5–8 cm, leaflets obovate-lanceolate, petiolule 4–8 mm, median 6–10 × 2–3 cm. Male flowers dichotomously cymose or paniculate, peduncle usually filiform, 3–7 cm; calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 9 × 4 mm, apex reflexed; corolla umbelliform, pale yellow to yellow-green, 10–12 mm in diam., segments fleshy, obovate to ovate-oblong, apex obtuse, base thickened; stamens 5, filaments ca. 1 mm. Female flowers: corolla 12–15 mm in diam., ovary subglobose, 5–8 mm, 4–7 mm in diam. Fruit globose, 25–45 mm in diam., fruit-pedicel 4–8 mm, with articulation. Seeds dark brown, ovate-spheroid, ca. 15 × 12–13 mm, almost unwinged, margin ca. 3 mm wide. Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. Oct–Dec. 2n = 42.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1700–2400 m. SE Yunnan.

1a. Corolla pale yellow, segments involute (not reflexed), margin sinuate
..........................................................................................................  11a. var. panacis-scandens

1b. Corolla deep yellow, umbelliform, margin entire .......................................  11b. var. pingbianensis

11a. Hemsleya panacis-scandens var. panacis-scandens

藤三七雪胆  teng san qi xue dan

Corolla spheroid, 10–12 mm in diam., pale yellow, segments margin sinuate; fruit smooth, 10-angular.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1700–2400 m. SE Yunnan.

11b. Hemsleya panacis-scandens var. pingbianensis C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 137. 1985.

屏边藤三七雪胆  peng bian teng san qi xue dan

Corolla deep yellow, umbelliform, ca. 15 mm in diam., segments entire; ovary and fruit densely white-verrucose.

* Broad-leaved forests; 1700 m. SE Yunnan (Pingbian).

12. Hemsleya omeiensis L. D. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(2): 103. 1980.

峨眉雪胆  e mei xue dan

Hemsleya emeiensis L. D. Shen & W. J. Chang.

Tuber enlarged, pale brown-yellow. Branchlets slender, sparsely pubescent when young. Leaves pedately 7–9-foliolate, petiole 4–6 cm; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; median 9–14 × 2–4.5 cm. Male flowers dichotomously cymose, peduncle 3–8 cm; calyx-segments 5, lanceolate, ca. 4 × 2 mm apex reflexed; corolla Chinese lantern-like, yellow-green, ca. 8 mm in diam.; corolla segments 5, obovate-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 5 mm; stamens 5, filaments ca. 1 mm. Female inflorescence simple; ovary subglobose, 3–6 mm. Fruit globose, 20–25 mm in diam. Seeds ovoid, ca. 10 × 8 mm, ca. 3 mm thick, unwinged. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov. 2n = 28.

* Broad-leaved forests; 1800–2000 m. Sichuan (Emei Shan).

13. Hemsleya pengxianensis W. J. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(4): 97. 1979.

彭县雪胆  peng xian xue dan

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets slender. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 4.5–7 cm, glabrous or pubescent, leaflets obovate-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; median 8–17 × 2–4 cm; petiolule 3–5 mm. Male flowers dichotomously cymose, peduncle 4–10 cm, slightly flexuous; calyx-segments lanceolate, 4 × 2–3 mm; corolla bowl-shaped or Chinese lantern-like, yellow-green, 6–12 mm in diam.; corolla segments ovoid, ca. 6 × 4 mm, apex reflexed. Female inflorescence reduced; ovary ovoid or subglobose, ca. 3 mm in diam. Fruit ovoid or elliptic, 3–4 cm, 3–3.5 cm in diam. Seeds almost circular, compressed, 10–13 × 10–13 cm, almost unwinged, margin 2–3 mm wide. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Broad-leaved forests; 700–2100 m. Sichuan.

1a. Fruit elliptic; corolla Chinese lantern-like, 10–12 mm ......................................  13c. var. gulinensis

1b. Fruit ovate to ovoid, corolla bowl-shaped, 8 mm.

2a. Ovary ovate; petiole, rachis and corolla pubescent ................................  13b. var. junlianensis

2b. Ovary subglobose; petiole and corolla glabrous .................................  13a. var. pengxianensis

13a. Hemsleya pengxianensis var. pengxianensis

彭县雪胆  peng xian xue dan

Hemsleya multifructus L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(2): 104.1980; H. pengxianensis W. J. Chang var. polycarpa L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang; H. jinfushanensis L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang; H. pengxianensis var. jinfushanensis L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang.

Petiole glabrous; corolla glabrous, bowl-shaped, ca. 8 mm in diam.

* Broad-leaved forests; 700–2100 m. C and SW Sichuan.

13b. Hemsleya pengxianensis var. junlianensis (L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang) L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(2): 188. 1983.

筠连雪胆  jun lian xue dan

Hemsleya junlianensis L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(2): 102. 1980 [“yunlianensis”].

Petiole, peduncle and corolla pubescent, corolla bowl-shaped, ca. 8 mm in diam.; ovary ovate; fruit ovate to ovoid.

* Forest edges; ca. 1500 m. SW Sichuan.

13c. Hemsleya pengxianensis var. gulinensis (L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang) L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(2): 188. 1983.

古蔺雪胆  gu lin xue dan

Hemsleya gulinensis L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(2): 103. 1980.

Corolla Chinese lantern-like, 10–12 mm in diam.; fruit elliptic.

* Broad-leaved forests. Sichuan.

14. Hemsleya turbinata C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 140. 1985.

陀罗果雪胆  tuo luo gu xue dan

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets robust. Tendrils 12–20 cm. Leaves 5–7-foliolate, petiole 3–5 cm; leaflets obovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, petiolule 2–5 mm, margin dentate, median leaflet 6–12 cm. Male flowers unknown. Female flowers 2 to more in a dichotomous cyme, peduncle 3–10 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate, 11–13 × ca. 4 mm, apex reflexed; corolla Chinese lantern-like, pale yellow-green, 10–12 mm, corolla-segments oblong-lanceolate, 14–17 × 6–8 mm, base with 2 glands, apex acute, revolute; ovary conical, ca. 9 × 3–4 mm. Fruit conical, 3.5–5 × 2–2.5 cm, base attenuate, fruit-pedicel only 3 mm. Seeds dark brown, broadly ovate, compressed, 9–11 × 8–10 mm, 2–3 mm thick, unwinged, margin ca. 2 mm wide. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1600–2400 m. SW Yunnan.

15. Hemsleya ellipsoidea L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(1): 16. 1980 & Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(2): 185. 1983.

椭圆果雪胆  tuo yuan guo xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem and branchlets slender, sulcate. Leaves pedately 3–5-foliolate, petiole 2–5 cm; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, petiolule 3–5 cm; median leaflet 9–15 × 4–5 cm. Male flowers sparsely dichotomously cymose, peduncle 10–12 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate, ca. 10 × 3 mm, apex reflexed; corolla lantern-shaped, pale yellow-green, 9–11 mm, segments broadly ovate-lanceolate, 10–15 × 6–10 mm, apex reflexed; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female flowers: corolla larger than male, 12–15 mm in diam.; ovary ovoid, ca. 10 × 5 mm. Fruit elliptic, base obtuse-rounded, 3.5–4 × ca. 2.5 cm; fruit wall leathery. Seeds almost circular, compressed, ca. 15 mm in diam., ca. 3 mm thick, unwinged, margin 3–4 mm wide. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov.

* Broad-leaved forests; ca. 2000 m. Sichuan (Emei Shan).

16. Hemsleya carnosiflora C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 133. 1985.

肉花雪胆  ruo hua xei dan

Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stem and branchlets rather robust, thickened at nodes, densely pubescent. Tendrils 7–16 cm. Leaves pedately 7–9-foliolate, petiole 5–8 cm; leaflets obovate-lanceolate, petiolule 4–8 mm, margin dentate; median 8–12 × 3–4 cm. Male flowers dichotomously cymose or paniculate; peduncle indistinctly flexuous, 3–7 cm; calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 7 × 4 mm, apex reflexed; corolla bowl-shaped, pale yellow-green, 8–10 mm. Female inflorescence simple, peduncle 2.5–5 cm; corolla larger than male, 11–12 cm in diam.; ovary elliptic, ca. 10 cm × 6–7 mm. Fruit elliptic to ovoid, 4–5 cm, 2.5–3 cm in diam.; fruit-pedicel 9–12 cm. Seeds obovate-elliptic to almost circular, compressed, 13–16 × 12–14 mm, 3–4 mm thick, almost unwinged, margin ca. 4 mm wide. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Aug–Nov. 2n = 42.

* Forests; 1800–1900 m. SE Yunnan.

17. Hemsleya chengyihana D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsl. 91. 1993.

征镒雪胆  zheng yi xue dan

Hemsleya macrocarpa C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 134. 1985, nom. illeg., non (Cogniaux) C. Y. Wu ex C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 36(4): 739. 1982.

Tuber oblate-ovoid. Stem and branchlets slightly stout, distinctly sulcate. Tendrils 12–25 cm. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 3–6 cm; leaflets lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate, margin crenate, petiolule 5–10 mm; median leaflet 14 × 1.5–4 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose; peduncle flexuous, 5–12 cm, densely pubescent; calyx-segments ovate-triangular, ca. 5 × 3 mm, apex flexuous; corolla bowl-like, pale yellow-green, ca. 10 mm in diam., segments oblong, 7–8 × 3–4 mm; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female flowers unknown. Fruit clavate or clavate-elliptic, 7–8 × 2–2.5 cm, distinctly costate; fruit-pedicel 10–15 mm. Seeds elliptic, dark brown, ca. 12 × 7 mm, almost unwinged, margin 1–3 mm wide. Fl. Jul–Oct, fr. Sep–Nov.

* Broad-leaved forests, forest edges. SW Yunnan.

18. Hemsleya zhejiangensis C. Z. Zheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(1): 67. 1985.

浙江雪胆  zhe jiang xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem and branchlets slender, sulcate, nodes densely pubescent. Leaves pedately 5–9-foliolate, petiole 2.5–5 cm; leaflets elliptic-lanceolate, margin sparsely dentate; median 6–11 × 2–3.5 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose, peduncle flexuous, 13–17 cm; calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, apex reflexed; corolla bowl-like, pale yellow-green, 8–10 mm; corolla-segments obovate, fleshy, 7–8 × 4–5 mm, apex reflexed; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female flower unknown. Fruit broadly elliptic to long elliptic, (6–)11–17 cm, 2–3 cm in diam., indistinctly costate; fruit-pedicel with distinct articulation, 1–2 cm. Seeds dark brown, oblong, almost unwinged, margin 2–4 mm. Fl. 6–9, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Broad-leaved forests, bamboo forests; 800–1000 m. Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.

19. Hemsleya chinensis Cogniaux, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 23: t. 1822. 1889.

雪胆  xue dan

Tuber ovoid or oblate. Stem and branchlets slender. Tendrils 8–14 cm. Leaves pedately 5–9-foliolate, petiole 4–8 cm; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, margin crenate, petiolule 5–10 mm; median leaflet 5–12 × 2–2.5 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose or paniculate; peduncle filiform, flexuous, 5–12 cm; calyx-segments ovate; 7 × 4–5 mm, apex acute, reflexed; corolla Chinese lantern-shaped or rounded-globose, orange-red, 8–15 cm in diam., segments oblong, 10–13 × 8–9 mm, subglabrous; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female inflorescence simple, peduncle 2–4 cm; female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male, corolla 15 mm in diam.; ovary cylindric, 5–10 × 2–3 mm. Fruit elliptic, 3–7 × ca. 2 cm, base attenuate; fruit-pedicel slightly curved, with or without articulation, 8–10 mm. Seeds brown, suborbicular, 10–12 × ca. 10 mm, ca. 3 mm thick, unwinged, margin ca. 1 mm wide. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov. 2n = 28.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests, forest edges; 400–2800 m. Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan.

1a. Fruit with white spiculiform hairs along longitudinal ribs; branchlets and petiole with dense spiculiform hairs .....................................................................................................................  19d. var. polytricha

1b. Fruit without spiculiform hairs along longitudinal ribs; branchlets and petiole without spiculiform hairs.

2a. Corolla usually glabrous, 12–15 mm in diam.; fruit elliptic, 3–7 cm
.................................................................................................................  19a. var. chinensis

2b. Corolla densely white-pubescent, 8–12 cm in diam.

3a. Corolla 10–12 mm; fruit obovate, pedicel with a distinct articulation
.....................................................................................................  19b. var. ningnanensis

3b. Corolla 8 mm in diam.; fruit ovoid, pedicel without articulation
.......................................................................................................  19c. var. longivillosa

19a. Hemsleya chinensis var. chinensis

雪胆  xue dan

Hemsleya szechuanensis Kuang & Lu; H. xuedan L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang.

Branchlets, petiole and fruit without spiculiform hairs; corolla usually glabrous, 12–15 mm in diam.; fruit elliptic, 3–7 cm.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests, forest edges; 400–2800 m. Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan.

19b. Hemsleya chinensis var. ningnanensis (L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang) L. T. Shen & W. J. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(2): 185. 1983.

宁南雪胆  ning nan xue dan

Hemsleya ningnanensis L. T. Shan & W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(1): 19. 1980; H. villosipetala C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen.

Branchlets, petiole and fruit without spiculiform hairs; corolla usually with dense white hairs, 10–12 mm in diam.; fruit obovate, pedicel with articulation.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests. SW Sichuan. NE Yunnan.

19c. Hemsleya chinensis var. longivillosa (C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen) D. Z. Li, Syst. Evol. Hemsl. 95. 1993.

长毛雪胆  chang mao xue dan

Hemsleya longivillosa C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 140. 1985.

Branchlets, petiole and fruit without spiculiform hairs; corolla usually with dense white hairs, ca. 8 mm in diam.; fruit ovoid, pedicel without articulation.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1900–2100 m. Yunnan (Fuyuan).

19d. Hemsleya chinensis var. polytricha Kuang & A. M. Lu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20(1): 90. 1982.

毛雪胆  mao xue dan

Branchlets and petiole with dense spiculiform hairs; fruit with dense spiculiform hairs along longitudinal ribs.

* Broad-leaved forests; 1300–1500 m. W Hubei.

20. Hemsleya gigantha W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(1): 18. 1980.

巨花雪胆  ju hua xue dan

Tuber yellow-brown. Leaves pedately 7–9-foliolate; petiole 5–9 cm; leaflets broadly elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, base cuneate, margin crenate; median 7–12 × 3–5 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose, rachis 7–11 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate, ca. 15 × 7 mm, apex reflexed; corolla Chinese lantern-like, orange-red, 1.5–2(–2.5) cm in diam., segments broadly ovoid, 20–25 × 15–18 mm, apex obtuse-rounded and apiculate, revolute; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female inflorescence simple; ovary elliptic, 10–15 mm × 6–10 cm. Fruit subspheroid to ovoid, 2–3.5 cm in diam., fruit wall leathery. Seeds broadly ovoid, dark brown, 10–12 × 8–10 mm, 2–3 mm thick, almost unwinged; margin narrow, ca. 2 mm wide, slightly erose. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Broad-leaved or pine forests, forest edges. SW Sichuan.

21. Hemsleya longicarpa W. J. Chang, Acta Acad. Med. Sichuan. 11(2): 101. 1980.

长果雪胆  chang guo xue dan

Hemsleya dolichocarpa W. J. Chang.

Tuber enlarged, yellow-brown. Stem and branchlets slender. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 3.5–6.5 cm; leaflets obovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, margin crenate; median 7–15 × 4–7 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose, rachis 3–8 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate, 6–8 × 4–6 mm, apex apiculate, flexuous; filaments ca. 1 mm. Female inflorescence simple; ovary cylindric, ca. 6 × 3 mm. Fruit elliptic, 5–8 × 2–3.5 cm. Seeds broadly ovate to suborbicular, compressed 13–14 × ca. 11 mm, 2–3 mm thick, unwinged; margin ca. 1 mm wide, erose. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Broad-leaved forests; 1400–1800 m. C and SW Sichuan.

22. Hemsleya macrosperma C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 139. 1985.

罗锅底  luo guo di

Tuber enlarged, oblate. Stem and branchlets slender. Tendrils 6–10 cm. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 4–5 cm; leaflets oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate, margin crenate; petiolule 2–4 mm, median 4–9 × 1.5–3 cm. Male inflorescence dichotomously cymose, peduncle 2–8 cm; calyx-segments ovate, 4–5 × ca. 3 mm, apex acute, reflexed; corolla bowl-like, orange-red, 8–10 mm in diam.; corolla-segments oblong, ca. 8 × 4 mm, sparsely white-villous; filaments ca. 2 mm; Female peduncle 1–5 cm; ovary elliptic or subglobose, 5–7 × 4–5 mm. Fruit ovoid, 3.5–5 cm in diam. Seeds ovoid, dark brown, 9–11 × 8–9 mm, unwinged; margin smooth, ca. 1 mm wide. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov.

* Evergreen broad-leaved or pine forests; 1800–3200 m. SW Sichuan, C and NE Yunnan.

1a. Fruit ovoid, 3.5–4 cm ..............................................................................  22a. var. macrosperma

1b. Fruit elliptic, to 5 cm ................................................................................  22b. var. oblongicarpa

22a. Hemsleya macrosperma var. macrosperma

罗锅底  luo guo di

Fruit ovoid, 3.5–4 cm.

* Evergreen broad-leaved or pine forests; 1800–3200 m. SW Sichuan, C and NE Yunnan.

22b. Hemsleya macrosperma var. oblongicarpa C. Y. Wu & C. L. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 140. 1985.

长果罗锅底  chang guo luo guo di

Hemsleya chuandienensis L. T. Shen & W. D. Chang.

Fruit elliptic, to 5 cm.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1900–2000 m. SW Sichuan, NE Yunnan.

23. Hemsleya dulongjiangensis C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 134. 1985.

独龙江雪胆  du long jiang xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem and branchlets slender, longitudinally sulcate, densely pubescent. Tendrils 6–9 cm, densely pubescent. Leaves pedately 3–7-foliolate, petiole 2–3 cm; leaflets broadly ovate-lanceolate to rhombic, margin sparsely serrate; median 3–6 × 3–3.5 cm. Flowers unknown. Fruit ovoid, 3.5–4.5 cm, 3–3.5 in diam.; fruit-pedicel curved, 5–8 cm. Seeds (inmature) broadly ovoid, yellow-brown, ca. 13 mm in diam., unwinged; margin 1–2 mm wide, erose. Fr. Sep.

* Open forests in valleys; 1400–2700 m. NW Yunnan.

24. Hemsleya endecaphylla C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 142. 1985.

十一叶雪胆  shi yi ye xue dan

Tuber enlarged. Stem slightly robust. Tendrils 8–12 cm. Leaves pedately 9–11-foliolate; petiole stout, 5–7 cm; leaflets obovate-lanceolate, margin irregularly crenate, petiolule 3–5 mm; median 5–7 × 2–2.5 cm. Male inflorescence paniculate; rachis indistinctly reflexed, 5–8 cm; calyx-segments pale yellow-green, ovate-triangular, ca. 5 × 4 mm, apex reflexed; corolla bowl-like, orange-yellow, 8–10 mm in diam., segments oblong, with dense squamose hairs, apex reflexed; filaments very short, ca. 0.5 mm. Female flower and fruit unknown. Fl. Jun–Jul.

* Broad-leaved forests; ca. 2400 m. NW Yunnan.

2. GOMPHOGYNE Griffith, Account Bot. Coll. Cantor 26. 1845.

锥形果属  zhui xing guo shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing herbs; stems slender, angular. Leaves petiolate, pedately 7-foliolate, leaflet blade lanceolate or oblong, dentate. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers small, monoecious, pale green. Male racemose or paniculate; calyx rotate, 5-partite, segments oblong-lanceolate, margins erose; corolla rotate, 5-partite, segments oblong-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, erose; stamens 5, filaments short, united at base, anthers subglobose, 1-locular, erect, dehiscence longitudinal; rudimentary ovary absent. Female flowers paniculate or fasciculate in axils of leaves. Calyx and corolla as in male; ovary clavate, 1-locular, styles 3, apices 2-lobed; ovules 3, pendulous from apex of locules; staminodes absent. Fruits capsular, turbinate, venose and ribbed, truncate at apex, 3-valved, crowned by persistent styles; seeds 3, oblong, black, testa thick, margin thickened, erose.

One species: principally an Indo-Malayan genus.

1. Gomphogyne cissiformis Griffith, Account Bot. Coll. Cantor 26. 1845.

锥形果  zhui xing guo

Slender herbs; stem glabrous or slightly puberulent. Leaves membranous, pedately 7–9-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm, glabrous; leaflets obovate-oblong, glabrous, median 4–6 × 1.5–2 cm, lateral shorter, apex acuminate or acute, base acuminate, margin crenate-dentate, petiolules 3–9 cm. Tendrils slender, 2-fid. Dioecious. Male flowers racemose or paniculate, rachis slender, flexuous, 10–30 cm, glabrous; pedicels capillary, often fasciculate, 1–3 mm, with bracteoles at base; calyx-segments narrowly ovate, 1–1.5 mm, acute; corolla-segments ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × ca. 1 mm, 3-nerved, entire or indistinctly dentate; stamens 5, filaments short, united at base, anthers erect. Female flowers paniculate, 5–12 cm, or fasciculate in axils of leaves; pedicels filiform, reflexed, bracteoles subulate; ovary funnelform, 1-locular; styles 3, with 2-lobed stigmas. Fruits turbinate, 12–16 mm, apex truncate, 8–11 mm in diam., pale green, 3-longitudinally dehiscent, 1–3-seeded. Seeds oblong, 7(–12) × 3–4 mm, 1–2 mm thick, dark brown, apex truncate, base acute, verrucose, margin dentate.

Forests on mountainsides; 2100–2800 m. S and SW Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

1a. Fruits glabrous ...............................................................................................  1a. var. cissiformis

1b. Fruits tomentose ...................................................................................................  1b. var. villosa

1a. Gomphogyne cissiformis var. cissiformis

锥形果  zhui xing guo

Gomphogyne alleizettii Gagnepain; G. bonii Gagnepain.

Fruits glabrous.

Forests on mountainsides; 2100–2800 m. S and SW Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

1b. Gomphogyne cissiformis var. villosa Cogniaux in A. Candolle & C. Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 925. 1881.

毛锥形果  mao zhui xing guo

Gomphogyne cissiformis f. villosa (Cogniaux) M. Mizushima.

Fruits tomentose.

* Forests on mountainsides; ca. 2300 m. S and SW Yunnan (Menghai, Yongde).

3. GYNOSTEMMA Blume, Bijdr. 23. 1825.

绞股蓝属  jiao gu lan shu

Chen Shukun (陈书坤), Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Enkylia Griffith; Pestalozzia Zollinger & Moritzi; Trirostellum Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Zie.

Perennial scandent herbs, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, pedate, with 3–9-leaflets, rarely simple, leaflet blade ovate-lanceolate. Tendrils bifurcate, rarely simple. Flowers unisexual, dioecious, rarely monoecious, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal, pedicel articulated, bracteole basal. Male flower: calyx tube short, 5-lobed, lobes narrowly lanceolate; corolla rotate, greenish or white, deeply 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, involute in bud; stamens 5, inserted at base of perianth tube, filaments short, connate, anthers ovate, erect, 2-locular, dehiscence longitudinal, connective narrow, but not extended; pollen grains globose or elliptic, longitudinally striate or smooth, dehiscent by pores. Rudimentary pistil absent. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male flower; staminodes present; ovary globose, 3–2-locular, styles 3, rarely 2, 4, or 5, free, stigmas 2 or l and crescent-shaped and irregularly incised-dentate; ovules 2, pendulous in each locule. Berry globose, in form and size like a pea, or capsule, 3-lobed from top, top umbonulate or with 3 persistent long styles; seeds 2–3, broad-ovate, compressed, with papillae or spiniform papillae.

About 17 species: distributed in tropical Asia to E Asia, from the Himalayan regions to Japan, Malaysia, and New Guinea; 15 species in China.

1a.       Capsule campanulate, persistent styles 3(–5), long rostriform, dehiscent when mature along ventral suture, 3-lobed.

2a.       Female flowers solitary or paired, axillary, pedicel 3–4 cm; ovary 5-locular, styles 5  1. G. pentagynum

2b.       Female flowers numerous, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal, pedicel shorter than 5 mm; ovary 3-locular, styles 3.

3a.       Female flowers in lax panicle; fruit stalk 8–10 mm ....................................  6. G. laxiflorum

3b.       Female flowers in spiciform racemes, fruit stalk shorter than 5 mm.

4a.       Stigma crescent-shaped and irregularly incised-dentate; styles 2.5–3 mm, or thick and short, ca. 0.5 mm.

5a.       Styles thin and long, 2.5–3 mm; persistent styles up to 5 mm; side of seed not sulcate and without wing                                                                                                              2. G. yixingense

5b.       Styles short and thick; persistent styles short-rostriform; seed broad-cordate, margin sulcate and with narrow wing ...............................................................................  3. G. cardiospermum

4b.       Stigma 2-lobed, forked, never crescent-shaped, style shorter than 0.5 mm.

6a.       Fruit small, ca. 3 mm in diam.; glabrous, dark-punctate; leaves with 5-leaflets, leaflets elliptic    4. G. microspermum

6b.       Fruit large, 5–6 mm in diam., white-villous, without dark spots; leaves with 5–7-leaflets, leaflets obovate-elliptic ................................................................................  5. G. aggregatum

1b.       Berry globose, depressed-globose, persistent styles short, umbonate, never rostate, not dehiscent.

7a.       Leaves simple ......................................................................................  7. G. simplicifolium

7b.       Leaves compound, pedate.

8a.       Stem 3-angled, with narrow wings ......................................................  15. G. caulopterum

8b.       Stem cylindrical, with longitudinal striae, but without wings.

9a.       Leaves with 3–5-leaflets.

10a.     Leaf smooth, glabrous on both surfaces, or with hairs only along midrib; stem with only sparse hairs at nodes; corolla lobes narrow-lanceolate, 2–3 mm ........................................  8. G. laxum

10b.     Leaf blade and stem all densely pubescent; lobes of corolla oblong-elliptic, ca. 2 mm  9. G. burmanicum

9b.       Leaves with (3–)5–7(–9)-leaflets.

11a.     Fruit densely hirsute-pubescent; stem stout
                                                                                                      11. G. pentaphyllum

11b.     Fruit glabrous, stem slender.

12a.     Fruit stalk shorter than 5 mm; leaves sparsely to densely pubescent
..................................................................................................  11. G. pentaphyllum

12b.     Fruit stalk 7–25 mm.

13a.     Flower monoecious; fruit 3-angled-obovoid or 3-angled-oblate
.................................................................................................  12. G. guangxiense

13b.     Flower dioecious; fruit globose or obtriangular.

14a.     Fruit obtriangular, compressed; leaflets 5–7, elliptic or elliptic-ovate
                                                                                                 13. G. compressum

14b.     Fruit globose, leaflets 7–9, rhombic-elliptic or obovate-lanceolate
                                                                                                        14. G. longipes

1. Gynostemma pentagynum Z. P. Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 11(2): 165. 1989.

五柱绞股蓝  wu zhu jiao gu lan

Herbs perennial, scandent, with short and succulent rootstocks. Stem ca. 2 m or more, ca. 4 mm in diam., angular, white-villous. Tendrils filiform, villous below, gradually glabrescent above, apex bifid. Leaves pedate, with (5–)7 leaflets; petioles 9–13 cm, villous; leaflet blades elliptic, central 10 cm, apex short-acuminate, margin irregularly serrate, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, densely villous along veins, petiolule 3–5 mm, lateral leaflet blades gradually smaller and asymmetrical, petiolule shorter, outer most leaflet without petiolule. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers numerous in panicle, 3–4 cm, villous; calyx 5-lobed, lobes long elliptic, ca. 0.9 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse, both surfaces glabrous; corolla rotate, 5-parted, lobes ovate, ca. 4 × 0.6 mm, apex filiform-acuminate, glabrous outside, glandular-hairy inside, with obscure midrib; stamen 5, filaments ca. 0.2 mm, connective cylindrical. Female flower solitary or 2(or 3) flowers in very short raceme; peduncles 2–3 mm; pedicels up to 4 cm; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes absent; gynoecium with (4 or)5 carpels; ovary densely pubescent and glandular-pubescent, (4 or)5-locular, each locule with one ovule, styles (4 or)5, divaricate, stigmas 2, explanate. Fruit not mature. Fl. Jul.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests, moist mountains. Hunan (Dayong).

2. Gynostemma yixingense (Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie) C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(4): 364. 1983.

喙果绞股蓝  hui guo jiao lan

Trirostellum yixingense Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(4): 483. 1981; T. yixingense var. trichocarpum J. N. Ding, Bull. Bot. Res. NE For. Inst. 10(3): 71. 1990.

Perennial scandent herbs, to over 10 m. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, villous only at nodes. Leaves membranous, pedately 5–7-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm; leaflets elliptic, median 4–8 cm, lateral leaflets smaller, apex acuminate, margin crenate, base cuneate, pubescent on nerves; petiolule ca. 5 mm. Tendrils filiform, simple. Male flowers in panicle, rachis 9–12 cm, sparsely pubescent; calyx-segments elliptic-lanceolate, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.5 mm, apex obtuse; corolla pale green, segments ovate-lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm, caudate-acuminate; stamens 5, filaments connected, anthers ca. 0.2 mm. Female flowers fasciculate in axils of leaves; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary subglobose, 1.5–2 mm in diam., sparsely puberulent, styles 3, 2.5–3 mm, stigma half-moon-shaped, margin dentate; staminodes 5, subulate. Capsule campanulate, ca. 8 mm in diam., glabrous, apex truncate, ca. 5 mm. Seeds broadly cordate, ca. 3 × 4 mm. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Forests, thickets; below 100–100 m. Anhui, S Jiangsu, Zhejiang.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat species 6 as a synonym of this species.

3. Gynostemma cardiospermum Cogniaux ex Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. t. 2225. 1892.

心籽绞股蓝  xin zi jiao lan

Trirostellum cardiospermum (Cogniaux ex Oliver) C. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie.

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous. Leaves pedately 3–7-foliolate, petiole 2.5–5 cm; leaflets lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, median 4–10 cm, lateral shorter, apex acuminate, base attenuate, margin irregularly crenate, glabrous or setose only on nerves. Tendrils slender, 2-fid. Male flowers in a panicle, rachis slender; calyx-segments oblong-lanceolate, acute; corolla-segments lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, 1-nerved; anthers ovate, 1-locular. Female flowers in a raceme; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary globose, villous, styles 3, 0.5 mm, stigmas half-moon-shaped, margin dentate; ovules 2. Capsule globose or subcampanulate, ca. 8 mm in diam., apex truncate. Seeds broadly cordate, 4.2–5 mm broad, slightly compressed, rugose-verrucose on both surfaces, margin narrowly winged. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Forests and thickets on mountain slopes; (1400–)1900–2300 m. W Hubei, S Shaanxi, Sichuan.

4. Gynostemma microspermum C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(4): 364. 1983.

小籽绞股蓝  xiao zi jiao gu lan

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous or pubescent at nodes. Leaves pedately 5-foliolate; petioles ca. 2 cm, glabrous; leaflets thinly papery, elliptic, median 3–4 × 1.5–2 cm, lateral smaller, apex obtuse, cuspidate, base obtuse, margin irregularly crenate, adaxially pubescent. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid, glabrous. Flowers unknown. Infructescence racemose, dense. Capsule yellow-green, dark punctate, globose, ca. 3 mm in diam., glabrous, apex truncate, dehiscent, 1–2-seeded. Seeds broadly cordate, compressed, brown, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, less than 1 mm thick, papillose. Fr. Dec.

* Dense forests; 800–1400. S Yunnan.

5. Gynostemma aggregatum C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(4): 365. 1983.

聚果绞股蓝  ju guo jiao gu lan

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous or pubescent at nodes. Leaves pedately 5–7-foliolate, petiole 2–2.5 cm, glabrous; leaflets membranous, obovate-elliptic, median 3–3.5 × ca. 1.5 cm, lateral smaller, apex obtuse-rounded, cuspidate, base obtuse, margin crenate, adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially glabrous; lateral veins 6–9 pairs, petiolule 2–5 mm, glabrous. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Male flowers unknown. Female flowers in a small 3–4-flowered panicle; bracts capillary; calyx-segments very small, subulate; corolla-segments lanceolate, ca. 1 mm, apex shortly acuminate; ovary globose, ca. 1 mm in diam., villous, styles 3, free, ca. 0.75 mm, stigma 2-lobed. Capsules aggregated in a dense 1.5–2 cm long spike; fruit broadly campanulate, ca. 5 mm in diam., white-pubescent, apex truncate. Seeds ovate, gray-brown, ca. 3 × 2 mm, ca. 1 mm thick, verruculose, margin dentate. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Pine forests, mixed forests; 2300–2700 m. NW Yunnan.

6. Gynostemma laxiflorum C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(4): 366. 1983.

疏花绞股蓝  shu hua jiao lan

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous or puberulent at nodes. Leaves pedately 5-foliolate; petiole ca. 3 cm; leaflets membranous, oblong-lanceolate, median ca. 4 × 1.5 cm, lateral smaller, apex acuminate, base obtuse, margin dentate, adaxially sparsely puberulent, abaxially glabrous. Tendrils simple, glabrous. Male flowers unknown. Female flowers: inflorescence a sparse panicle, axillary or terminal, 2–5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, rachis and branches glabrous, pedicel filiform, 4–5 mm; bracts linear; calyx-segments oblong-lanceolate, ca. 1.75 × 0.5 mm, apex shortly acuminate, glabrous; corolla-segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, apex caudate-acuminate, puberulent or glabrescent; staminodes 5, terete; ovary globose, ca. 2 mm in diam., pubescent, styles 3, ca. 1.5 mm, base puberulent, stigma luniform, irregularly 3–5-dentate. Fruit-pedicel 8–10 mm, glabrous; capsule campanulate, 6–7 mm, glabrous, apex truncate, 3-rostrate, beaks 2–3 mm, dehiscent, 2–3-seeded. Seeds broadly cordate, ca. 2 × 2.5 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, brown, papillate. Fl. and fr. Nov–Dec.

* Mountain slopes; below 300 m. S Anhui.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Gynostemma yixingense (Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie) C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen.

7. Gynostemma simplicifolium Blume, Bijdr. 23. 1825.

单叶绞股蓝  dan ye jiao gu lan

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, branched, angular-sulcate, pubescent. Leaves simple, leaf-blade papery, ovate, 10–15 × 8–9 cm, apex acuminate, base rounded to slightly cordate, margin crenate, adaxially puberulent only on nerves, abaxially glabrous, basal nerves 7–9; petiole 4–6 cm, pubescent. Tendrils 2-fid. Male flowers: inflorescence paniculate, peduncle filiform, 10–25 cm, pubescent; pedicels filiform, 0.5–2 mm; calyx-segments oblong-lanceolate, 0.5–1 mm, apex obtuse, puberulent; corolla pale green-white or pale green-yellow, segments 5, oblong, 3 × 0.7–1 mm, 1-nerved, apex obtuse. Fruit globose, 7–8 mm in diam., pale yellow-green, black when mature. Seeds broadly ovate, ca. 4 × 3.5 mm, compressed, apex acute, base rounded, verrucose.

Forests; 1300–1400 m. Hainan, S Yunnan [Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines].

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino.

8. Gynostemma laxum (Wallich) Cogniaux in A. Candolle & C. Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 914. 1881.

光叶绞股蓝  guang ye jiao gu lan

Zanonia laxa Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 29. 1831; Alsomitra laxa (Wallich) M. Roemer; Gynostemma crenulata Ridley; Pestalozzia laxa (Wallich) Thwaites; Z. wightiana Arnott.

Climbing herbs. Stem slender, much-branched, glabrous or sparsely puberulent. Leaves papery, pedately 3-foliolate, petiole 1.5–4 cm, glabrous; median leaflet oblong-lanceolate, sometimes rhomboid, 5–10 × 2–3 cm, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base broadly cuneate, lateral leaflets ovate, 4–7 × 2–3.5 cm, margin undulate-crenate, glabrous; petiolule (2–)5–7 mm. Male flowers: inflorescence paniculate, terminal or axillary, (5–)10–30 cm, pubescent; bracts subulate-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm; pedicels filiform, 3–7 mm, bracteole subulate, small; calyx-segments 5, narrowly triangular-ovate, ca. 0.5 mm; corolla yellow-green, segments narrowly ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 × 0.5 mm, glabrous, apex acuminate, entire, 1-nerved. Female inflorescence as male; corolla-segments narrowly triangular; ovary globose, ca. 1 mm in diam., styles 3, free, apex 2-fid. Fruit globose, 8–10 mm, yellow-green, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds broadly ovate, ca. 4 mm in diam., pale gray, compressed, apex acute, base rounded, papillate on both surfaces. Fl. Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.

Dense forests in valleys. Guangxi, Hainan, SE Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino.

9. Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakravarty, Indian J. Agric. Sci. 16(1): 86. 1949 [not validly published; no Latin description/diagnosis (Art. 36.1); +check original spelling].

缅甸绞股蓝  mian din jiao gu lan

Scandent herbs. Stem angular-sulcate, densely pubescent at nodes. Leaves papery, 3-foliolate, hispidulous on both surfaces, petiole 3–6.5 cm, densely pubescent, median leaflet rhomboid, (6–)8–12 × 3–5.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate, base broadly cuneate, margin crenate, lateral leaflets 4–9 × ca. 4 cm, outer side semiovate, base rounded, inner side semilanceolate or oblanceolate, base attenuate, lateral veins 8–9, median petiolule 5–6 mm, lateral leaflets subsessile. Tendrils 2-fid. Male flowers in panicle; calyx-segments oblong, ca. 0.75 × 0.3 mm, apex obtuse; corolla green, segments more or less elliptic, apex acute or shortly acuminate; stamens ca. 1 mm, glabrous. Female flowers unknown. Fruit baccate, globose, 5–10 mm in diam., green, glabrous, 3-seeded. Seeds broadly ovate, ca. 3(–5) × 3 mm, ca. 2 mm thick, pale brown, compressed, base subrounded, edges with furrow, papillate on both surfaces.

Open forests or thickets, forests in mountain valleys; 600–1300 m. S and SE Yunnan [Myanmar, Thailand].

1a. Fruit 5–6 mm in diam.; seeds 3(–3.5) mm ....................................................  9a. var. burmanicum

1b. Fruit 8–10 mm in diam.; seeds 5 mm ......................................................................  9b. var. molle

9a. Gynostemma burmanicum var. burmanicum [not validly published; Art. 26.3]

缅甸绞股蓝  mian dian jiao gu lan

Fruits 5–6 mm in diam.; seeds 3(–3.5) mm.

Open forests and thickets; 800–1200 m. S Yunnan [Myanmar, Thailand].

9b. Gynostemma burmanicum var. molle C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21: 360. 1983 [not validly published; Art. 43.1].

大果绞股蓝  da guo jiao gu lan

Fruits 8–10 cm in diam.; seeds ca. 5 mm.

* Forests in mountain valleys or open forests; 600–1300 m. S and SE Yunnan.

The junior author (C. J.) considers this species and its varieties, the names of which have never been validly published, to represent densely hairy variants of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino.

11. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 179. 1902.

绞股蓝  jiao gu lan

Climbing herbs. Stem and branches slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Leaves membranous or papery, pedately 3–9-foliolate, usually 5–7-foliolate, pubescent or glabrous; leaflets ovate-oblong or lanceolate, median 3–12 × 1.5–4 cm, lateral smaller, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base attenuate, margin crenate, hispid on both surfaces, lateral veins 6–8 pairs; petiolule 1–5 mm. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Male flowers in panicle, peduncle filiform, many-branched, 10–15(–30) cm; pedicels filiform, 1–4 mm, bracteole subulate; calyx-tube very short, segments triangular, 0.7 mm, apex acute; corolla pale green or white, segments ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × ca. 1 cm, apex long acuminate, 1-nerved; stamens 5. Female flowers: panicle shorter than that of male; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary globose, 2–3-celled, styles 3, stigmas 2-lobed; staminode 5, short. Fruits indehiscent, globose, 5–6 mm in diam., black when mature, 2-seeded. Seeds ovate-cordate, ca. 4 mm in diam., brown, apex obtuse, base cordate, compressed, papillose on both surfaces. Fl. Mar–Nov, fr. Apr–Dec.

Forests, thickets or roadsides on mountain slopes; 300–3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, S Japan, S Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].

1a. Fruit glabrous ..........................................................................................  11a. var. pentaphyllum

1b. Fruit densely hispid and pubescent .............................................................  11b. var. dasycarpum

11a. Gynostemma pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum

绞股蓝  jiao gu lan

Vitis pentaphylla Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 244. 1784; Alsomitra cissoides M. Roemer; Enkylia digyna Griffith; E. trigyna Griffith; Gynostemma pallidinerve Z. Zhang; G. pedatum Blume; G. pedatum var. hupehense Pampanini; G. pedatum var. pubescens Gagnepain; G. pedatum var. trifoliatum Hayata; G. pubescens (Gagnepain) C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen; G. siamicum Craib; G. zhejiangense X. J. Xue; Pestalozzia pedata (Blume) Zollinger & Moritzi; Zanonia pedata (Blume) Miquel.

Fruit glabrous.

Forests, thickets or roadsides on mountain slopes; 300–3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, S Japan, S Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].

The junior author (C. J.) would treat species 8, 9, and 14 as synonyms of this taxon.

11b. Gynostemma pentaphyllum var. dasycarpum C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta. Phytotax. Sin. 21: 362. 1983.

毛果绞股蓝  mao guo jiang gu lan

Fruits densely hispid and pubescent.

* Forests; 1400–1700 m. S Yunnan.

12. Gynostemma guangxiense X. X. Chen & D. H. Qin, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 10(4): 495. 1988.

广西绞股蓝  guang xi jiang gu lan

Liana, herbaceous, scandent. Stems slender, glabrous, striate and sulcate. Tendrils filiform, apex bifid. Leaves alternate, pedate, with (3–)5–7-leaflets, petiole 4–8 cm, glabrous; leaflet blade membranous, ovate-elliptic or obovate, central 3–4.5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, lateral smaller, slightly oblique, apex short-acuminate or obtuse, base cuneate, margin serrate, glabrous or with sparse pubescence along midrib and lateral veins on both surfaces; petiolule 3–5 mm. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers: greenish, ca. 2 m in diam., in axillary panicles, 3–5 cm; peduncle filiform, 8–15 mm, glabrous; bracteoles subulate, ca. 1.5 mm; pedicels filiform, 2–3 mm; calyx 5-lobed, lobes deltoid, ca. 0.5 × 0.4 mm; corolla 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.5 mm; stamens 5, filaments very short, anthers ovate. Female flowers: few, cymose, peduncle slender, 6–14 mm, glabrous, pedicels 7–15 mm; calyx 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, ca. 1 × 0.3 mm; corolla 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, ca. 2.5 × 0.5 mm, apex caudate-acuminate; ovary 2–3-locular, each locule with 1 ovule, styles 2–3, slightly connate at base, stigmas slightly bifid. Fruits obovate-triangular or 3-angled-oblate, 4–5 × 5–6 mm, apex truncate, with persistent perianth and styles, glabrous, greenish, fruit stalk filiform, 7–18 mm. Seeds 2 or 3, oblong or subglobose, ca. 2.5 × 2.2 mm, cream, verruculose, Fl. Oct, fr. Nov–Dec.

* Forests on limestone mountains. Guangxi (Longzhou, Daxin).

13. Gynostemma compressum X. X. Chen & D. R. Liang, Guihaia 11(1): 13. 1991.

扁果绞股蓝  bian guo jiao gu lan

Herbaceous liana, scandent. Stems slender, sulcate, glabrous. Tendrils filiform, apex usually bifid. Leaves pedate, with 7-leaflets; petiole 5–12 cm, glabrous; leaflets membranous, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, apex acuminate or acute, base cuneate, margin crenulate, adaxially green, sparsely pilose, abaxially gray-green, sparsely puberulent along midrib and lateral veins, middle leaflet 3.6–6.5 × 2–2.25 cm, lateral leaflets smaller, outside oblique, petiolule 3–5 mm. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in panicles, axillary, 2–5 cm; peduncle filiform, 8–16 mm, glabrous; bracteoles subulate, ca. 1.5 mm; pedicels 2–5 mm; flowers greenish, ca. 1.5 mm in diam.; calyx 5-lobed, lobes triangular, ca. 0.8 × 0.5 mm; stamens 5, filaments very short, connate, anthers ovate. Female flowers: solitary or paired, axillary; peduncle filiform, 5–9 mm, glabrous; pedicels 5–10 mm; calyx 5-lobed, lobes ca. 1.3 × 0.4 mm; corolla 5-parted, lobes linear-lanceolate, 2–3 × ca. 0.4 mm, apex caudate-acuminate; ovary 2-locular, each locule with 1 ovule, styles 2, free, stigmas bifid. Fruit baccate, compressed, obtriangular, 5–8 mm, 5–7 mm wide, glabrous, apex with persistent perianth and styles; fruit stalk filiform, 1.3–2.5 cm; seed obtriangular, ca. 3 mm, apex ca. 3.5 mm in diam., brownish, margin crenate and sulcate, both surfaces tuberculate. Fl. Mar–Apr, fr. Mar–May.

* Forests, moist limestone foothills; below 400 m. Guangxi (Longzhou).

This species is used in Chinese herbal medicine by the people of Guangxi.

14. Gynostemma longipes C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21(4): 362. 1983.

长梗绞股蓝  chang geng jiao gu lan

Climbing herbs. Stem pubescent. Leaves papery, pedately 7–9-foliolate; petiole 4–8 cm; leaflets rhomboid-elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, median one 5–12 × 2–4.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate, base attenuate, margin irregularly crenate, lateral leaflets smaller than median, apex obtuse, adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially hispid-pubescent on nerves; petiolule ca. 1 cm. Tendrils slender, 2-fid. Male flowers: panicle 10–20 cm, rachis and branches pubescent, bracts linear, ca. 2 mm; pedicel filiform, ca. 4 mm, bracteole linear, ca. 0.7 mm; calyx-segments ovate, ca. 1 × 0.5 mm, acute; corolla white, segments narrowly ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, apex long acuminate, pubescent, 1-nerved. Female flower unknown. Fruit globose, 6–7 mm in diam., yellow-green, glabrous; fruit-pedicel filiform, (8–)15–20 mm, glabrous. Seeds compressed-cordate, ca. 3 × 3 mm, ca. 1 mm thick, pale gray or brown.

* Forests on valley sides; 1400–3200 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, S Shaanxi, W Sichuan, NE and NW Yunnan.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino.

15. Gynostemma caulopterum S. Z. He, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34(2): 207. 1996.

翅茎绞股蓝  chi jing jiao gu lan

Herbaceous liana, scandent. Stem stout, branched, 4–10 m, 5–10 mm in diam., 3-angled, angles winged, wings 1.5–3 mm wide, glabrous or sparsely puberulent at nodes. Tendrils filiform, apex bifid. Leaves pedate, 7-foliolate; petiole 5–8 cm, glabrous. Leaflet blade papery, rhombic-elliptic or obovate-elliptic, apex acuminate, mucronate, base cuneate, margin serrate, adaxially pilose, abaxially glabrous; central leaflet 6–12 × 2–4 cm, lateral leaflets smaller. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: in axillary panicles, 7–9 cm; bracteoles linear, ca. 1.5 mm; flowers ca. 2 mm in diam., pedicels 2–2.5 mm; calyx 5-lobed, lobes triangular, ca. 0.8 × 0.5 mm; corolla 5-parted, lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 × 1 mm; stamens 5, filaments very short, connate, anthers ovate. Female flowers in axillary or terminal panicles, glabrous, 1.5–3.5 cm, 1.2–1.8 cm in diam., pedicel 1–1.5 mm, basal bract 1, linear; calyx 5-lobed, lobes triangular, ca. 0.5 × 0.4 mm; corolla 5-parted, lobes lanceolate, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, apex acuminate; ovary compressed-globose, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., 2-locular, each locule with 1 ovule; styles 2, free, stigmas 3-fid. Berry compressed-globose, 2.5–3 mm, 5.5–6 mm in diam., greenish, glabrous, with persistent corolla and styles; fruit-stalks filiform, 3–6 mm. Seeds 2, broad-cordate, ca. 2 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam., cream, spiniform-tuberculate. Fl. and fr. Sep–Nov.

* Moist places along small stream valley; 400–700 m. Guizhou (Renhuai, Ziyun).

4. NEOALSOMITRA Hutchinson, Ann. Bot. n. s. 6: 97. 1942.

棒锤瓜属  bang chui gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing shrubs; leaves simple or often 3–5-foliolate, leaflets sometimes 2-glandular at base. Tendrils simple or 2-fid. Dioecious. Male flowers in paniculate or racemose inflorescences in axils of leaves, peduncle and pedicels filiform. Male flowers: calyx-tube cupular, 5-partite, segments oblong or oblong-lanceolate; corolla rotate, 5-partite, segments oblong; stamens 5, free, filaments short, united at base, anthers oblong, 1-locular. Female flowers in lax axillary panicles or racemes; ovary 1-locular or imperfectly 3-locular; styles 3, rarely 4, stigma semi-lunar, ovules numerous, pendulous. Fruits clavate or cylindric, terete or slightly 3-angled, apex broadly truncate and 3-valved. Seeds imbricate, compressed, terminated by a very thin elongated wing, margins wavy-tuberculate, testa crustaceous.

Eleven species: distribution??; one species in China.

1. Neoalsomitra clavigera (Wallich) Hutchinson, Ann. Bot. n. s. 6: 100. 1942.

棒锤瓜  bang chui gua

Zanonia clavigera Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 28. 1831; Alsomitra clavigera (Wallich) M. Roemer; A. integrifoliola (Cogniaux) Hayata; A. pubigera Prain; A. tonkinensis Gagnepain; Gynostemma elongatum Merrill; G. integrifoliola Cogniaux; Hemsleya elongata (Merrill) Cogniaux; H. esquirolii H. Léveillé; H. henryi Cogniaux; Neoalsomitra integrifoliola (Cogniaux) Hutchinson; N. tonkinensis (Gagnepain) Hutchinson.

Climbing herbs; stem slender, much-branched, pubescent or subglabrous. Leaf blade membranous or thinly papery, pedately 3–5-foliolate; petiole 1.5–2 cm, pubescent; leaflets oblong or oblong-lanceolate, median 7–14 × 3–7 cm, lateral smaller, apex acuminate, base obtuse, 1–2 glandular, adaxially green, abaxially pale green, both surfaces pubescent along veins, lateral veins 4–5 pairs; petiolule 0.5–1 cm, densely pubescent. Tendrils glabrous or pubescent, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male inflorescences paniculate, much-branched, 12–30 cm; pedicel filiform, 4–8 mm, glabrous or pubescent; bracteole subulate-lanceolate, 1–2 mm, densely pubescent; calyx-tube short, 5-partite, segments ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate-linear, ca. 2 × 1 mm, hirsute-pubescent; corolla rotate, white, 5-partite, segments ovate, 2–4 × 1.5–3 mm, apex acute, abaxially densely pubescent; stamens 5, free, filaments ca. 8 mm, anthers ovate. Female flowers: paniculate, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary subcylindric, ca. 10 mm, pubescent, styles 3, stigma 2-lobed. Fruits capsular, cylindric, 4–8.5 cm, 1.5–2 cm across, glabrous or pubescent, apex truncate, base obtuse, with numerous seeds. Seeds substelliform, narrowly ovate, margin 4–7-dentate, gray- or yellow-brown, 10–14 × 6–10 mm, both surfaces muriculate, apex with oblong membranous, 15–22 × 6–8 mm wing. Fl. Sep–Nov, fr. Nov–Apr (following year).

Rain forests, broad-leaved forests, valleys,  secondary forests. Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, SE Xizang (Mêdog), Yunnan [Cambodia, NE India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia (Queensland), Pacific islands (Fiji, Solomon Islands)].

5. ZANONIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1028. 1753, & ed. 2. 1457. 1763.

翅子瓜属  chi zi gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Woody climber, stem subglabrous. Leaves petiolate, undivided, margin entire. Tendrils simple or bifid. Flowers dioecious, male in lax pendulous panicles, female racemose. Male flower: calyx tube shortly cupular, segments 3, rarely 4, membranous, concave; corolla rotate, segments 5, apex narrow and inflexed in flower bud; stamens 5, free, all of same length, inserted on a fleshy disc, filaments short, thick; anthers oblong, 1-loculed. Pistillode absent. Female flowers: calyx as in male; staminodes 5, very short, alternate with petals; ovary inferior, at first 3-loculed ultimately 1-loculed; styles 3, spreading, apex bifid; ovules in each locule 2 or many, pendulous, attached in 2 series to a fleshy parietal placenta. Fruit a capsule, large, elongate-cylindric, clavate, 3-valved at truncate apex. Seeds large, oblong, pendulous, compressed, surrounded by a large membranous wing.

One species: Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Vietnam, and S Yunnan and Guangxi of China.

1. Zanonia indica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1457. 1763.

翅子瓜  chi zi gua

Stem robust, branched, more or less sulcate, glabrous. Leaves glabrous, leaf blades leathery, ovate-oblong, 8–16 × 5–10 cm, apex acute, base rounded or slightly emarginate, entire, adaxially smooth, abaxially with distinctly reticulate nerves, lateral nerves 3–4 pairs; petiole 1.5–3 cm, glabrous. Flowers dioecious. Male peduncle slender, rachis ca. 16 cm, much-branched; pedicel robust, 4–5 mm, with articulation; calyx-segments ovate-triangular, ca. 2 mm, apex acute, glabrous; corolla pale yellow-brown, segments oblong, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Female peduncle 10–30 cm, sparsely 5–10-flowered; pedicels thick; calyx-segments ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse; corolla-segments 6–8 mm; ovary obconic-cylindric, 10–12 mm. Fruit brownish, 6–10 × 2.5–5 cm, finely granulate, apex truncate, base obtuse. Seeds oblong, ca. 2 × 1–1.5 cm; wing yellowish or white, surrounding central seed, base and apex rounded, 5–8 × 1.3–2 cm.

Riversides and mountain slopes; 300–900 m. Guangxi (Nabai), S Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

1a. Fruit 6–10 × 2.5–3 cm, glabrous; seed wing 5–6 × 1.3–1.5 cm ..............................  1a. var. indica

1b. Fruit ca. 10 × 4.5–5 cm, densely pubescent; seed wing ca. 8 × 2 cm ...............  1b. var. pubescens

1a. Zanonia indica var. indica

翅子瓜  chi zi gua

Alsomitra simplicifolia Merrill.

Fruit 6–10 × 2.5–3 cm, glabrous; seeds ca. 2 × 1 cm, wing 5–6 × 1.3–1.5 cm.

Riversides and mountain slopes; ca. 300 m. Guangxi (Nabai) [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

1b. Zanonia indica var. pubescens Cogniaux in A. Candolle & C. Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 927. 1881.

滇南翅子瓜  dian nan chi zi gua

Fruit ca. 10 × 4.5–5 cm, densely pubescent; seeds ca. 2 × 1.5 cm, wing white, ca. 8 × 2 cm.

Open forests on mountain slopes and dry valley sides; ca. 800 m. S Yunnan (Munlai) [N India].

6. BOLBOSTEMMA Franchet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Par. Sér. 2, 2: 325. 1930.

假贝母属  jia bei mu shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing herbs with a multi-tuberous base. Stems slender. Leaves cordate, 5-lobed, glandular at base. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious; male flowers paniculate, female often paniculate, sometimes solitary or fasciculate. Male flowers: calyx rotate, 5-partite, segments linear-lanceolate; corolla rotate, 5-partite, lobes narrowly lanceolate, caudate-acuminate; stamens 5, filaments free or connate at base in pairs; anthers subovate, 1-locular, connective papillose on back. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary subglobose, verrucose, 3-locular; style short, stigmas 3, 2-lobed; ovules 2 in each locule, pendulous. Fruit elongate-ovoid, conical at apex, with or without spines, circumscissile-dehiscent above middle. Seeds 4–6, subovate, with membranous wing at apex.

* Two species; disjunct between N China and SW China.

1a.       Leaves palmately 5-fid, lobes 3–5-lobed; calyx-segments and corolla-segments ca. 2.5 mm; stamens 5, free, connective not papillose; ovary rarely verrucose; fruits smooth on surface ....  1. B. paniculatum

1b.       Leaves suborbicular; calyx-segments and corolla-segments to 6–8 mm; stamens 5, connate at base of filaments in pairs, connective elongate; ovary densely verrucose; fruits spinescent  2. B. biglandulosum

1. Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maximowicz) Franchet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. Sér. 2, 2: 327. 1930.

假贝母  jia bei mu

Mitrosicyos paniculatus Maximowicz, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 113. 1859; Actinostemma paniculatum (Maximowicz) Maximowicz ex Cogniaux; A. multilobum Harms; Schizopepon fargesii Gagnepain.

Plants with a multi-tuberous base; stem herbaceous, glabrous. Petiole slender, 1.5–3.5 cm; leaf blade ovate-orbicular, 4–11 × 3–10 cm, palmately 5-partite, lateral lobes ovate-oblong, acute, central lobe oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, basal lobe with a gland at apex, glabrous or pilose on veins. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Inflorescence paniculate, 4–10 cm. Flower-pedicel filiform, 1.5–3.5 cm, calyx and corolla similar, yellow-green, segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2.5 cm. Stamens 5, free, filaments 0.3–0.5 mm, anthers ca. 0.5 mm. Ovary ovoid, 3-locular, ovules 2 in each locule, styles 3, stigmas 2-lobed. Fruits cylindric, 1.5–3 cm, 1–1.2 cm in diam., circumscissile-dehiscent, conical at apex. Seeds 6, testa rugose, margin denticulate, with a long membranous wing at apex, 8–10 × ca. 5 mm, wing 8–10 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug. fr. Aug–Sep.

* Montane slopes. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, NW Hunan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, S to E Sichuan.

Medicinal.

2. Bolbostemma biglandulosum (Hemsley) Franquet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par., Sér. 2, 2: 328. 1930.

刺儿瓜  ci er gua

Branches slender, slightly pilose when young, ultimately glabrous. Petiole slender, 2–5 cm; leaf blade membranous, broadly oblong or suborbicular, glabrous, 2.5–7 × 3–7 cm, 5-lobed, acute or obtuse at apex, base broadly cordate, with a gland at apex of lowest two lobes. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid, pilose or glabrous. Dioecious. Male inflorescence paniculate, to 12 cm, rachis and pedicels filiform, pedicels 1–1.5 cm. Calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate; corolla-lobes narrowly lanceolate, pale yellow-green, apex long caudate, 6–8 × 1–1.2 mm, glabrous; stamens 5, inserted at base of corolla-tube, connate in pairs, one free; filaments ca. 0.8 mm, anthers yellow, ca. 1 mm, connective caudate at apex, 1–1.2 mm. Female flowers solitary, pedicels filiform, 10–15 mm; ovary densely verrucose, styles 3, stigmas 2-lobed. Fruit cylindric, yellow-green, 3.5–2 cm, covered with slender spines, spines 5–7 mm, circumscissile when mature. Seeds irregular-ovate, margin irregularly dentate, ca. 10 × 7 mm, with membranous wing at apex, wing ca. 10 mm, apex lobate. Fl. Sep, fr. Oct.

* Forest edges; 1000–1400 m. Yunnan (Mengzi, Lijiang).

1a. Leaf blade suborbicular, about as long as broad, 4–7 × 4–7 cm ................  2a. var. biglandulosum

1b. Leaf blade broadly oblong, shorter than broad, 2.5–3.5 × 3–4.5 cm
...........................................................................................................  2b. var. sinuatolobulatum

2a. Bolbostemma biglandulosum var. biglandulosum

刺儿瓜  ci er gua

Actinostemma biglandulosum Hemsley, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 27. t. 2645. 1901; Hemsleya esquirolii Léveille.

Leaf blade suborbicular, about as long as broad, 4–7 × 4–7 cm; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate; corolla-lobes narrowly lanceolate, 6–8 × 1–1.2 mm.

* Forest edges; 1300–1400 m. Yunnan (Mengzi).

2b. Bolbostemma biglandulosum var. sinuatolobulatum C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6(2): 238. 1957.

波裂叶刺儿瓜  bo lie ye ci er gua

Leaf blade broadly oblong, shorter than broad, 2.5–3.5 × 3–4.5 cm; calyx- and corolla-lobes narrowly lanceolate, 6–8 × 0.8–1 mm.

* Thickets under forests; ca. 1000 m. Yunnan (Lijiang).

7. ACTINOSTEMMA Griffith, Account Bot. Coll. Cantor 24. 1845.

盒子草属  he zi cao shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Mitrosicyos Maximowicz.

Scandent herbs; leaves petiolate, lamina cordate-hastate, cordate-ovate, broadly ovate, or lanceolate-triangular, unlobed or 3–5-lobed, margins dentate. Tendrils 2-fid or rarely simple. Flowers unisexual, monoecious or rarely bisexual. Male inflorescence racemose or paniculate, rarely solitary or paired. Calyx rotate, lobes linear-lanceolate; corolla rotate, lobes lanceolate, acuminate; stamens 5(–6), free, filaments short, filiform; anthers subovate, extrorse, basifixed, 1-locular, locule oblong, connective papillose on back. Female flowers solitary or fasciculate; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovoid, verrucose, 1-locular; style short, stigmas 3, reniform; ovules 2(–4), attached to wall near apex of locule, pendulous. Fruit ovoid, conical at apex, semi-superior, echinate, circumscissile-dehiscent above middle. Seeds 2–4, compressed, testa rugose, margin denticulate.

One species: distributed in E Asia and India.

1. Actinostemma tenerum Griffith, Account Bot. Coll. Cantor 25. 1845.

盒子草  he zi cao

Branches slender, slightly pilose when young, ultimately glabrous. Petiole filiform, slightly puberulent, 2–6 cm; lamina very variable, ovate, sagittate-ovate, 3-lobed, base deeply emarginate, apex long, acutely acuminate, margin minutely denticulate or coarsely serrate, upper surface indistinctly punctate-scabrid, lower surface slightly pilose, ultimately glabrous, 3–12 × 2–8 cm. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Male inflorescence racemose, sometimes paniculate, shortly villous, many-flowered, main rachis 1–13 cm, shortly villous; bract linear, ca. 3 mm, villous; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, margin dentate, 2–3 × 0.5–1 mm; corolla-lobes lanceolate, apex narrow-subulate, 1-or 3-nerved, scarcely villous, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm at base; staminal filaments slightly dilated at apex, pilose, 0.5 mm, anthers ca. 0.3 mm. Female flowers solitary or fasciculate; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovoid, verrucose. Fruit ovate or oblong-elliptic, verrucose, 1.6–2.5 cm, 1–2 cm in diam., operculate, 2–4-seeded. Seed planoconvex, broadly ovate, base slightly attenuate, reticulate on both faces, 11–13 × 8–9 mm, 3–4 mm thick. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov.

Growing on watersides. Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Vietnam].

Plants and seeds used as medicine.

1a. Flowers unisexual; stamens 5 ..............................................................................  1a. var. tenerum

1b. Flowers bisexual; stamens 6 .........................................................................  1b. var. yunnanense

1a. Actinostemma tenerum var. tenerum

盒子草  he zi cao

Actinostemma japonicum Miquel; A. lobatum (Maximowicz) Maximowicz ex Franchet & Savatier; A. lobatum var. japonicum Maximowicz; A. lobatum f. longiloba Komarov; A. lobatum var. palmatum Makino; A. lobatum f. subintegra Komarov; A. palmatum (Makino) Makino; A. parvifolium Cogniaux; A. racemosum Maximowicz ex Cogniaux; Mitrosicyos lobatus Maximowicz; M. racemosus Maximowicz; Pomasterion japonicum Miquel.

Flowers unisexual; stamens 5.

Growing in grasslands at watersides. Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Liaoning, Shandong, S Xizang, W Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Vietnam].

1b. Actinostemma tenerum var. yunnanense A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(2): 127. 1984.

云南盒子草  yun nan he zi cao

Flowers bisexual; stamens 6.

* Yunnan (Zheng Kang).

8. INDOFEVILLEA Chatterjee, Nature 158: 345. 1946 & Kew Bull. 1947: 119–121. 1948.

藏瓜属  zang gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Large woody climber. Stem angular-sulcate. Leaves petiolate, leaf blade ovate, cordate, entire, pedately nerved at base. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in panicle, rachis elongate; pedicels short, bracts linear, apex acuminate; calyx-segments 5, acute, 3-nerved; corolla-segments 5, shorter than calyx-segments, 3–5-nerved; stamens 5, four associated in pairs, one free; filaments very short, anthers reniform, 1-locular, pubescent; staminodes and rudimentary ovary absent. Fruit oblong, indehiscent, in clusters of 3–6 on a very long peduncle, with a thick woody rind; seeds many, large, ovoid, compressed, faintly margined.

One species: NE India and S Xizang of China.

1. Indofevillea khasiana Chatterjee, Kew Bull. 1947: 119–121. 1948.

藏瓜  zang gua

Woody climber; stem branched, robust, pubescent at first, ultimately glabrous. Tendrils smooth, glabrous, to 20–30 cm, 2-fid. Petiole robust, 1.5–8 cm, pubescent at first, later glabrous; leaf blade leathery, broadly ovate-cordate, 15–25 cm × 12–20 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin entire or rarely in younger leaves distinctly and minutely toothed near base, scabrous on veins, otherwise glabrous on both surfaces. Male panicle to 17 cm, rachis and branches scabrous; bracts linear, acuminate, 5–9 mm, bracteoles 2–3 mm; calyx-segments 5, ovate-lanceolate, 3–4-nerved, longer than corolla-segments, ca. 6 mm; corolla-segments ovate-lanceolate, distinctly 3–5-nerved, sparsely and minutely hairy outside and papillose within, ca. 4 mm; stamens 5, 4 in pairs, 1 free, anthers reniform, hairy. Fruits oblong, 3–6 in clusters on a long stalks, ca. 30 cm, indehiscent with a thick woody rind. Seeds ovate, compressed, faintly margined, 3.5–4 × ca. 2 cm, ca. 0.5 cm thick. Fl. and fr. Aug.

Open forests on mountain slopes; ca. 900 m. S Xizang [NE India].

9. SIRAITIA Merrill, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 19: 200. 1934.

罗汉果属  luo han guo shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Perennial scandent herbs. Tuber spheroid, enlarged. Plants verrucose-glandular. Stems angular-sulcate. Leaf-blade unlobed, margin sparsely dentate, abaxially pilose or densely tomentose. Tendrils spiral above and below branch, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: inflorescence paniculate, bracteate; calyx-segments 5, triangular, densely pubescent. corolla-segments 5, lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, base often with 5 scales; stamens 5, 4 connected in pairs, one free, anthers sigmoid. Female flowers: solitary, paired or 3–4 in raceme; staminodes 5, glanduliform; ovary ovoid, style stout, apex 3-lobed, stigma 2-lobed, ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits subglobose or cylindric. Seeds subovoid or ovoid, winged, wing corky. 2n = 28.

Four species: India (Sikkim), Indochina, Indonesia, Thailand; three species in China.

1a.       Male inflorescence cymose-paniculate, many-flowered .................................  1. S. sikkimensis

1b.       Male inflorescence racemose or paniculate, 6–10-flowered.

2a.       Seeds with 3-layered wing, wing marginally obtusely dentate; calyx-segments broadly triangular, 3–5 mm, 7–9 mm broad .............................................................................................  3. S. siamensis

2b.       Seeds with 2-layered wing, wing marginally only sparsely dentate; calyx-segments shortly triangular, 3–4 × 3–4 mm ...................................................................................................  2.. S. grosvenorii

1. Siraitia sikkimensis (Chakravarty) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin 31(1): 54. 1993.

锡金罗汉果  xi jin luo han guo

Neoluffa sikkimensis Chakravarty, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50: 895. 1952.

Herbs, scandent. Stem angular, tomentose. Petiole 5–8 cm, tomentose; leaf blade cordate, adaxially glabrous, abaxially tomentose, 7–15 × 7–15 cm, margin entire, lowest lateral veins running parallel with margin of basal lobes. Male flowers yellow, 20–35 crowded on 8–14 cm long axillary peduncle, rachis 3–5 cm; pedicels 1–2 cm. Bracts foliaceous, 7–15 mm; calyx-tube campanulate, 10–15 mm in diam., tomentose, segments acute, 3–5 mm; corolla-segments oblong-ovate, entire, more or less constricted at apex, apex acute, 8–10 × 3–4 mm; stamens free, inserted at base of calyx-tube, 1–2 mm, filaments 0.5–1 mm; anthers 1-locular, sinuate; connective broad, granular. Female flowers and fruits not known.

Yunnan (Munglai) [India (Sikkim)].

2. Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Guihaia 4(1): 29. 1984.

罗汉果  luo han guo

Momordica grosvenorii Swingle, J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 198. t. 1–2. 1941; Thladiantha grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey.

Climbing herbs. Root enlarged, fusiform or subglobose. All parts with yellow-brown pubescence and black glandular scales. Stem and branches slightly robust. Petiole 3–10 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, sinus semicircular or broadly ovate-cordate, 12–23 × 5–17 cm, apex acuminate or long acuminate. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: inflorescence racemose, 6–10-flowered, peduncle 7–13 cm; pedicels slender, 5–15 mm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, 4–5 × ca. 8 mm, usually with 3 membranous scales, segments 5, triangular, ca. 4.5 × 3 mm, apex long acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments 5, oblong, 10–15 × 7–8 mm, apex acute, 5-nerved; stamens 5, filaments puberulent, ca. 4 mm, anthers ca. 3 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 2–5 on 6–8 mm long peduncle, calyx and corolla as in male but slightly larger; staminodes 5, 2–2.5 mm; ovary oblong, 10–12 mm, 5–6 mm in diam., base obtuse-rounded, densely yellow-brown velvety, style ca. 2.5 mm, stigmas 3, enlarged, 2-lobed, 1.5 mm. Fruit globose or oblong, 6–11 cm, 4–8 cm in diam., densely yellow-brown velvety and black glandular-scaly, ultimately glabrous. Seeds numerous, pale yellow, broadly ovate, compressed, 15–18 × 10–12, base obtuse-rounded, with 2-layered wings, wings sinuate. Fl. May–Jul, fl. Jul–Sep.

* Forests on mountain slopes, riversides, thickets. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Hunan, Jiangxi.

Fruits used as a medicine.

3. Siraitia siamensis (Craib) C. Jeffrey ex S. Q. Zhong & D. Fang, Guihaia, 4(1): 23. 1984.

翅子罗汉果  chi zi luo han guo

Thladiantha siamensis Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1914: 7. 1914; Momordica tonkinensis Gagnepain.

Climbing herbs, to 20 m. Roots enlarged, perennial. All parts densely yellow-brown pubescent and red (black when dry) glandular-scaly. Petiole 3.5–10 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, 10–27 × 2–5.5 cm, palmately 5–7-nerved. Tendrils 2-fid. Male flowers: 5–15(–many) in a raceme or panicle, peduncle 2–12 cm; pedicels 15–30 mm, calyx-tube shortly campanulate, 12–15 mm in diam., segments ovate-triangular, 3–5 × 7–9 mm, apex obtuse, 3-nerved; corolla pale yellow, 3.4–4 cm in diam., segments ovate-oblong, 15–20 × 9–13 mm, 5-nerved, apex obtuse, margin with glandular hairs, base with 3 membranous scales; stamens 5, filaments sparsely glandular-hairy. Female flowers: solitary or paired, calyx and corolla as in male but smaller; staminodes (3–)5, corolla base with 3 scales; ovary ovoid, 12–15 mm, 9–10 mm in diam., apex truncate, base obtuse-rounded, densely velvety and glandular-scaly, style 4–5 mm, glabrous, 3-lobed, stigma reniform, 2-lobed. Fruit subglobose, ca. 6 cm in diam., velvety at first, glabrescent. Seeds numerous, pale brown, ovoid, 12–14 × 11–13 mm, ca. 4 mm thick, with 3-layered wings, wing corky, margin irregularly dentate, median 3–5 mm broad, lateral 1–2 mm broad. Fl. Apr–Jun, fr. Jul–Sep.

Forests on mountain slopes; 300–700 m. W Guangxi, SE Yunnan [Thailand, N Vietnam].

Tuber used as a medicine.

10. SINOBAIJIANIA C. Jeffrey & W. J. de Wilde, Bot. Zhurn. 91(5): 769. 2006.

白兼果属  bai jian guo shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Baijiania sensu A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 31: 50. 1993, p.p., excl. typo.

Perennial scandent herbs. Root spheroid, enlarged. Stem and branches sulcate and angular, without verrucose glands, sparsely puberulent. Leaves membranous, leaf-blade ovate-cordate or triangular-cordate, margin entire or 2–3-lobed, adaxially strigose-punctate, abaxially hispid on nerves. Male inflorescence racemose, 5–8-flowered; bracteate; calyx-segments triangular-ovate, valvate, sparsely pilose; corolla oblong or ovate, stamens 5, anthers curved. Female flowers solitary or 2–3, ovoid or cylindric, ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits subglobose or cylindric. Seeds ovate or ovate-oblong, apex truncate or obtuse, unwinged. 2n = 32.

Four species: S China, Laos, Thailand; three species in China.

1a.       Leaves 3–5-parted; fruit subglobose .............................................................  3. S. taiwaniana

1b.       Leaves entire, undulate, crenate or lobed; fruit cylindric.

2a.       Leaves entire, undulate; seeds triangular-ovate, apex obtuse and apiculate
....................................................................................................................  1. S. decipienss

2b.       Leaves crenate or lobed; seeds ovate, apex broadly truncate ....................  2. S. yunnanensis

1. Sinobaijiania decipiens C. Jeffrey & W. J. de Wilde, Bot. Zhurn. 91(5): 769. 2006.

白兼果  bai jian guo

Scandent herbs. Stem and branches setose and pubescent at first, ultimately glabrous. Petiole 2–6 cm, leaf blade membranous or papery, long ovate-cordate, 8–15 × 5–10, entire or callose-serrate, apex acuminate, base cordate, sinus semicircular or suborbicular, 1.5–2.5 cm in depth, 2–3 cm wide, adaxially setose at first, ultimately strigose-punctate, pubescent on nerves, abaxially sparsely puberulent or subglabrous. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male inflorescence racemose or paniculate, rachis 3–14 cm, pubescent, 7–15-flowered; pedicel 5–10 mm, pubescent, base with a lanceolate or long ovate, 2–3 mm long bract; calyx-tube cupular, 2.5–3 mm, more or less puberulent, segments lanceolate, 6–7.5 mm, base 2–3 mm wide, 3-nerved, apex acuminate; corolla yellow, segments long ovate, 6–6.5 mm, apex acute; stamens 5, 4 in pairs, one free, filaments ca. 1 mm, anthers terete, 1-locular, ca. 3 mm, locules curved, puberulent. Female flowers solitary or 2–3-flowered at apex of peduncle; pedicel ca. 5 mm, puberulent; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary oblong, ca. 8 × 4 mm, densely hispid or pubescent, style longish, filiform, ca. 7 mm, 3-fid, stigma 2-lobed, enlarged. Fruit-pedicel stout, sulcate-angular, 2–2.5 cm, densely pubescent and setose, ultimately glabrous; fruit oblong or subglobose, red-brown when mature, 5.5–6.5 cm, 4–5 cm in diam., pubescent at first, ultimately glabrous. Seeds numerous, triangular-ovate, pale yellow-brown, ca. 8 × 7 cm, ca. 3 mm thick, base obtuse-rounded, constricted above, apex truncate, smooth on both surfaces. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Sep–Dec.

* Forests, river valleys. Guangdong, SE Xizang (Mêdog), SE Yunnan (Xichou).

2. Sinobaijiania yunnanensis (A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang) C. Jeffrey & W. J. de Wilde, Bot. Zhurn. 91(5): 769. 2006.

云南白兼果  yun nan bai jian guo

Siraitia borneensis (Merrill) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang var. yunnanensis A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Guihaia 4(1): 31.1984; Baijiania yunnanensis (A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang) A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li; S. borneensis (Merrill) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang var. lobophylla A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang.

Perennial scandent herbs. Tuber complanate-spheroid, 10–13 cm broad, 6–8 cm in diam. Stem angular-sulcate, sparsely puberulent. Petiole 3–9 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, 5–13 × 4–10 cm, apex acute, margin irregularly dentate or slightly 3-lobed, adaxially scabrous, abaxially pilose, hispid on nerves. Tendrils 2-fid. Male flowers: 8 in raceme, peduncle 4–6 cm; bracts broadly obovate, pubescent, 5–6 × 3–4 mm; calyx-segments triangular-ovate or ovate, 3-nerved, apex acuminate, 5.5–8 × 3–5 mm; corolla-segments oblong, apex obtuse, base truncate, 5-nerved, villous, 10–13 × 7–8 mm. Stamens 5, filaments 3–3.5 mm, anthers curved, 3.5–5 mm. Female flowers: solitary or paired, pedicel 1–1.5 cm, pubescent; ovary cylindric, ca. 10 × 4 mm, densely villous. Fruit cylindric, ca. 5 × 3.3 cm. Seeds numerous, ovate or ovate-oblong, 7–8.5 × 4.5–6 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick.

Valley sides, forests; 1000–1800 m. S and SW Yunnan [N Laos].

De Wilde and Duyfjes (Blumea 51: 497. 2006) cited evidence suggesting that the type of Siraitia borneensis var. lobophylla may represent a species of Sinobaijiania distinct from S. yunnanensis.

3. Sinobaijiania taiwaniana (Hayata) C. Jeffrey & W. J. de Wilde, Bot. Zhurn. 91(5): 770. 2006.

台湾白兼果  tai wan bai jian guo

Thladiantha taiwaniana Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 119. 1911; Baijiania taiwaniana (Hayata) A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li; Siraitia taiwaniana (Hayata) C. Jeffrey ex Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; S. taiwaniana (Hayata) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang.

Scandent herbs. Stem and branches sulcate-angular, subglabrous. Petiole ca. 3 cm, leaf blade oblong-cordate or ovate-cordate, 5–12 × 5–10 cm, apex acute, base deeply cordate, margin irregularly dentate, 3-lobed, median lobe oblong, ca. 6 × 3.5 cm, adaxially scabrous, punctate, abaxially sparsely setose at first, ultimately glabrous; 5-nerved. Tendrils simple. Male flowers: inflorescence racemose, axillary, 6–7 cm; bracts broadly obovate, ca. 7 × 5 mm, pubescent, calyx-tube ca. 4 mm in diam., pubescent, segments 5, triangular-ovate, ca. 4 × 2.5 mm, apex acuminate; corolla-segments 5, oblong, apex obtuse; stamens 5. Fruit globose, ca. 2.5 cm in diam., pubescent.

* Taiwan.

11. THLADIANTHA Bunge, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. 29. 1833.

赤爮属  chi bao shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Perennial climbing herbs, scandent or prostrate. Roots usually tuberous. Stems herbaceous, scabrous. Tendrils simple or 2-fid. Leaves mostly simple, vary rarely pedately 3–7-foliolate, leaf-blade cordate, margin dentate. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in cymes-racemes or rarely solitary; calyx-tube shortly campanulate or cupular, segments 5, linear, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, 1–3-nerved; corolla campanulate, yellow, 5-partite, segments entire, oblong, broadly ovate, or obovate, usually 5–7-nerved; stamens 5, inserted on calyx-tube, free, often 4 in pairs, other one free, filaments short, anthers oblong or ovate, all one-locular, anther-locule erect; rudimentary ovary gland-like. Female flowers solitary or 2–3-fascicled on a short peduncle; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate, oblong or fusiform, smooth or verrucose, style 3-fid, stigmas 3, 2-lobed, reniform; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, smooth or verrucose, many ribbed or not ribbed. Seeds numerous, horizontal.

Twenty-three species: China, a few distributed in NE India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam; 23 species in China.

1a.       Bracts in male flowers flabelliform, dentate.

2a.       Calyx-segments entire, 0.6–3 mm broad ......................................................  1. T. cordifolia

2b.       Calyx-segments dentate or irregularly lobed, (3–)4–11 mm broad.

3a.       Calyx-segments (3–)4–6 mm, with 1–3 triangular lobes .........................  2. T. grandisepala

3b.       Calyx-segments to 11 mm broad, flabelliform, margin irregularly lobed
                                                                                                                 3. T. medogensis

1b.       Male flowers without flabelliform bracts.

4a.       Ovary and fruit scaly or verrucose.

5a.       Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, narrowly ovate-triangular; ovary and fruit verrucose  23. T. longifolia

5b.       Leaf blade ovate-cordate, fruit with thick scales.

6a.       Ovary and fruit ovate-globose, apex with a long rostrum, scales at base of fruit less than 5 mm, not adnate to pedicel ..............................................................................................  21. T. pustulata

6b.       Ovary and fruit ovate-oblong, apex without a rostrum, scales at base of fruit to 1 cm, adnate to pedicel ...................................................................................................................  22. T. henryi

4b.       Ovary and fruits not scaly nor verrucose.

7a.       Leaves palmately deeply 5-lobed .....................................................  20. T. palmatipartita

7b.       Leaves not palmately deeply 5-lobed.

8a.       Male flowers congested at apex of rachis into pseudocapitulum.

9a.       Calyx-segments lanceolate, apex acute, 1-nerved ..................................  18. T. capitata

9b.       Calyx-segments linear, apex obtuse, 3-nerved ..........................................  19. T. davidii

8b.       Male flowers in cyme-panicle, panicle, raceme or rarely solitary, but not capitulate.

10a.     Plants sparsely hairy or subglabrous.

11a.     Calyx-segments 1-nerved.

12a.     Based lateral nerve along base of leaf blade, calyx-segments linear, over 9 mm  13. T. oliveri

12b.     Based lateral nerve not along base of leaf blade, calyx-segments triangular-lanceolate, 4–5 mm ........................................................................................................  14. T. montana

11b.     Calyx-segments 3-nerved.

13a.     Tendrils 2-fid, leaves not lobed or lobed ............................................  17. T. dentata

13b.     Tendrils simple, leaves not lobed.

14a.     Leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, tendrils filiform; pedicel in male flowers 1.2–2.5 cm; fruit with a long beak .....................................................................................  15. T. maculata

14b.     Leaf blade narrowly ovate or long ovate-lanceolate; tendrils robust; pedicel 0.5–1 cm; fruit without beak .............................................................................................  16. T. punctata

10b.     Plants with dense multicellular setae, very rarely subglabrous.

15a.     Leaves simple, unlobed or margin lobed or serrate, or pedately 3–5-foliolate  4. T. hookeri

15b.     Leaves unlobed, rarely irregularly lobed.

16a.     Tendrils simple.

17a.     Male flowers solitary or in a short raceme, bracts foliaceous ..................  5. T. dubia

17b.     Male flowers without bracts.

18a.     Petiole less than 1.5 cm, leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly ovate
...................................................................................................  6. T. sessilifolia

18b.     Petiole over 2 cm, leaf blade ovate-cordate ...................................  7. T. villosula

16b.     Tendrils 2-fid.

19a.     Male flowers dimorphic, solitary and in raceme with (2–)3(–5) flowers in axil of same leaf       8. T. dimorphantha

19b.     Male flowers in panicle or raceme.

20a.     Stem and leaves with pale yellow multicellular setae or very rarely subglabrous, sinus at base of leaf closed; fruits orange-red when mature ....................................  9. T. nudiflora

20b.     Stem and leaves with gray-white multicellular setae, sinus in base of leaf open; fruits whitish yellow when mature.

21a.     Calyx-segments broadly lanceolate or obovate-oblong, 10–15 mm
                                                                                               10. T. longisepala

21b.     Calyx-segments triangular-lanceolate, less than 10 mm.

22a.     Ovary and fruit with dense yellow-brown spiniform setae, seeds 6.5–7 mm, sparsely irregularly verrucose on surface
..............................................................................................  11. T. setispina

22b.     Ovary and fruit with long setae, seeds 4.5–5 mm, not verrucose on surface  12. T. lijiangensis

1. Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogniaux, Monogr. Phan. 3: 424. 1881.

大苞赤爮  da bao chi bao

Luffa cordifolia Blume, Bijdr. 929. 1826; Gymnopetalum piperifolium Miquel; Thladiantha calcarata C. B. Clarke; T. calcarata var. subglabra Cogniaux; T. calcarata var. tonkinensis Cogniaux; T. cordifolia var. tomentosa A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. cordifolia var. tonkinensis (Cogniaux) A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. globicarpa A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. tonkinensis Gagnepain; Trichosanthes javanica Miquel.

Herbaceous climbing vine. Plants pubescent. Stems much-branched, robust, angular-sulcate. Petiole slender, 4–10(–12) cm; leaf blade membranous or papery, ovate-cordate, 8–15 × 6–11 cm, apex acuminate or shortly so, margin irregularly dentate, base cordate, sinus at base often open, sometimes closed, 1–3 cm deep, 0.5–2 cm broad, basal nerve along margin of base of leaf blade, adaxially scabrous, pubescent or with setae on an enlarged base, nerves densely pubescent, both surfaces densely pale-yellow pubescent. Tendrils simple, pubescent at first, glabrescent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 3-several in dense short raceme, peduncle robust, 4–15 cm, pubescent; bracts imbricate, flabelliform, 1.5–2 cm, pubescent on both surfaces; pedicels slender, ca. 5 mm; calyx-tube campanulate, 5–6 mm, 5-partite, segments linear, ca. 10 × 1 mm, apex caudate-acuminate, 1-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate or elliptic, ca. 17 × 7 mm, apex short-acuminate or acute; stamens 5, filaments ca. 4 mm; rudimentary ovary semi-globose. Female flowers: solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary oblong, base obtuse, pubescent, styles 3-fid, stigmas enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruits oblong, 3–5 × 2–3 cm, obtuse at both ends, with scabrous rind, slightly pubescent, with 10 longitudinal striae. Seeds broadly ovate, 4–5 mm, 3–3.5 mm broad, ca. 2 mm thick, reticulate. Fl. and fr. May–Nov.

Stream edges, forests; 800–2600 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

De Wilde and Duyfjes (Blumea 51: 513–514. 2006) consider Thladiantha calcarata var. tonkinensis (as T. tonkinensis Gagnepain) and T. globicarpa to be species distinct from T. cordifolia, differing in their smaller, non-fenestrate fruits and the latter from the former by its narrower sepals.

2. Thladiantha grandisepala A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res. (1–2): 67. 1981.

大萼赤爮  da e chi bao

Herbaceous climbing vine. Stems and branches slender, angular-sulcate, at first densely pubescent, glabrescent. Petiole 4–8 cm; leaf blade membranous, long ovate-cordate, 10–16 × 6–11 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, sinus at base open, semicircular, 1–2 cm deep, 0.5–1 cm broad, basal nerve along margin of base of leaf, adaxially scabrous, with setae on an enlarged base, nerves densely pubescent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 5–9 in pedunculate raceme, bracts flabelliform, 12–15 mm, 15–17 mm broad, pubescent on both surfaces, margin irregularly dentate, pedicels slender, 5–10 mm, pubescent; calyx-tube campanulate, ca. 4 mm, segments broadly lanceolate to narrowly long ovate, slightly irregular, 1.5 cm, 4–6 mm broad, apex usually irregularly 2–3-lobed, distinctly 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments narrowly oblong, ca. 2 cm, ca. 1 cm broad, apex shortly acuminate; stamens 5, filaments pubescent; rudimentary ovary semiglobose. Female flowers solitary, pedicels 2–5 cm, pubescent; calyx-segments broadly lanceolate or long ovate, to 18 mm, ca. 6 mm broad, 3-nerved, apex acuminate, margin often 2–3-lobed; corolla-segments ca. 3 cm, ca. 1.4 cm broad; ovary narrowly oblong, 15–18 × 4–6 mm, densely yellow-villous, base narrow, apex subtruncate, style filiform, 3-fid, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel robust, 3–5 cm, subglabrous; fruit elliptic, 2.5–3 × ca. 1.5 cm, obtuse at both ends, pubescent. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Mountain slopes, forests; 2100–2400 m. Yunnan (Boshan, Funchin, Jintung).

3. Thladiantha medogensis A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(2): 133. 1992.

墨脱赤爮  mo tuo chi bao

Scandent herbs. Stem slender, angular-sulcate, sparsely puberulent. Petiole pubescent and sparsely setose, 3.5–5 cm; leaf blade papery or submembranous, ovate-cordate, apex shortly acuminate, base emarginate, margin callose-dentate, adaxially densely setose at first, ultimately punctate-scabrous, abaxially sparsely pubescent and setose, 8–11 × 5–5.6 cm, basal lateral nerves along margin of sinus. Tendrils simple, pubescent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme; peduncle robust, 8–24 cm, bracts ca. 2 cm, ca. 2.2 cm wide, margin irregularly 5–6-obtusely dentate; pedicel slender, 7–10 mm, sparsely pubescent; calyx tube campanulate, ca. 2.5 mm, 3.5 mm in diam.; segments ca. 10 × 11 mm, margin irregularly 3–5-dentate, 3-nerved; corolla segments narrowly oblong, 8–9 × 3–3.5 mm; apex acuminate; stamens 5, filament ca. 1.5 mm, sparsely pubescent, anthers oblong, ca. 3 mm; rudimentary ovary subglobose, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fruit solitary, subcylindric, rounded at apex and base, longitudinally striate, ca. 3.2 × 2 cm.

* About 1800 m. SE Xizang (Mêdog).

4. Thladiantha hookeri C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 631. 1879.

异叶赤爮  yi ye chi bao

Hemsleya trifoliolata Cogniaux; H. tonkinensis Cogniaux; H. yunnanensis Cogniaux; Thladiantha digitata H. Léveillé; T. heptadactyla Cogniaux; T. hookeri var. heptadactyla (Cogniaux) A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. hookeri var. palmatifolia Chakravarty; T. hookeri var. pentadactyla (Cogniaux) A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. hookeri f. quinquefoliata Chakravarty; T. hookeri f. trifoliolata (Cogniaux) Chakravarty; T. pentadactyla Cogniaux; T. trifoliolata (Cogniaux) Merrill.

Herbaceous climbing vine. Tuber oblate-spheroid. Stems 2–4(–10) m, to 10 mm in diam., much branched, subglabrous. Petiole 3–6 cm, glabrous or puberulent; leaf blade membranous, pedately 3–7-foliolate or undivided, leaflets oblong-lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, median 6–15 cm, 1–3 cm broad, apex acuminate, margin dentate, adaxially scabrous, abaxially subglabrous. Tendrils filiform, simple, smooth. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in raceme or solitary, rachis 2–4 cm, filiform, glabrous, ebracteate. Pedicel of solitary flowers to 2.5 cm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, 3–4 mm, 6–7 mm in diam., sparsely pubescent, segments erect, narrowly triangular, ca. 4 mm, 1.5 mm broad, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate, 10–12 × ca. 5 mm; stamens 5, filaments glabrous, 2–3 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm. Female flowers solitary, pedicel filiform, 2–4 cm, at first puberulent, ultimately glabrous; calyx and corolla as in male, calyx-segments ca. 10 mm, corolla-segments ca. 2 cm; ovary fusiform, 1–2 cm, 2–3 mm in diam., densely yellow-brown pubescent, attenuate at both ends, style ca. 4 mm, 2-fid, stigmas enlarged, ca. 3 mm. Fruits oblong, 4–6 × 2–3 cm, rounded at both ends, smooth. Seeds broadly ovate, 6–7 × ca. 5 mm, base obtuse-rounded, smooth. Fl. and fr. Apr–Oct.

Forest edges on mountain slopes; 1200–1800 m. Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

5. Thladiantha dubia Bunge, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. 29. 1833.

赤爮  chi bao

Herbaceous pale yellow pubescent-hirsute climbing plants. Roots tuberous. Stems robust, angular-sulcate. Petiole robust, 2–6 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 5–8 × 4–9 cm, margin irregularly dentate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base cordate, sinus deep, suborbicular or semicircular, 1–1.5 cm deep, 1.5–3 cm broad, scabrous on both surfaces, hirsute on nerves, basal lateral nerves along margin of base of leaf blade. Tendrils filiform, simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers solitary or several congested on short rachis into pseudoraceme, pedicel filiform, 1.5–3.5 cm, pubescent; calyx-tube very short, subrotate, 3–4 mm, 7–8 mm in diam., segments lanceolate, reflexed, 12–13 × 2–3 mm, stamens 5, 4 connected in pairs, one free, puberulent, 2–2.5 mm, anthers ovate, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary semiglobose. Female flowers solitary, pedicels slender, 1–2 cm, pubescent; calyx and corolla as in male, staminodes 5; ovary oblong, 5–8 mm, densely pale yellow pubescent, style 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruits ovate-oblong, 4–5 cm, ca. 28 mm in diam., base slightly attenuate, orange-yellow, pubescent, with 10 longitudinal striae. Seeds ovate, black, smooth, 4–4.3 × 2.5–3 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

Forest edges, valleys; 300–1800 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, N Sichuan [Korea].

Fruits and roots are used as medicine.

6. Thladiantha sessilifolia Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1061. 1936.

短柄赤爮  duan bing chi bao

Herbaceous vine; roots tuberous. Stem and branches slender, at first sparsely puberulent, glabrescent. Petioles very short, 5–15(–20–40) mm, pubescent or subglabrous; leaf blade papery, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 8–16 × 2–4.5 cm, apex acuminate, margin sparsely dentate, base cordate, sinus closed, basal lateral nerves not along base of leaf blade, adaxially scabrous, subglabrous, abaxially densely pubescent. Tendrils filiform, usually simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers 2–5 in pedunculate short raceme, sometimes solitary; bract ovate, ca. 2 mm; pedicels slender, 5–10 mm, pubescent or subglabrous, calyx-tube campanulate, ca. 3 × 5 mm, sparsely pubescent, segments lanceolate, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, apex subulate-acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate, ca. 15 × 7–8 mm, apex acuminate, often 5-nerved; stamens 5, inserted at limb of calyx-tube, filaments ca. 3 mm, anthers elliptic, 2–3 mm; rudimentary ovary yellow, semiglobose. Female flowers solitary; pedicel slender, 2–3 cm, puberulent or subglabrous; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary oblong, 15–22 × 5–10 mm, densely yellow-brown villous, apex attenuate, style slender, 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed; staminodes 2–3 mm. Fruit ovate-oblong. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Thickets or forests on mountain slopes, wetlands on ditch sides. SW Sichuan, Yunnan.

Tuberous roots used as medicine.

1a. Petiole very short, 5–15 mm, pubescent ..........................................................  6a. var. sessilifolia

1b. Petiole longer, 20–40 mm, subglabrous ..............................................................  6b. var. longipes

6a. Thladiantha sessilifolia var. sessilifolia

短柄赤爮  duan bing chi bao

Petiole very short, 5–15 mm, pubescent; leaf blade lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; tendrils simple.

* Thickets on mountain slopes, wetlands on ditch sides. SW Sichuan.

Tuberous roots used as medicine.

6b. Thladiantha sessilifolia var. longipes A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 77. 1981.

赤爮  cang yuan chi bao

Petiole longer, 20–40 mm, subglabrous; tendrils simple or 2-fid.

* Forests; ca. 1000 m. Yunnan (Cangyuan, Luchun, Menglian, Tengchong).

7. Thladiantha villosula Cogniaux, Engl. Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 275. 1): 44. 1916.

长毛赤爮  chang mao chi bao

Herbaceous climbing vine, densely glandular-villous and sparsely multicellular-setose. Stem much branched, branches slender. Petiole slender, 3–6 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, broadly ovate-cordate or suborbicular, 6–12 × 5–10 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, sinus rounded, 1–2 cm deep, 1–1.5 cm broad, adaxially dark green, abaxially pubescent, basal lateral nerves along margin of base of leaf blade. Tendrils filiform, simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers usually 2–7 in a raceme, peduncle 1–3 cm, usually bearing foliaceous bract, bract 1–1.5 × ca. 1 cm, apex acuminate, margin dentate, densely pubescent; pedicel 1–2.5 cm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, segments narrowly lanceolate, yellow-green, 4–6 × ca. 1.5 mm, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate or long ovate, 12–15 × 6–8 mm, apex obtuse, 5-nerved; stamens 5, 4 connected in pairs, one free, filaments filiform, 2–3 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary semiglobose. Female flowers solitary, pedicels slightly robust; calyx-segments narrowly lanceolate, 5–6 × ca. 1 mm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla-segments long ovate, ca. 20 × 15 cm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; staminodes glandular; ovary narrowly oblong, 15–18 × 3–4 mm, densely pale yellow glandular-villous; style stout, 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel stout, 2–3 cm; fruit oblong, to 7 cm, ca. 3.5 cm in diam., red-brown, apex attenuate, base obtuse, both surfaces reticulate. Fl. and fr. in summer.

* Ditch sides in forests or thickets; 2000–2800 m. Gansu, Guizhou, S Henan, W Hubei, S Shaanxi, Sichuan.

8. Thladiantha dimorphantha Handel-Mazzetti, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 83(3): 235. 1934.

山西赤爮  shan xi chi bao

Herbaceous climbing vine. Stem and branches angular-sulcate, pubescent and white-setose at first, glabrescent. Petiole 4–8 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 6–12 × 4–10 cm, undivided, apex shortly acuminate or acute, margin dentate, basal sinus open, semicircular, 5–15 mm deep, 10–25 mm broad, adaxially scabrous, densely setose, abaxially pubescent. Tendrils filiform, simple or 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers dimorphic, solitary one larger, smaller ones in a raceme, pedicel slender, 10–18 mm, pubescent; calyx pubescent, tube broadly campanulate, 3–4 mm, segments lanceolate, 4–6 mm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate, 10–12 × 5–6 mm, apex acute; stamens 5, filaments 2–2.5 mm, anthers elliptic, 3–3.5 mm. Female flowers solitary or binary, pedicels 5–10 mm; calyx and corolla as in male, corolla-segments obovate, 20–25 × ca. 10 mm, apex slightly obtuse; staminodes 5, sparsely puberulent, apex slightly enlarged; ovary fusiform, densely villous, style 3-fid, ca. 2 mm, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed.

* Mountain slopes, roadsides; 1800–2400 m. E Shaanxi, S Shanxi.

9. Thladiantha nudiflora Hemsley ex Forbes & Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 316. 1887.

赤爮  nan chi bao

Plants densely pubescent-hispid. Roots tuberous. Stems herbaceous, angular-sulcate. Petiole stout, 3–10 cm; leaf blade ovate-cordate, broadly ovate-cordate, or suborbicular-cordate, 5–15 × 4–12 cm, apex acuminate or acute, margin serrate, basal sinus open or sometimes closed, 2–2.5 cm deep, 1–2 cm broad, adaxially densely setose, abaxially densely pale yellow pubescent, basal lateral nerves along base of leaf blade. Tendrils densely hispid, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male raceme many-flowered, peduncle filiform, 4–8 cm, densely pubescent; pedicels filiform, 1–1.5 cm; calyx densely villous, tube broadly campanulate, 5–6 mm in diam., segments ovate-lanceolate, 5–6 × ca. 2.5 mm, apex acute, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, 12–16 × 6–7 mm, apex acute or obtuse, 5-nerved; filaments puberulent, ca. 4 mm, anthers ovate-oblong, ca. 2.5 mm. Female flowers solitary, pedicels slender, 1–2 cm, villous; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary narrowly oblong, 12–15 mm, 4–5 mm in diam., densely villous-hispid, apex attenuate, base obtuse-rounded, style 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed; staminodes 5, ca. 1.5 mm. Fruit-pedicel robust, 2.5–5.5 cm; fruit oblong, red or red-brown when mature, 4–5 × 3–3.5 cm, apex obtuse, glabrescent. Seeds ovate or broadly ovate, ca. 5 × 3.5–4 mm, 1–1.5 mm thick, apex acute, base rounded, reticulate. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

* Forest edges on mountain slopes. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang.

1a. Male flowers ebracteate ...................................................................................  9a. var. nudiflora

1b. Male flowers with foliaceous bracts ..................................................................  9b. var. bracteata

9a. Thladiantha nudiflora var. nudiflora

赤爮  nan chi bao

Cucumis courtoisii H. Léveillé; Thladiantha formosana Hayata; T. harmsii Cogniaux; T. nudiflora var. macrocarpa Z. Zhang; T. nudiflora var. membranacea Z. Zhang.

Male flowers ebracteate.

* Forest edges on mountain slopes. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang.

9b. Thladiantha nudiflora var. bracteata A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 86. 1981.

西固赤爮  xi gu chi bao

Male flowers with foliaceous bracts; bracts broadly ovate-cordate, margin dentate, pubescent, 10–12 × ca. 5 mm.

* Gansu (Xigu).

10. Thladiantha longisepala C. Y. Wu, A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 86. 1981.

长萼赤爮  chang er chi bao

Climbing herbs. Stem and branches angular-sulcate, at first puberulent and sparsely setose, glabrescent. Petiole slender, 4–7 cm, puberulent; leaf blade ovate-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, membranous, 8–14 × 6–10 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin serrate, base cordate, sinus 1–2 cm deep, 1.5–3 cm broad, adaxially densely setose, abaxially puberulent. Tendrils robust, elongate, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male panicle much-branched, sparsely pubescent, 5–13 cm, usually with a foliaceous bract at base of branch; bract ovate, 15–25 × 10–15 cm, apex acuminate or long acuminate. Male flowers: pedicel slender, 1–4 cm, pubescent; calyx-tube campanulate, segments broadly lanceolate, 12–15 × 3–4 mm, apex acuminate, distinctly 3-nerved, reflexed; corolla yellow, segments long ovate, 20–22 × 8–9, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; stamens 5, filaments ca. 4 mm, puberulent, anthers ovate, ca. 3 mm; rudimentary ovary semiglobose. Female flowers: 2–5 on a short peduncle; pedicels 3–6 cm; ovary densely setose and pubescent, oblong, ca. 1 cm. Fruiting peduncle robust, 3–6 cm, puberulent; fruit oblong, apex and base obtuse, scabrous, yellow-brown pubescent and setose. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.

* Thickets on mountain slopes and riversides; 2400–3500 m. NW Yunnan.

11. Thladiantha setispina A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 87. 1981.

刚毛赤爮  gang mao chi bao

Climbing herbs. Stems and branches sparsely puberulent, ultimately glabrous, smooth, angular-sulcate. Petiole slender, 3.5–5.5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade membranous or papery, ovate-cordate, 6–8(–14) × 4–6(–10) cm, adaxially setose, abaxially densely pale yellow pubescent, apex acuminate, margin serrulate, base cordate, sinus open, semicircular, 1–1.5 cm deep, 1–2 cm broad, basal lateral nerves along base of leaf. Tendrils filiform, glabrous, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: numerous in a 17 cm long panicle, peduncle robust, sparsely pubescent, usually with a bract at base of branches, bract 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 cm, pedicel 1–1.5 cm; calyx-tube campanulate, segments triangular-lanceolate, 5–6 × ca. 2.5 mm, 3-nerved, apex acuminate; corolla yellow, segments oblong, 18–20 × 6–8 mm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved, glabrous; stamens 5, filaments ca. 4 mm, puberulent, anthers elliptic, ca. 3 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 3–5 on a 3–4 cm long peduncle; pedicel slender, 3–5 cm, sparsely puberulent; calyx-tube campanulate, segments ca. 7.5 mm, ca. 2.5 mm broad at base, apex acuminate, 3-nerved, glabrous; corolla yellow, 4–4.5 × 1.8–2 cm; ovary oblong, 10–12 × 6–7 mm, densely yellow-brown setose, style 3-fid, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed, reniform, 2–2.5 mm. Fruiting peduncle robust, 3–6 cm, glabrescent; fruits oblong, 3–3.5 × 2–2.5 cm, black-brown, apex and base obtuse, scabrous, yellow-brown setose. Seeds long ovate, 6–7 × 3–3.5 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, yellow-brown when dry, apex obtuse, base subrounded, smooth. Fr. and fl. Jun–Oct.

* Mountain slopes, roadsides; ca. 3000 m. W Sichuan, E Xizang.

12. Thladiantha lijiangensis A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res. 1(1–2): 88. 1981.

丽江赤爮  li jiang chi bao

Thladiantha cinerascens C. Y. Wu ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. henryi Cogniaux var. subtomentosa Handel-Mazzetti; T. lijiangensis var. latisepala A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang.

Herbaceous climber. Root robust. Stem and branches distinctly angular-sulcate, at first pubescent, glabrescent. Petiole slender, 2–6 cm, pubescent and sparsely setose; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, 4–11 × 3–7 cm, apex acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, sinus 1–2 cm deep, 1–2.5 cm broad, adaxially pale-yellow pubescent, abaxially glaucous setose. Flowers dioecious. Male panicle much-branched, with many flowers, peduncle 7–16 cm, usually with a foliaceous bract at base of branches, bract ovate, 1–2 cm; pedicels filiform, puberulent, 1–2 cm; calyx pubescent, tube campanulate, segments triangular-lanceolate, 5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex shortly acuminate, 1-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate, 12–15 × ca. 6 mm, apex acute, 5-nerved; stamens 5, filaments ca. 2.5 mm, anthers narrowly ovate, ca. 2.5 mm; rudimentary ovary semiglobose, ca. 1.5 mm in diam. Female flowers larger than male, solitary or binary, sometimes 3 at apex of 15–25 mm long peduncle; pedicels 4–6 cm; calyx segments lanceolate, ca. 6 × 1.5 mm, 1-nerved, sparsely puberulent; corolla segments ovate, 30–35 × ca. 13 mm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved, puberulent; ovary elliptic, 10–13 × 6–7 mm, apex truncate, base subrounded, densely yellow-hispidulous; styles 4 mm, 3-fid, stigma reniform, 2–2.5 mm broad, 2-lobed. Fruiting peduncle 3–4 cm, puberulent; fruits 3–4 × 2–2.5 cm. Seeds broadly ovate, gray-black, ca. 5.5 × 4 mm, smooth. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

* Forests, mountain slopes; 2400–3200 m. NW Yunnan.

13. Thladiantha oliveri Cogniaux ex Mottet, Rev. Hort. 1903: 473. 1903.

赤爮  e chi bao

Thladiantha glabra Cogniaux.

Climbing perennial herbs. Stem and branches slender, glabrous, angular-sulcate. Petiole subglabrous, 5–15 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 10–20 × 8–18 cm, membranous, apex acute or acuminate, margin dentate, sinus open, 1.5–3 cm deep, basal lateral nerves along base of sinus, adaxially scabrous, abaxially sparsely setose. Tendrils glabrous, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: numerous at apex of peduncle, peduncle over 20 cm; pedicels 5–10 mm, slender; calyx tube broadly campanulate, segments linear, reflexed, 7–9 mm, apex acuminate, 1-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, 18–22 × 7–9 mm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; stamens 5, filaments 2–3 mm, sparsely puberulent, anthers ovate-oblong, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary globose. Female flowers: solitary or 2–4 flowers on a 10–15 mm long peduncle; pedicels 2–4 cm, subglabrous; calyx segments linear, reflexed, 10–12 mm, corolla segments 2–4 × ca. 1.2 cm; staminodes linear, ca. 2 mm; ovary ovate, 10–12 mm, base truncate, apex attenuate. Fruits ovate, 3–4 × 2–2.5 cm, base truncate, apex attenuate, glabrous, smooth. Seeds ovate, compressed, 5–6 × 3–3.5 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, base obtuse, apex attenuate. Fl and fr. May–Oct.

* Thickets, roadsides, or wetlands in river valleys; 600–2100 m. Gansu, Guizhou, NW Hubei, S Shaanxi, E and S Sichuan.

14. Thladiantha montana Cogniaux, Engl., Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 257. 1): 48. 1916.

山地赤爮  shan di chi bao

Climbing herbs, glabrous. Stem and branches angular-sulcate. Petiole slender, 8–10 cm; leaf blade submembranous or thickly papery, ovate-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 10–16 × 8–12 cm, apex acuminate, base cordate, sinus suborbicular, margin dentate, adaxially scabrous. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 5–10-flowers in raceme or panicle, sometimes 3–4-inflorescences in same leaf axil, rachis slender, 6–10 cm; pedicels filiform, 5–10 mm; calyx-tube cupular, segments triangular-lanceolate, ca. 4 × 1 mm, 1-nerved, apex obtuse; corolla yellow, segments narrowly ovate, 8–12 × ca. 5 mm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; stamens 5, inserted on tube, filaments 5, 4 connected in pairs, one free, sparsely pubescent, 2–3 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary subglobose, ca. 2 mm in diam. Female flowers: solitary or 2–3 on a 1–2.5 cm long peduncle; pedicels slender, 1–4 cm, glabrous; calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes glandular, 2.5–3 mm; with 3 membranous scales, scales oblong, 3–4 mm, apex obtuse; ovary narrowly oblong, smooth, subglabrous, 10–15 × 3–4 mm, base truncate, apex attenuate, style slender, 5–6 mm, 3-fid, stigma suborbicular, 4.5–5 mm broad, 2-lobed. Fruiting peduncle smooth; fruits oblong, 4–6 × 3–4 cm, obtuse-rounded at both ends. Seeds long ovate, 4–5 × 2–3 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, base rounded. Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Forests, mountain slopes, valley sides; 800–3200 m. Yunnan.

15. Thladiantha maculata Cogniaux, Engl., Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 275. 1): 49. 1916.

赤爮  ban chi bao

Climbing herbs; roots tuberous. Stem and branches slender, angular, puberulent or subglabrous. Petiole slender, 4–9 cm, puberulent; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate-cordate, 7–13 × 5–10 cm, apex shortly acuminate, base cordate, sinus open, semicircular, basal lateral nerves along base of leaf blade, margin dentate or irregularly serrate, adaxially setose, abaxially puberulent. Tendrils filiform, simple, subglabrous or sparsely puberulent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme, generally of 3–6(–8) flowers, rachis slender, puberulent, 3–4 cm, pedicels filiform, smooth, 12–25 mm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, segments narrowly triangular-lanceolate, pubescent, ca. 4 mm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate, 12–15 × ca. 7 mm, apex acute or shortly acuminate, 5-nerved; stamens 5, filaments puberulent, ca. 3 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary semiglobose. Female flowers solitary, pedicels filiform, 25–35 mm, pubescent; calyx-segments linear-subulate, 7–8 mm, puberulent; corolla-segments as in male; ovary oblong or narrowly fusiform, ca. 10 mm, densely pale-yellow pubescent, base truncate, apex acuminate, style 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruiting peduncle 3–4 cm, puberulent, glabrescent; fruits fusiform, orange-red, 5–7 × 2–2.8 cm, base attenuate, apex acuminate, rostrate, smooth, subglabrous. Seeds narrowly ovate, 4–5 × ca. 2.5 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, smooth. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Oct.

* Valleys, forests; 500–1800 m. Henan, W Hubei.

16. Thladiantha punctata Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 119. 1911.

台湾赤爮  tai wan chi bao

Climbing herbs, whole plant nearly glabrous. Stems and branches with obvious longitudinal striae. Petioles 3–12 cm, sometimes sparsely short-setose in upper part; leaf blades membranous, long ovate or long ovate-lanceolate, 8–16(–20) × 6–10(–12) cm, dentate or sinuate-dentate at margin, dark green adaxially, pale green abaxially, glabrous, acuminate at apex, basal sinus semicircular, 1–2 cm in depth, 0.5–1.5 cm in width, lateral nerves at base not bordering sinus. Tendrils simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: inflorescences racemose or paniculate, rarely flowers solitary; peduncles slender, 4–8 cm; pedicels filiform, 0.5–1 cm; calyx tube broad-campanulate, 5–6 mm, segments lanceolate, ca. 8 mm, ca. 2 mm wide at base, acuminate at apex, 3–5-nerved; stamens 5, four in pairs, one free, filaments ca. 4 mm, base pubescent; anthers oblong, 2–3 mm; rudimentary ovary semi-globose, 2–3 mm in diam., with 3 membranous scales at base, scales yellow, ca. 3 mm. Female flowers: usually solitary, rarely 2 at apex of peduncle, peduncles ca. 1 cm; pedicels 2–5 cm, glabrous; calyx and corolla as in male flowers but corolla usually larger than in male flowers, segments 2–2.5 × 1.1–1.2 cm, acuminate at apex; staminodes 5, 4 in pairs, one free, ca. 1 mm; ovary ovoid, slightly pubescent, glabrescent, 1–1.3 × 0.4–0.6 cm, rounded at base, attenuate at apex, styles ca. 2–3 mm, 3-fid, reniform, expanded, 1.5–2 mm in diam. Fruiting pedicels glabrous, 3–7 cm; fruits ovoid or oblong, 3–5 × 2–3.5 cm, obtuse-rounded at base, mucronate at apex, smooth. Seed broad-ovoid, 5–6 × 3–4 mm, brown, ca. 1 mm thick, rounded at base, slightly narrowed at apex. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jul–Aug.

* Mountain slopes, forests and humid places; 600–900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang.

17. Thladiantha dentata Cogniaux, Engl., Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 275. 1): 44. 1916.

赤爮  ye chi bao

Stout climbing herbs; whole plant almost glabrous. Stem and branches smooth, angular-sulcate. Petiole robust, 5–16 cm; leaf blade ovate-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 12–20 × 8–12 cm, apex shortly acuminate, basal sinus open or sometimes closed, margin dentate, adaxially scabrous, abaxially glabrous, basal lateral nerves not along margin of leaf blade. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: inflorescence racemose or paniculate, rachis slender, 8–12 cm, pedicels filiform, 1–1.5 cm; calyx-tube cupular, segments oblong-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, ca. 12 × 5–6 mm, apex acute, 3–5-nerved; stamens 5, 4 in pairs, one free, filaments ca. 4 mm, anthers elliptic, ca. 2 mm; rudimentary ovary semi-globose, ca. 2 mm in diam., with 3 scales at base, scales yellow, ca. 3 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 2–5 at apex of 1–1.5 cm long peduncle; pedicels 3–6 cm, glabrous; calyx segments lanceolate, 4–5 × ca. 1.5 mm, apex acute, 3-nerved; corolla segments ovate-oblong, apex acute, ca. 15 × 7–8 mm, 5-nerved; staminodes 5, 4 in pairs, other free, ca. 2.5 mm; ovary narrowly oblong, smooth, 13–16 × 4–6 mm, base slightly rounded or truncate, apex attenuate, style 2–3 mm, 3-fid, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruiting peduncle 2–3.5 cm; fruits long elliptic or long ovate, rounded at both ends, apex mucronate, 3.5–6 cm, 2.5–3.5 cm, smooth. Seeds long ovate, yellow-white, ca. 6 × 3.5 mm, base rounded, apex slightly attenuate, smooth. Fl. summer, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Roadsides, valley sides, thickets, mountain slopes; 500–2000 m. Guizhou, W Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan.

18. Thladiantha capitata Cogniaux, Engl., Pflanzenr. 66(IV. 257. 1): 51. 1916.

头花赤爮  tou hua chi bao

Herbaceous climbing vine. Stem and branches angular-sulcate, subglabrous. Petiole slender, 7–9 cm, glabrous; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate or broadly ovate-triangular, 10–15(–20) × 8–12(–15) cm, apex acuminate, margin sparsely dentate, basal sinus 1.5–3 cm deep, 2–3.5 cm wide, both surfaces glabrous, adaxially scabrous, abaxially pale green, basal lateral nerves along margin of sinus. Tendrils glabrous, 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers at apex of peduncle in congested subumbel, umbelliform raceme or subcapitulum, usually of 8–15-flowers, peduncle (2–)5–11(–17) cm, glabrous, sometimes with a bract, bract ovate, 1.5–3 cm × 1–2.8 cm; pedicels filiform, 4–8 mm; calyx-tube obconical, ca. 5 mm, segments linear-lanceolate, ca. 10 × 1.5 mm, 1-nerved, apex acute, puberulent abaxially, adaxially glabrous; corolla yellow, segments narrowly ovate, 10–12 × 5–6 mm, apex acute, 5-nerved, adaxially pubescent; stamens 5, filaments 4–4.5 mm, puberulent, anthers ovate-oblong, 2–2.2 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 2–3-flowers at apex of peduncle, pedicels 3–5 cm when flowers solitary, calyx segments linear-lanceolate, 8–12 × 1.5–1.8 mm, 1-nerved; corolla segments oblong, 15–28 × 1–12 mm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; ovary narrowly oblong, 15–18 mm, apex attenuate, base subtruncate, smooth; style slender, ca. 5 mm, 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform, ca. 2 mm in width. Fruits oblong, ca. 4 × 2.5 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Nov.

* Forest edges, thickets, mountain slopes; 1000–2700 m. W Sichuan.

19. Thladiantha davidii Franchet, Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Par., Sér. 2, 8: 243. 1886.

赤爮  chuan chi bao

Thladiantha legendrei Gagnepain.

Climbing herbs. Stems and branches glabrous, longitudinally angular-sulcate. Petiole 6–8 cm, glabrous; leaf blade ovate-cordate, membranous, 10–20 × 6–12 cm, apex acuminate, margin dentate, basal sinus rounded, sometimes closed, adaxially densely setose, abaxially glabrous, basal lateral nerves along margin of sinus. Tendrils 2-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 10–20-flowers at apex of peduncle in congested subumbelliform raceme, peduncle 10–20 cm, sometimes with a foliaceous bract, bract 15–20 × 10–13 mm; pedicels slender, 3–6 mm or sometimes to 15 mm; calyx-tube obconical, segments lanceolate-oblong, 10–12 mm, 2.5 mm wide, apex obtuse or acute, abaxially puberulent, distinctly 3-nerved; corolla segments ovate, apex obtuse, ca. 15 × 9 mm, adaxially glandular-pubescent, 5-nerved, base of corolla with 2 yellow scales; stamens 5, filaments sparsely puberulent, 3–4 mm, anthers elliptic, ca. 1.5 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 2–3 at apex of peduncle, peduncle ca. 10 mm, sometimes to 3 cm; pedicels 1.5–3 cm; calyx tube obconical, segments lanceolate-oblong, base slightly narrowed, 10–15 × ca. 3 mm, apex obtuse, distinctly 3-nerved; corolla yellow, segments oblong, 2.5–2.7 × 1–1.2 cm, apex acuminate, 5-nerved; ovary narrowly oblong, ca. 15 × 5–6 mm, base truncate, apex slightly attenuate, smooth, subglabrous, style 3-fid, stigma 2-lobed, reniform. Fruit oblong, 3–4.5 × 2–2.4 cm, base and apex obtuse. Seeds yellow-white, ovoid, compressed, 3–4 × ca. 2.5 mm, smooth. Fl. and fr. May–Nov.

* Roadsides, valleys, thickets; 1100–2100 m. Guizhou, W Sichuan.

20. Thladiantha palmatipartita A. M. Lu & C. Jeffrey, Novon 10 (4): 298. 2000.

掌叶赤爮  zhang ye chi bao

Scandent dioecious herbs. Stems sulcate-angular, 1–3 m, puberulent or glabrescent. Tendrils simple, pubescent. Petioles 3–7 cm, puberulent; leaf blade broadly ovate or orbicular in outline, 8–17 × 9–16 cm, papery, adaxially densely punctate, abaxially densely pubescent, palmately deeply 5-lobed, lobes oblong, margin irregularly dentate, apex acute or acuminate. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers: panicle short, many-flowered; peduncle 2.5–3 cm, robust, puberulent; pedicels slender, filiform, 5–12 mm; calyx tube cupular, pubescent; segments 5, broadly lanceolate, 1.2–1.5 × ca. 0.5 cm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla campanulate; segments 5, narrowly oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 1.5–1.8 × ca. 0.6 cm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; stamens 5; filaments ca. 2 mm; anthers ca. 3 mm, 1-locular. Female flowers solitary or paired, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary narrowly oblong, villous, 1.5–2 cm; style columnar, apically 3-fid; stigmas dilated, 2-lobed. Fruit oblong, smooth, apex rounded, base attenuate, 7.5 cm, ca. 3.5 cm diam. Seeds numerous, horizontal, smooth, ca. 6 × 3 mm. Fl. Jun and fr. Sep.

* Open situation on scrub; ca. 3000 m. Yunnan.

21. Thladiantha pustulata (H. Léveillé) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1–2): 74. 1981.

云南赤爮  yun nan chi bao

Climbing herbs; roots tuberous. Stem and branches angular-sulcate, pubescent and villous. Petiole slender, 3–7 cm, pubescent and villous; leaf blade ovate-cordate, 6–11 × 4–9 cm, apex shortly acuminate, margin irregularly serrate, base cordate, sinus open, semicircular, 15–20 mm in depth, 10–20 mm in width, basal lateral nerves along margin of sinus, adaxially densely setose, scabrous, abaxially puberulent and setose on nerves. Tendrils simple, pubescent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 3–6-flowers at apex of peduncle in sparse racemes, peduncle 2–5 cm, pubescent, pedicels filiform, 2–4 cm; calyx-tube campanulate, ca. 4 × 4–5 mm, segments linear or linear-lanceolate, slightly reflexed, 4–12 mm, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 15 × 6 mm, apex acute; stamens 5, filaments filiform, puberulent, 3–4 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm. Female solitary, larger than male, pedicel slender, pubescent; calyx segments linear, 8–9 mm; corolla segments ovate-lanceolate, ca. 20 × 7 mm, apex shortly acuminate, distinctly 3–5-nerved; ovary ovoid, ca. 7 × 6 mm, pubescent and villous, apex shortly rostrate, style ca. 5 mm, 3-fid, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed, reniform. Fruiting pedicel, 2–3 cm, sparsely pubescent, fruit ovoid, 2–3 cm in diam., verrucose. Seeds broadly ovate, 6–7 × ca. 3.5 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, punctate, base slightly obtuse. Fl. and fr. Apr–Nov.

* Valleys, thickets; 1100–2600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan.

1a. Leaf blade lobed; calyx segments 4–8 mm ......................................................  20a. var. pustulata

1b. Leaf blade dentate, undivided; calyx segments 9–12 mm .......................  20b. var. jingfushanensis

21a. Thladiantha pustulata var. pustulata

云南赤爮  yun nan chi bao

Melothria pustulata H. Léveillé, Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 65. 1916; M. mairei H. Léveillé; Thladiantha yunnanensis Gagnepain.

Leaf blade lobed; calyx segments 4–8 mm.

* Valleys, thickets; 1500–2600 m. Guizhou, Yunnan.

21b. Thladiantha pustulata var. jingfushanensis A. M. Lu & J. Q. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(2): 134. 1992.

金佛山赤爮  jin fu shan chi bao

Leaf blade margin dentate, undivided; calyx segments 9–12 mm.

* Wetlands in valleys, forest edges; 1100–1800 m. Chongqing (Jinfu Shan), Sichuan.

22. Thladiantha henryi Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 23: 316. 1887.

皱果赤爮  zhou guo chi bao

Thladiantha dictyocarpa Handel-Mazzetti; T. henryi var. verrucosa (Cogniaux) A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang; T. verrucosa Cogniaux.

Climbing vine; roots tuberous, enlarged. Stem and branches longitudinally angular-sulcate, sparsely puberulent, glabrescent. Petiole slender, 4–12 cm, puberulent; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate-cordate, 8–16 × 7–14 cm, apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin dentate, sometimes irregularly triangular-serrate, base cordate, sinus open, semicircular, 1–3 cm in depth, 1–2 cm in width, basal lateral nerves along base of leaf blade, adaxially white-setose, abaxially puberulent. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid or simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 6–10 at apex of peduncle in raceme or panicle, peduncle puberulent, 5–12 cm; pedicel 1–3 cm, puberulent; calyx tube campanulate, 5–7 mm in diam., segments lanceolate, 10–12 mm, apex acuminate, 1-nerved, puberulent; corolla segments oblong-elliptic or oblong, ca. 20 × 6 mm, apex shortly acuminate or acute, 5-nerved; stamens 5, 4 connected at base in pairs, one free, filaments 4–5 mm, puberulent, with 3 scales at base, anthers oblong, ca. 4 mm; rudimentary ovary absent. Female flowers: solitary, binary or 3 to many in a raceme; pedicels 2–6 cm; calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 5, ca. 2.5 mm; ovary long ovate or ovate-oblong, verrucose-rugose, style 3–4 mm, stigma enlarged, reniform, 2-lobed. Fruiting pedicel 6–9 cm, fruit elliptic, 5–10 × 3–4 cm, surface rugose, base attenuate at pedicel to 10 mm. Seeds long ovate, 5–6 × 2–2.45 mm, smooth. Fl and fr. Jun–Nov.

* Thickets, forests, roadsides; 1150–2000 m. W Hubei, W Hunan, S Shaanxi, E Sichuan.

23. Thladiantha longifolia Cogniaux ex Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 23: t. 2222. 1892.

长叶赤爮  chang ye chi bao

Climbing vine; stems and branches slender, angular, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Petioles 2–7 cm, glabrous or short-pubescent. Leaf blades membranous, ovate-lanceolate or long ovate-triangular, 8–18 × 4–8 cm, apex acute or short-acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, sinus open, semicircular, 1.5–2 cm in depth, 1.5–2.5 cm in width, basal lateral nerves not along base of leaf blade, adaxially white-setose, abaxially nearly glabrous. Tendril filiform, simple, glabrous. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: 3–9(–12) flowers at apex of peduncle in a raceme, peduncle slender, 2–2.5 cm; pedicels 1–2 cm, sparsely pubescent, glabrescent; calyx tube short-campanulate, 0.6 cm wide at apex, pubescent on nerves, segments triangular, 7–8 mm, 1-nerved; corolla yellow, corolla segments oblong or elliptic, 1.5–2 × 0.8–1 cm, apex slightly obtuse, 5-nerved. Stamens 5, four connected in pairs at base, one free, filaments ca. 3 mm, anthers oblong, 2.5–3 mm. Female flowers: solitary or 2–3-flowered on short peduncle, pedicels 2–4 cm, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 5, subulate, ca. 1.5 mm, 4 in pairs, one free; ovary ovoid, acuminate at both apex and base, base emarginate and with lobules, rugose, style 3-fid, stigma enlarged, reniform. Fruits broad-ovoid, ca. 4 cm, verrucose, base slightly emarginate. Seeds ovoid, 6–8 × 3–4.5 cm, 1–1.5 mm thick, apex obtuse. Fl. Apr–Jul, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Mountain slopes, forests, valleys, thickets; 1000–2200 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan.

12. MOMORDICA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753.

苦瓜属  ku gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual or perennial, scandent or creeping herbs. Tendrils unbranched or 2-fid. Petiole usually glandular; leaf blade suborbicular or ovate-cordate, palmately 3–7-lobed, rarely undivided, entire or dentate. Flowers dioecious or monoecious. Male flowers solitary or in a raceme; pedicel often with a large bract; bract rounded-reniform; calyx-tube short, campanulate or cupular, segments ovate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; corolla yellow or white, rotate or broadly campanulate, 5-lobed, segments obovate, oblong or ovate-oblong, stamens 3, sometimes 5 or 2, filaments short, free, anthers coherent at first, one 1-locular, other 2-locular, anther-locules reflexed, straight or curved, connective not produced, rudimentary ovary glandular or absent; ovary oblong or fusiform, style elongate, stigmas 3, undivided or 2-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits ovate, oblong, elliptic or fusiform, undivided or 3-valved, usually verrucose or spinescent. Seeds few or numerous, ovate or oblong, smooth or reticulate.

Forty-five species: most in tropical Africa, some cultivated in tropical regions; three species (one cultivated) in China.

1a.       Flowers monoecious; bract on middle of male pedicel; leaf blade 5–7-partite; stamens 3; fruits fusiform or cylindric, verrucose .......................................................................................  1. M. charantia

1b.       Flowers dioecious; bract at apex of male pedicel.

2a.       Petiole eglandular, anther-locules conduplicate; fruit small, less than 5 cm, ovate or ovate-oblong, verrucose or longitudinally sulcate ...........................................................................  2. M. subangulata

2b.       Petiole with 2–5 median glands; anther-locules reflexed; fruits large, over 5 cm, ovoid, densely spinescent ..........................................................................................................  3. M. cochinchinensis

1. Momordica charantia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 1009. 1753.

苦瓜  ku gua

Cucumis argyi H. Léveillé; Momordica chinensis Sprengel; M. indica Linnaeus; M. sinensis Sprengel; Sicyos fauriei H. Léveillé.

Annual scandent herbs, many-branched; stem and branches pubescent. Tendrils to 20 cm, puberulent, simple. Petiole slender, white-pubescent at first, glabrescent, 4–6 cm; leaf blade ovate-reniform or suborbicular, membranous, 4–12 × 4–12 cm, puberulent on nerves, 5–7-partite, lobes ovate-oblong, margin crenate or irregularly lobed, apex obtuse or acute, sinus semicircular, nerves palmate. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers solitary in axils of leaves, pedicel slender, puberulent, 3–7 cm, with a median bract; bract reniform or orbicular, entire, both surfaces puberulent, 5–15 mm; calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, white-pubescent, 4–6 × 2–3 mm, apex acute; corolla yellow, segments obovate, obtuse or retuse, 15–20 × 8–12 mm, pubescent; stamens 3, free, anther-locules conduplicate. Female flowers: solitary, pedicel 10–12 cm, with a bract at base; ovary fusiform, densely verrucose, stigmas expanded, 2-lobed. Fruits fusiform or cylindric, verrucose, 10–20 cm, orange when mature, 3-valved from apex. Seeds numerous, oblong, 15–20 × 10–15 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

Commonly cultivated in China [pantropical, also cultivated in temperate and tropical regions].

Fruit used as vegetable; also all parts used as medicines.

2. Momordica subangulata Blume, Bijdr. 928. 1826.

凹萼木鳖  ao e mu bie

Scandent herbs; stem and branches sulcate-angular, glabrous or puberulent at nodes. Petioles slender, 3–8 cm, glabrous, eglandular; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 6–13 × 4–11 cm, margin dentate, usually undivided or sometimes 3–5-lobed, apex acute or acuminate, base cordate, sinus subquadrate, both surfaces puberulent at first, glabrescent. Tendrils filiform, simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers solitary in leaf axil, pedicel slender, 5–8(–14) cm, puberulent, apex bracteate, bract orbicular-reniform, 10–30 × 10–40 mm, apex rounded to subacute, base retuse, both surfaces puberulent, glabrescent; calyx-segments ovate-oblong or lanceolate, 7–9 × 4–5 mm, pubescent, apex obtuse, retuse, broadly rounded or acute; corolla yellow, segments oblong or obovate, 20–30 × 15–25 mm, apex obtuse-rounded, 5-nerved; stamens 3 or 5, filaments filiform, glabrous, ca. 3 mm, anthers 2.5–3 mm, anther-locules conduplicate. Female flowers solitary, pedicel filiform, 5–10 cm, usually with a minute bract at base. Calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate-oblong or fusiform, 8–12 × 2–4 mm, attenuate at base, ridged or verrucose. Fruit-pedicel slender, glabrous, fruit ovoid or ovate-oblong, 3–7 cm, 2.5–4 cm in diam., attenuate at both ends, longitudinally sulcate or with rows of tubercles, or spinescent. Seeds gray or yellow-brown, oblong, ovoid or globose, 7–14 × 5–8 mm, both surfaces slightly sculptured. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Mountain slopes, thickets, roadsides; 800–2500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

1a. Plant slender; bract of male flower 10–20 × 10–20 mm; fruit 3–5 cm with irregularly undulate longitudinal ribs, glabrous or almost so .......................................................................  2a. subsp. subangulata

1b. Plant more robust; bract of male flower 20–30 mm, 20–40 mm wide: fruits 5–7 cm, with longitudinal rows of flattened tubercles or undulating ridges, hispid-verrucose ............................  2b. subsp. renigera

2a. Momordica subangulata subsp. subangulata

凹萼木鳖  ao e mu bie

Momordica eberhardtii Gagnepain; M. laotica Gagnepain.

Stems slender. Leaf-blade puberulent at first on both surfaces, glabrescent. Calyx segments ovate-oblong, pubescent, apex obtuse, retuse. Fruit ovoid or ovate-oblong, longitudinally sulcate, not spinescent. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

Mountain slopes, roadsides; 800–1500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

2b. Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera (G. Don) W. J. de Wilde, Bot. Zhurn. 87, 3: 147. 2002.

云南木鳖  yun nan mu bie

Momordica renigera G. Don, Gen. Syst. 36. 1834.

Stem robust. Leaf-blade abaxially puberulent, yellow-brown pubescent on nerves or glabrescent. Calyx-segments lanceolate, apex acute. Fruit ovate or broadly ovate, spinescent. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Roadsides on mountain slopes, thickets; 1400–2500 m. Yunnan [Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand].

3. Momordica cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 3: 14. 1826.

木鳖子  mu bie zi

Muricia cochinchinensis Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 596. 1790; Momordica macrophylla Gage; M. meloniflora Handel-Mazzetti; M. mixta Roxburgh.

A strong climber, to 15 m. Root tuberous. Stem and branches glabrous or puberulent, sometimes tomentose at nodes. Tendrils robust, simple. Petioles robust, 5–10 cm, slightly yellow-brown pubescent or glabrescent, 2–4-glandular at base or middle; leaf blade cordate or broadly ovate-orbicular, 10–20 × 10–20 cm, 3–5-lobed, median lobe obovate or oblong-lanceolate, 6–10(–15) × 3–6(–9)cm, apex acute or acuminate, margin undulate-dentate, lateral lobes ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 3–7(–11) × 2–4(–7) cm, base cordate. Dioecious. Male flowers solitary or in a short raceme, pedicels robust, 3–5 cm, or 6–12 cm when solitary, bracteate at apex, bract orbicular-reniform, 3–5 × 5–8 cm, apex retuse, entire; calyx-tube funnelform, segments broadly lanceolate or oblong, 12–20 × 6–8 mm, apex acute or acuminate; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, 5–6 × 2–3 cm, apex acute or acuminate, yellow-glandular at base; stamens 3, anther-locules reflexed. Female flower solitary, pedicel 5–10 cm, bracteate at middle; bract ca. 2 mm; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate-oblong, ca. 1 cm, densely spinescent. Fruit ovoid, apex rostellate, 12–15 cm in diam., red, fleshy, densely spinescent. Seeds numerous, ovate or square, ashy gray, both surfaces sculptured, margin undulate-sublobulate, 26–28 × 18–20 mm, 5–6 mm thick. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

Forest edges and roadsides on mountain slopes; 400–1100 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar].

Seeds, roots and leaves used as medicines.

13. ECBALLIUM A. Richard, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 6: 19. 1824, nom. cons.

喷瓜属  pen gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Creeping herbs; roots perennial. Stem and branches setose. Tendrils absent. Leaf blade cordate. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male inflorescence a raceme; calyx-tube short-campanulate, segments 5, linear-lanceolate; corolla yellow, broadly campanulate or almost rotate, segments ovate-oblong, apex acute; stamens 3, linear, filaments short, free, anthers one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules reflexed, connective broad, not produced; pistillode absent. Female flowers solitary; calyx and corolla as in male, staminodes 3, ligulate; ovary oblong, hispid, style short, stigmas 3, 2-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits oblong, hispid, scabrous, watery, when mature separating from peduncle and contracting at base, throwing out seeds by elastic contraction. Seeds oblong, compressed, pale yellow, narrowly marginate.

One species: Mediterranean region and SW Asia.

1. Ecballium elaterium (Linnaeus) A. Richard, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 6: 19. 1824.

喷瓜  pen gua

Momordica elaterium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 1010. 1753.

Creeping herbs; roots elongate, robust. Stem scabrous, 1.5 m. Petiole somewhat robust, 5–15 cm, densely setose; leaf blade ovate-oblong or hastate, 8–20 × 6–15 cm, margin sinuous or slightly divided, scabrous, adaxially white-setose, abaxially white-pubescent; apex slightly obtuse, sinus semicircular, sometimes truncate. Male flowers in a raceme, peduncle densely yellow-brown pubescent and setose; pedicels filiform, 1–3 cm; calyx-lobes lanceolate, 5–6 × 1.2–2 mm, densely pubescent and hispid; corolla yellow, ca. 3 cm in diam., segments ovate-oblong; filaments ca. 3 mm, base villous. Fruits oblong or ovate-oblong, 4–5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, scabrous, yellow-brown-hispid, both ends obtuse. Seeds numerous, brown or nearly black, ca. 4 mm.

Dry mountain slopes, grasslands. Xinjiang [Mediterranean countries and Asia Minor].

14. SCHIZOPEPON Maximowicz, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 110. 1859 & Ann. Sci. Nat., Sér. 4, 13: 95. 1860.

裂瓜属  lie gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender. Tendrils 2-fid. Leaves long petiolate; leaf blade ovate-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, rarely hastate, margin irregularly dentate, usually 5–7-lobed. Flowers small, unisexual or rarely bisexual, dioecious or monoecious. Male flowers usually in a raceme; female flowers solitary or few in a raceme; calyx-tube cupular or campanulate, segments 5, lanceolate or subulate; corolla segments 5, white, ovate; stamens 3, free or connate, filaments short, anthers one 1-locular, two 2-locular; anther-locules erect, connective produced or not; ovary ovate or conical, 3-locular or irregularly 3-locular, one ovule in each locule; ovule pendulous; style short, 3-fid or sometimes 5-fid, stigma slightly expanded, 2-lobed. Fruits small, ovate or conical, smooth or punctate, apex acute or long acuminate, 3-valved or indehiscent, 1–3-seeded. Seeds pendulous, ovate, compressed, margin irregularly dentate.

Eight species: E Asia to the Himalayas; eight species in China.

1a.       Fruit conical, apex acuminate, rostrate; connective produced, subulate, rarely not produced; ovary irregularly 3-locular, ovule pendulous from middle of locule.

2a.       Connective not produced .............................................................................  6. S. bomiensis

2b.       Connective produced, appendage subulate.

3a.       Leaf blade ovate-cordate, usually unlobed, papery ...................................  7. S. bicirrhosus

3b.       Leaf blade hastate, 5-lobed, membranous ................................................  8. S. xizangensis

1b.       Fruits ovoid or ovate, apex acute; connective not produced; ovary 3-locular, ovule pendulous from apex of locule.

4a.       Flowers bisexual, stamens free .................................................................  1. S. bryoniifolius

4b.       Flowers solitary, monoecious or dioecious; stamens connate.

5a.       Flowers monoecious; male and female flowers in same inflorescence, with many male flowers above and 1–2-female below; filaments connate, anthers free, ovary and fruit smooth ..  2.. S. monoicus

5b.       Flowers dioecious.

6a.       Filaments and anthers both connate, flowers larger, calyx-segments 3 mm; corolla-segments 9 mm  5. S. macranthus

6b.       Filaments connate, anthers free or connate at base.

7a.       Pedicels 2–5 mm, flowers small, calyx-segments ca. 1 mm; corolla-segments 2–3.5 mm; fruits punctate                                                                                                                     3. S. dioicus

7b.       Pedicels 5–10 mm; flowers slightly larger; calyx-segments ca. 2 mm; corolla-segments 3–5 mm     4. S. longipes

1. Schizopepon bryoniifolius Maximowicz, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 111. 1859.

裂瓜  lie gua

Schizopepon bryoniifolius var. japonicus Cogniaux; S. bryoniifolius var. paniculatus Komarov.

Annual scandent herb, stem 2–3 m. Branches slender, subglabrous or slightly puberulent. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid, glabrous. Petioles slender, sometimes puberulent, 4–13 cm; leaf blade ovate or broadly ovate-cordate, membranous, 6–10 × 5–9 cm, 3–7-angular or -lobed, margin irregularly dentate, apex acuminate, sinus semicircular, palmately 5–7-nerved, puberulent. Flowers very small, bisexual, solitary or in 3–5-flowered racemes, peduncle filiform, puberulent, 1–1.5 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate, entire, 1-nerved, 1.5 mm; corolla rotate, segments white, 3-nerved, ca. 2 × 0.8–1 mm; stamens 3, inserted at base of calyx-tube, free, glabrous, ca. l mm, filaments linear, anthers ca. 0.5 mm, anther-locule erect, connective not produced; ovary ovate, 3-locular, style short, stigmas 3. Fruit broadly ovate, apex acute, 10–15 mm, 3-valved, 1–3-seeded. Seeds ovate, ca. 9 × 5.5 mm, compressed, apex truncate, margin irregularly dentate. Fl. and fl. Jun–Nov.

River valleys, forests; 500–1500 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning [E Russia].

2. Schizopepon monoicus A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 112. 1985.

峨眉裂瓜  e mei lie gua

Slender scandent herb. Stem and branches glabrous, angular-sulcate. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Petioles slender, glabrous, 3–4 cm; leaf blade ovate-cordate, membranous, 5–7 × 3–4 cm, palmately 5–7-lobed, median lobe triangular, apex long acuminate, lateral lobes acute, margin irregularly dentate, sinus semicircular, palmately 7-nerved, both surfaces setose at first. Flowers monoecious. Male and female flowers in same racemose inflorescence; peduncle slender, glabrous, 2–4 cm. Male flowers: pedicel filiform, 1–2 mm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, segments subulate, ca. 1.5 mm; corolla-segments ovate, ca. 5 mm, 1-nerved; stamens 3, filaments connate, 0.3 mm, anthers free, 0.4 mm, anther-locules erect. Female flowers: pedicel ca. 2 mm, calyx-segments ovate, 0.8 mm; ovary ovate, glabrous, 0.8 mm, style 3-fid, stigma expanded, 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel ca. 1 cm, slender; fruits subglobose, 3-locular with 1 seed in each locule. Fl. and fr. May–Nov.

* Roadsides on mountain slopes. Sichuan (Emei Shan).

3. Schizopepon dioicus Cogniaux ex Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 23: t. 2224. 1892.

湖北裂瓜  hu bei lie gua

Annual scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Petiole 3.5–7.5 cm; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate-cordate, 5–9 × 3–7 cm, usually 2–3-angled on each side, margin dentate, apex acuminate, sinus semicircular, palmately 5–7-nerved, both surfaces glabrous. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme, peduncle filiform, 5–10 cm; pedicels 2–3 mm, filiform; calyx-segments linear-subulate or narrowly lanceolate, 1–1.2 × 0.5–0.8 mm; corolla rotate, white, segments lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, 1-nerved; stamens 3, filaments connate, 0.8 mm, anthers free or united only at base, 0.5 mm, connective not produced. Female flowers solitary or a few aggregated at apex of a short peduncle; ovary ovate, apex shortly acuminate, glabrous or pubescent, 3-locular, one ovule in each locule, styles 3-fid, stigma slightly expanded, 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel filiform, 1–2 cm; fruit broadly ovate, ca. 1.2 cm × 8 mm, base rounded, apex acute, glabrous or pubescent, smooth or verrucose, pale brown to black-brown when mature, 3-valved from apex, usually with 2 seeds. Seeds ovate, base slightly wider, irregularly dentate, contracted above, apex truncate, ca. 8 × 5 mm, ca. 2 mm thick, pale brown when mature.

* Grassland, thickets, and roadsides on mountain slopes; 1000–2400 m. Guizhou, W Hubei, NW Hunan, S Shaanxi, E and W Sichuan.

1a. Ovary and fruit densely pubescent .................................................................  3c. var. trichogynus

1b. Ovary and fruit glabrous.

2a. Leaf blade ovate-cordate, apex acuminate ......................................................  3a. var. dioicus

2b. Leaf blade long ovate-cordate, apex caudate-acuminate ................................  3b. var. wilsonii

3a. Schizopepon dioicus var. dioicus

湖北裂瓜  hu bei lie gua

Leaf blade ovate-cordate, apex acuminate; ovary and fruit glabrous; fruit pale brown when mature, surface verrucose.

* Grassland and roadsides on mountain slopes; 1000–2400 m. W Hubei, NW Hunan, S Shaanxi, E Sichuan.

3b. Schizopepon dioicus var. wilsonii (Gagnepain) A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 113. 1985.

四川裂瓜  si chuan lie gua

Schizopepon wilsonii Gagnepain, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. 24: 378. 1918.

Leaf blade long ovate-cordate, apex caudate-acuminate, 3–5 lobed; ovary and fruit glabrous; fruit black-brown, surface smooth.

* Roadsides and thickets on mountain slopes; 1500–2400 m. NW Guizhou, E and W Sichuan.

3c. Schizopepon dioicus var. trichogynus Handel-Mazzetti, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 85: 219. 1936.

毛蕊裂瓜  mao rui lie gua

Ovary and fruit densely pubescent.

* Guizhou, W Hubei.

4. Schizopepon longipes Gagnepain, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. 24: 378. 1918.

长柄裂瓜  chang bing lie gua

Scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Petiole 4–7 cm, slightly puberulent; leaf blade ovate, 4–6 × 3–5 cm, irregularly 3–5-lobed, median lobe larger, triangular, apex acuminate, lateral ones smaller, margin dentate, sinus semicircular, both surfaces puberulent, palmately 5-nerved. Male flowers many in a raceme, flowers on upper part of peduncle, rachis filiform, 10–15 cm; pedicels linear, 0.5–1 cm, glabrous or puberulent; calyx-segments lanceolate, 1.8–2 mm; corolla-segments long ovate, apex acuminate, 1-nerved, 3–5 × 1.5–2.5; stamens 3, filaments united, 0.5 mm, anthers free, 0.8–1 mm, connective not produced, locule linear, erect. Fl. Jul–Oct.

* Valleys, roadsides; 2000–3000 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

5. Schizopepon macranthus Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1064. 1936.

大花裂瓜  da hua lie gua

Annual scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender, sulcate-angular. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid, glabrous. Petiole slender, subglabrous, 6–9 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, membranous, 8–10 × 6–8 cm, margin irregularly dentate, apex caudate-acuminate, sinus subquadrate, 1.5–2 cm broad, 1–1.5 cm deep, palmately 7-nerved, both surfaces puberulent. Dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme, peduncle slender, 6–8 cm; pedicels filiform, 2–5 cm; calyx-segments lanceolate-subulate, ca. 3 mm; corolla rotate, pale yellow, glandular hairy at base, segments broadly lanceolate, 1-nerved, apex acuminate, ca. 9 mm; stamens 3, filaments free, ca. 0.8 mm, glabrous, anthers connate at base, elliptic, locules erect, puberulent; rudimentary ovary absent. Fl. Jul–Sep.

* Roadsides on mountain slopes; 2300–3000 m. W Sichuan, NW Yunnan.

6. Schizopepon bomiensis A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 385. 1980.

喙裂瓜  zhuo lie gua

Scandent herbs. Stems and branches slender, sulcate-angular, puberulent at first or glabrescent. Tendrils slender, 2-fid. Petioles slender, 1–2(–3) cm, subglabrous; leaf blade membranous, ovate-hastate or ovate-triangular, usually 5-lobed, apex short-acuminate, sinus suborbicular, 6–8 mm deep, margin dentate, both surfaces puberulent, 2.5–5 × 2–3.5 cm. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme, peduncle 2.5–7 cm, pale yellow-green, pedicels ca. 3 mm; calyx-tube cupular, segments linear, 1.2 mm; corolla campanulate, segments narrowly ovate, ca. 2 mm; stamens 3, filaments nearly free, 0.4 mm, anthers connate, one 1-locular, other 2-locular, 0.4 mm. Female flowers solitary in leaf axil, pedicels filiform, 5–10 mm, glabrous, calyx-segments subulate, 1.2–1.5 mm, apex acuminate; corolla yellow, segments long ovate, ca. 2 × 1 mm, apex acuminate; staminodes glandular; ovary conical, ca. 3 mm, puberulent, apex elongate, base rounded, style filiform. Fruit-pedicel slender, ca. 1 cm, fruit ca. 1.5 × 0.5 cm, apex rostrate, base rounded, glabrous. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct.

* Forests or thickets on mountain slopes; 2200–2600 m. E and SE Xizang.

7. Schizopepon bicirrhosus (C. B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 34: 802. 1980.

新裂瓜  xin lie gua

Melothria bicirrhosa C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 627. 1879; Schizopepon wardii Chakravarty.

Scandent herbs; branches more or less slender, sulcate-angular, glabrous. Tendrils usually 2-fid, glabrous. Petioles slender, glabrous or puberulent, 2–4 cm; leaf blade membranous, margin undulate or 1–2-angled on each side, irregularly dentate, 3–10 × 2–7, apex caudate-acuminate, sinus semicircular, both surfaces slightly pubescent. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers 7–16 in a raceme; peduncle 3–7 cm; pedicels slender, 3–10 mm; calyx-tube campanulate, 4–5 mm, segments subulate, ca. 2 mm, glandular-pubescent; corolla-segments lanceolate, ca. 2.5 mm; stamens 3, connate, inserted on base of corolla-tube, filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous, anthers puberulent, locules erect, ca. 1.5 mm, connective produced, appendage ca. 1.5 mm. Female flowers solitary, pedicels slender, 2–4 cm; calyx-segments subulate, ca. 3 mm; corolla-segments lanceolate, 5–6 mm, 3-nerved; ovary conical, pubescent, ca. 8 × 3 mm, apex attenuate, base obtuse-rounded, styles ca. 2 mm, 3-fid, apex expanded, ovules 3, solitary in each locule, pendulous. Fruit-pedicel slender, glabrous, 8–10 cm; fruits long conical, ca. 3 cm × 6 mm, white-pubescent, apex attenuate, rostrate.

Thickets; 2700–2800 m. S Xizang [N India, Myanmar].

8. Schizopepon xizangensis A. M. Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(2): 116. 1985.

西藏裂瓜  xi zang lie gua

Scandent herbs, glabrous; branches slender, filiform. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid, petioles slender, 2–3 cm; leaf blade thin, membranous, hastate, 5-lobed, margin dentate, 4–6.5 × 3–4 cm, apex caudate-acuminate, sinus subquadrate. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers solitary or 2–7 in a short raceme; calyx-tube cupular, ca. 3 mm in diam., segments subulate, ca. 2 mm; corolla yellow, segments triangular-ovate, ca. 6 mm; stamens 3, connate, filaments short, ca. 1 mm, anthers ovate, one 1-locular, other 2-locular, connective produced, appendage subulate, ca. 1 mm.

* Herbage on mountain slopes; ca. 2100 m. SE Xizang (Mêdog).

15. BISWAREA Cogniaux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 21(2): 16. 1882.

三裂瓜属  san lie gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scandent herbs. Tendrils 2-fid. Leaf-blade 5–7-lobed. Flowers dioecious, yellow. Male flowers mostly racemose; calyx-tube narrowly tubular below, dilated above and broadly campanulate, 5-partite, segments linear; corolla broadly campanulate, 5-partite, segments ovate, entire; stamens 3, inserted on calyx-tube; filaments free, anthers connate, one 1-locular, others 2-locular, anther-locules linear, triplicate; rudimentary ovary subulate. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary oblong, with 3 placentas; filaments filiform, elongate, stigmas 3, enlarged, ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits oblong, 3-angled, 6-ribbed, fibrous, 3-valved nearly to base. Seeds compressed, smooth.

One species: E Himalaya to China.

1. Biswarea tonglensis (C. B. Clarke) Cogniaux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 21(2): 16. 1882.

三裂瓜  san lie gua

Warea tonglensis C. B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 129. 1876.

Scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender, puberulent or subglabrous. Tendrils 2-fid. Petiole robust, 6–10 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate or suborbicular-cordate, 14–17 × 12–16 cm, 5–7-lobed, lobes triangular-ovate, apex acute or acuminate, margin dentate. Male inflorescence usually 5–8-flowered, peduncle 8–10 cm; bracts 2–3 mm; calyx-tube ca. 3 cm, base ca. 3 mm in diam., apex ca. 15 mm in diam., segments narrowly lanceolate, apex subulate, 6–7(–20) mm, puberulent; corolla-segments ovate, 22–30 × ca. 11 mm; apex acute; stamens 3, filaments filiform, glabrous, 4–5 mm, anthers connected, ca. 7 mm; rudimentary ovary subulate, 8–9 mm. Female flower solitary, pedicel 25–30 mm; ovary oblong, densely tomentose, ca. 12 mm, calyx-tube ca. 4.2 cm, apex ca. 11 mm in diam., segments and corolla-segments as in male. Fruits oblong, 10–12 × 4–4.5 cm. Seeds numerous, pale brown, elliptic, 10–15 × 7–10 mm.

NW Yunnan [N India, Myanmar].

16. HERPETOSPERMUM Wallich ex J. D. Hooker in Bentham & J. D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 834. 1867.

波棱瓜属  bo leng gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual climbing herbs, roots spreading. Tendrils simple. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers racemose or rarely solitary; calyx-tube elongate, funnel-shaped, segments subulate; corolla broadly campanulate, 5-partite, segments entire; stamens 3, included in calyx-tube, filaments free, anthers connate, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules linear, conduplicate; rudimentary ovary subulate. Female flowers solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, subulate or absent; ovary oblong, 3-locular, 4–6-ovules in each locule, pendulous; filaments filiform, elongate, stigmas 3, dilated. Fruit broadly oblong, 3-valved from apex nearly to base. Seeds pendulous, oblong or obovate, compressed, smooth, margins obtuse.

One species: China, India, Nepal.

1. Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Seringe) C. B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 115. 1876.

波棱瓜  bo leng gua

Bryonia pedunculosa Seringe in Candolle, Prodr. 3: 306. 1818; Herpetospermum caudigerum Wallich ex Chakravarty; H. grandiflorum Cogniaux.

Annual scandent herbs; stem and branches slender, puberulent at first. Petiole 4–8(–10)cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, 6–12 × 4–9 cm, apex caudate-acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, both surfaces scabrous, yellow-brown pubescent at first. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: usually in a raceme or solitary, inflorescence 12–40 cm, 5–10-flowered, puberulent; calyx-tube 20–25 cm, apex 8–9 mm in diam., segments linear, 8–9 mm; corolla yellow, segments elliptic, 20–22 × 12–15 mm; filaments 2–3 mm, anthers 5–6 mm; rudimentary ovary subulate, 4–5 mm. Female flowers: calyx-tube narrowly tubular, ca. 15 mm, densely yellow-pubescent, segments linear, ca. 9 mm, corolla-segments oblong, 20–25 × 15–20 mm; ovary oblong-ovate, densely yellow-hispid. Fruit broadly oblong, 3-valved to base, fibrous, 7–8 × 3–4 cm. Seeds pale gray, oblong, base truncate, ca. 12 × 5 mm, 2–3 mm thick. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.

Thickets and forest edges on mountain slopes; 2300–2500 m. Xizang, Yunnan [India, Nepal].

17. EDGARIA C. B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 113. 1876.

三棱瓜属  san leng gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing herbs. Stem and branches slender. Tendrils 2-fid. Petiole slender; leaf-blade ovate-cordate, membranous, margin irregularly dentate, pubescent at first, ultimately glabrescent, scabrous. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: raceme or rarely solitary; calyx-tube elongate, narrowly funnelform, segments 5, linear; corolla subrotate, yellow, 5-partite, segments obovate, entire; stamens 3, included, inserted on calyx-tube, filaments free, short, anthers connate, one 1-locular, others 2-locular, locules straight, connective narrow; pistillode subulate. Female flowers: solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes absent; ovary narrowly ovoid, 3-locular, 1–2-ovules in each locule, style filiform, elongate, stigmas 3, oblong, apex 2-lobed; ovules more or less horizontal. Fruit broadly fusiform, distinctly 3-angled, ribbed, dry, deeply 3-valved. Seeds subquadrate, compressed, slightly corrugated.

One species: China, E Himalayas.

1. Edgaria darjeelingensis C. B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 114. 1876.

三棱瓜  san leng gua

Climbing herbs. Stem and branches slender. Petiole 4–6 cm, pubescent at first, ultimately glabrous; leaf-blade ovate-cordate, membranous, 8–12 × 6–10, margin sinuous-dentate, adaxially sparsely puberulent at first, ultimately scabrous, abaxially hispidulous on nerves, apex acute or shortly acuminate, basal sinus 2–2.5 cm deep. Male flowers usually 10–16 in a raceme or rarely solitary, peduncle slender, 12–15 cm; pedicel filiform, 5–8 mm; calyx-tube 1.5–2 cm, apex 3–4 mm in diam., segments linear, 3–4 mm; corolla yellow, segments long ovate, apex acuminate, 10–15 × 3–5 mm, 3-nerved; filaments ca. 5 mm; pistillode 3–4 mm. Fruit-pedicel stout, 2–10 cm; fruits ovate-3-angled, 6–7 cm, 3–4 cm in diam., glabrous or sparsely puberulent, apex 3-valved when mature. Seeds 13–14 × ca. 9 mm, ca. 2 mm thick. Fl. May–Aug.

Broad-leaved forests, grasslands; ca. 1700 m. Xizang [N India, Nepal].

18. LUFFA Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1754.

丝瓜属  si gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual scandent herbs, glabrous or puberulent. Tendrils bi-or multi-fid. Petiole eglandular; leaf blade usually 5–7-lobed. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers in a raceme; calyx-tube obconical, segments 5, triangular or lanceolate; corolla-segments 5, free, spreading, entire or erose; stamens 3 or 5, free, anthers one 1-locular, other 2-locular or all 1-locular when stamens 5, locules linear, sigmoid-flexuous, connective usually dilated. Pistillode glandular or absent. Female flowers solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, or rarely 4 or 5; ovary cylindric, stigmas 3, ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits oblong or cylindric, terete or acutely costate, smooth or echinate, fibrous inside, apex operculately dehiscent. Seeds numerous, oblong, compressed.

Six species: tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world; two species (cultivated) in China.

1a.       Stamens often 5, anther-locules all 1-locular; fruits smooth, ecostate ..............  1. L. aegyptiaca

1b.       Stamens 3, anthers one 1-locular, other 2-locular; fruits with 8–10 acute ribs
                                                                                                                                                       2. L. acutangula

1. Luffa aegyptiaca Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. 1768.

丝瓜  si gua

Momordica cylindrica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753; Luffa cylindrica Roemer.

Annual scandent herbs; stem and branches scabrous, sulcate-angular, puberulent. Tendrils rather robust, usually 2–4-fid. Petioles scabrous, 10–12 cm, subglabrous; leaf blade triangular or suborbicular, 10–20 × 10–20, often palmately 5–7-lobed, lobes triangular, median lobe 8–12 cm, apex acute or acuminate, margin dentate, base deeply cordate, sinus 2–3 cm deep, 2–2.5 cm wide. Monoecious. Male flowers: usually 15–20-flowers in a raceme, peduncle somewhat robust, 12–14 cm, pubescent; pedicels 1–2 cm, calyx broadly campanulate, 5–9 mm, puberulent, segments ovate-lanceolate or nearly triangular, reflexed above, 8–13 × 4–7 mm, densely puberulent, apex acuminate, 3-nerved; corolla yellow, rotate, 5–9 cm in diam., segments oblong, 2–4 × 2–2.8 cm, densely yellow-white villous inside, apex rounded-obtuse, base attenuate; Stamens usually 5, rarely 3, filaments 6–8 mm, base white-pubescent, connate at first, later free. Female flowers solitary, pedicel 2–10 cm; ovary long cylindric, puberulent, stigmas 3, expanded. Fruit cylindric, straight or slightly curved, 15–45 cm, 3–6 cm in diam., smooth, ecostate, strongly fibrous inside when mature. Seeds ovate, smooth or very sparingly tuberculate, usually black, margin slightly winged. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn.

Commonly cultivated in China [widely cultivated throughout tropical and temperate regions].

The fruit is eaten as a vegetable.

2. Luffa acutangula (Linnaeus) Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 70. 1814.

广东丝瓜  guang dong si gua

Cucumis acutangulus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 1001. 1753; Luffa acutangula (Linnaeus) Roxburgh var. subangulata (Miquel) Cogniaux.

Annual scandent herbs; stem rather robust, sulcate-angular, pubescent. Tendrils robust, often 3-fid, puberulent. Petiole 8–12 cm; leaf blade suborbicular, membranous, 15–20 × 15–20 cm, often 5–7-lobed, median lobe broadly triangular, lateral lobes smaller, apex acute or acuminate, margin dentate, sinus subrounded, both surfaces puberulent. Monoecious. Male flowers: 17–20-flowered in raceme at apex of peduncle, peduncle 10–15 cm, pedicels 1–4 cm, white-puberulent; calyx-tube campanulate, 5–8 × ca. 10 mm, segments lanceolate, 4–6 × 2–3 mm, apex acuminate, slightly reflexed, densely white-pubescent, 1-nerved; corolla yellow, rotate, segments obcordate, 15–25 × 10–20 mm, both surfaces subglabrous; stamens 3, free, filaments 4–5 mm, anthers puberulent. Female flowers: solitary; ovary terete, longitudinally 8–10-angled, style short, stigmas 3, expanded, 2-lobed. Fruits cylindric or clavate-oblong, 8–10-angled, glabrous, 15–40 cm, 6–10 cm in diam. Seeds ovate, black, margin without wing, 11–12 × 7–8 mm, 1.5 mm thick. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn.

Cultivated in S China [S and SW Asia; also cultivated in tropical regions].

Fruits are eaten as a vegetable.

19. GYMNOPETALUM Arnott in Hooker, J. Bot. 3: 278. 1841.

金瓜属  jin gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scotanthus Naudin; Tripodanthera M. Roemer.

Slender climbing herbs. Tendrils simple or 2-fid. Leaf blade ovate-cordate, angularly 3–5-lobed. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers solitary or in a raceme, ebracteate or bracteate; calyx-tube elongate, tubular, segments 5, subulate; corolla rotate, white or yellow, 5-partite, segments oblong or obovate; stamens 3, inserted on middle of calyx-tube, filaments short, free, anthers connate, one 1-locular, others 2-locular, anther-locules conduplicate; rudimentary ovary erect. Female flowers solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, linear; ovary ovate or oblong, placentae 3, ovules numerous, horizontal, style filiform. Fruit oblong or subglobose, acute or obtuse at both ends, indehiscent. Seeds obovate or oblong, compressed, marginate.

Four species: S Asia; two species in China.

1a.       Leaf blade membranous, both surfaces slightly setose, 5-angular or 3–5-lobed or -partite, apex acuminate, margin dentate; fruits oblong-ovate, acute at both ends, 10-ribbed ....................  1. G. chinense

1b.       Leaf blade papery, both surfaces densely setose and villous, undivided or undulately 3–5-lobed, apex obtuse, margin serrate; fruits subglobose, both ends obtuse, without ribs ................  2. G. integrifolium

1. Gymnopetalum chinense (Loureiro) Merrill, Philipp. J. Sci. 15: 256. 1919.

金瓜  jin gua

Euonymus chinensis Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 156. 1790; Bryonia cochinchinensis Loureiro; Gymnopetalum cochinchinense (Loureiro) Kurz; G. heterophyllum Kurz; G. quinquelobatum Merrill; G. quinquelobum Miquel; Melothria touchanensis H. Léveillé; Momordica tubiflora Roxburgh; Scotanthus tubiflorus Naudin; Tripodanthera cochinchinensis (Loureiro) M. Roemer.

Climbing herbs. Roots perennial. Stem and branches slender, hispid or villous, glabrescent. Petioles 2–4 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate, 5-angular or 3–5-lobed, 4–8 × 4–8 cm, middle lobe larger, triangular, apex acuminate, base cordate, both surfaces scabrous. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers: solitary or 3–8 in a raceme, peduncle slender, 10–15 cm; bracts foliaceous, 3-lobed, 1–2.5 cm, yellow-brown villous; calyx-tube tubular, elongate, ca. 2 cm, segments linear, ca. 7 mm; corolla white, segments oblong-ovate, more or less villous, 15–20 × 10–12 mm; stamens 3, filaments ca. 0.5 mm, anthers ca. 7 mm. Female flowers: solitary, pedicels 1–4 cm; ovary oblong, 10–12 × ca. 5 mm, yellow-brown villous, acute at both ends, style 5–8 mm, stigmas 3. Fruits oblong-ovate, orange, 4–5 cm, smooth, 10-ribbed, acute at both ends. Seeds oblong, ca. 7 × 3–3.5 mm, both ends obtuse. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Sep–Dec.

Forests and thickets on mountain slopes; 400–900 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

2. Gymnopetalum integrifolium (Roxburgh) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 40: 58. 1871 [see below!].

风瓜  feng gua

Cucumis integrifolius Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3: 724. 1832; Gymnopetalum integrifolium var. penicaudii (Gagnepain) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes; G. leucostictum Miquel; G. monoicum Gagnepain; G. monoicum var. incisum Gagnepain; G. penicaudii Gagnepain; G. scabrum var. penicaudii (Gagnepain) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes; Trichosanthes integrifolia (Roxburgh) Kurz; T. scabra Loureiro [Fl. Cochinch. 2: 589. 1790: if this is indeed a synonym, then surely the correct name is Gymnopetalum scabrum (Loureiro) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12: 268. 2008?].

Annual herb, scandent. Stem and branches slender, villous. Petiole 1.5–3 cm, densely villous; leaf blade reniform or ovate-cordate, papery, 6–8 × 6–8 cm, undivided or undulately 3–5-lobed, lobes triangular, apex obtuse, margin serrate, base cordate, both surfaces scabrous, setose and villous. Monoecious. Male flowers: solitary or in a raceme, peduncle 4–6 cm, densely villous; bracts foliaceous, divided, densely yellow-brown villous, calyx-tube 1.5–2 cm, segments lanceolate, ca. 8 mm; corolla-segments obovate, 18–20 × 10–12 mm; stamens 3, filaments ca. 0.4 mm. Female flowers: solitary; pedicels 10–15 mm, densely villous; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate-globose, villous, ca. 10 mm. Fruits subglobose, orange-red when mature, 2–3 cm in diam., smooth, not ribbed. Seeds narrowly oblong, ca. 9 × 3–3.5 mm, 1.5 mm thick, both surfaces smooth, both ends obtuse. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Sep–Nov.

Mountain slopes and herbage; 400–800 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

20. HODGSONIA J. D. Hooker & Thomson, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 2: 257. 1853.

油渣果属  you zha guo shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Large woody climbers. Stem and branches stout. Tendrils robust, 2–5-fid. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme; calyx-tube elongate, campanulate, segments short; corolla rotate, 5-partite, lobes connate at base, segments obcuneate, apex truncate, very long fimbriate; stamens 3, filaments inconspicuous; anthers connate, linear, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules conduplicate. Female flowers solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary globose, one-locular, style long, stigma 3-lobed, lobes 2-fid, exserted, ovules 12, horizontal, placentae 3, parietal with pairs of ovules attached on each side, Fruit large, depressed, 12-grooved. Perfect seeds usually 6, each having a rudimentary or barren seed attached to its side. Seeds large, flat, ellipsoid.

Two species: tropical Asia; one species in China.

1. Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxburgh) J. D. Hooker & Thomson, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 2: 257. 1854.

油渣果  you zha guo

Trichosanthes heteroclita Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 3: 705. 1832; T. macrocarpa Blume.

Woody climbers, to 20–30 m. Stem and branches glabrous. Petiole robust, 4–8 cm, striate, glabrous; leaf blade leathery, 3–5-lobed, 15–24 × 15–24 cm, both surfaces glabrous, mostly 5-lobed, lobes ovate-oblong, apex acuminate, base truncate. Male peduncle thick, striate, glabrous or puberulent, 15–30 cm; bracts fleshy, oblong-lanceolate, 5–10 mm; pedicels short, thick, glabrous or puberulent; calyx-tube narrowly tubular, yellowish, 7–10(–12) cm, 7–9 mm in diam., dilated only at very apex, segments triangular-lanceolate, 2–4 mm; corolla yellow outside, white inside, segments ca. 5 cm, fimbriate fringes up to 15 cm. Female pedicels robust, short; ovary subglobose, 2–2.2 cm in diam. Fruits large, reddish-brown, compressed-globose, smooth or shallowly grooved, ca. 20 cm in diam., 10–16 cm. Seeds oblong, ca. 7 × 3 cm, mostly compound. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.

Thickets, mountain slopes; 300–1500 m. Guangxi, SE Xizang, S Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

21. TRICHOSANTHES Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1008. 1753.

栝楼属  gua lou shu

Huang Luqi (黄璐琪), Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Cucumeroides Gaertner; Involucraria Seringe.

Climbing herbs, annual or perennial. Leaf blade simple, unlobed or palmately 3–7(–9)-lobed, rarely compound, 3–5-foliate, margin usually denticulate. Tendrils usually 2–5-fid, rarely simple. Flowers dioecious, rarely monoecious, usually white, rarely pink or red. Male flowers usually in racemes, rarely solitary, in some cases male peduncles in axillary pairs, one 1-flowered, caducous, other bearing a raceme; bracts variable in size and form, rarely absent; calyx tube cylindric, frequently dilated at apex; sepals 5, entire, serrate or laciniate; petals 5, usually long fimbriate; stamens 3, inserted on calyx tube; filaments very short, free; anthers connate, two 2-celled, third 1-celled, cells conduplicate. Female flowers solitary, very rarely in racemes. Calyx and corolla as in male. Ovary inferior, ovoid or fusiform, one-celled with 3 parietal placentas; ovules usually many, generally horizontal, half pendulous; style slender; stigmas 3, entire or bifid. Fruit fleshy, globose, ovoid or fusiform, many-seeded, indehiscent, usually glabrous and smooth. Seeds packed in pulp, 1-loculed, oblong or ovate, compressed or 3-loculed, turgid, two lateral locules empty.

About 100 species: Asia and N Australia; 33 species in China.

1a.       Seeds subquadrangular, obovate-triangular, oblong, or 4-angled, 3-loculed, turgid, surrounded by thick ridges.

2a.       Seeds 4-angled, with narrow middle ridge, two lateral locules broad; leaf blade abaxially glabrous or puberulent on veins ........................................................................  33. T. tetragonosperma

2b.       Seeds subquadrangular, obovate-triangular or oblong, two lateral locules narrow; leaf blade abaxially densely pubescent.

3a.       Leaves unlobed or irregularly shortly 3-lobed.

4a.       Leaf blade ovate, thinly membranous, unlobed; fruits ovoid, smooth, glabrous  30. T. baviensis

4b.       Leaf blade broadly cordate, papery, unlobed or shortly 3-lobed; fruits ovate-oblong or oblong, densely white-villous ......................................................................................  31. T. trichocarpa

3b.       Leaves usually 3–7-lobed.

5a.       Bracts lanceolate or oblanceolate, ca. 1.6 × 0.5–0.6 cm, margin triangular-dentate  29. T. ovigera

5b.       Bracts linear-lanceolate, 2–3 mm, entire ..........................................  32. T. cucumeroides

1b.       Seeds elliptic, ovate-elliptical or oblong, 1-loculed, compressed or turgid.

6a.       Flowers monoecious or dioecious; male flowers in racemes, bract very small, less than 5 mm; seed margin undulate-dentate.

7a.       Flowers dioecious; bracts absent or ca. 5 mm; fruit cylindric, ca. 20 × 7 cm
                                                                                                                3. T. dafangensis

7b.       Flowers monoecious; bracts 1–3 mm or very small or absent; fruit cylindric and 100–200 cm or ovate-oblong and 5–7 cm.

8a.       Bracts 1–3 mm; fruit cylindric, 100–200 × 3–4 cm .....................................  1. T. anguina

8b.       Bracts absent or very small; fruit ovate-oblong, 5–7 × 2.5–3.5 cm
............................................................................................................  2. T. cucumerina

6b.       Flowers dioecious; male flowers solitary or in a racemes or rarely panicle; bracts 1–6.5 cm or rarely 5 mm; seed margin crenellate.

9a.       Leaves simple, leaf blade smooth on both surfaces; bract in male flower extended [Note from C. Jeffrey: please check the translation of this phrase!].

10a.     Male racemes densely villous.

11a.     Leaves leathery, unlobed, leaf blade pubescent on nerves ...............  13. T. reticulinervis

11b.     Leaves papery, unlobed or 3–5-lobed.

12a.     Leaves unlobed; seeds subovate, 10–13 × 7–8 mm, margin undulate
...............................................................................................................  11. T. kerrii

12b.     Leaves 3–5-lobed or deeply lobed.

13a.     Leaf blade abaxially densely white-sericeous; male flowers solitary, densely white-sericeous     12. T. sericeifolia

13b.     Leaf blade abaxially densely brownish-villous; male raceme densely brownish-villous  20. T. villosa

10b.     Male racemes slightly hairy or villous, one 1-flowered, other bearing a raceme.

14a.     Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, subcoriaceous or leathery, unlobed or rarely 3-lobed.

15a.     Leaf blade papery; base cordate; fruit oblong, 7–10 × 6–7 cm
.....................................................................................................  10. T. homophylla

15b.     Leaf blade subcoriaceous or leathery.

16a.     Leaf blade subcoriaceous, unlobed, base round; fruit globose, 7 cm in diam.  8. T. smilacifolia

16b.     Leaf blade leathery, unlobed or shortly to deeply 2–3-lobed, base truncate; fruit oblong, 12–18 × 5–10 cm ............................................................................................  9. T. truncata

 

14b.     Leaves ovate-cordate or orbicular-cordate, papery, 3–9-lobed up to middle or nearly up to base.

17a.     Male flowers solitary, small, less than 3 cm in diam., calyx tube narrowly campanulate  7. T. hylonoma

17b.     Male flowers in raceme; flowers large, over 3 cm in diam., calyx tube narrowly funnel-form or cylindric.

18a.     Leaves usually 3–5(–7)-lobed.

19a.     Bracts in male flowers 3 cm, margin entire; calyx tube funnel-form, ca. 3 cm, sepals linear-lanceolate, 10–15 × 1.5–2.5 mm .................................  4. T. jingganshanica

19b.     Bracts in male flowers less than 2.5 cm, margin sinuate-dentate; calyx tube cylindric, dilated at apex, 20–40 × ca. 10 mm ................................................................  5. T. kirilowii

18b.     Leaves deeply 3–7-lobed usually up to base.

20a.     Leaf lobes rhombic; fruiting peduncle 12–16.5 cm ..................  6. T. mianyangensis

20b.     Leaf lobes linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate; fruiting peduncle 4–5–8 cm  14. T. rosthornii

9b.       Leaves simple or 3–5-foliolate; leaf blade white-punctate; bracts large, conspicuous, margin dentate.

21a.     Leaves 3–5-foliolate; bracts rhomboid-lanceolate.

22a.     Leaflets margin remotely denticulate .........................................................  27. T. pedata

22b.     Leaflets margin entire ......................................................................  28. T. quinquefolia

21b.     Leaves simple; bracts broadly ovate or oblong.

23a.     Flowers red, pale red or purple.

24a.     Seeds ovate, turgid ...........................................................................  22. T. dunniana

24b.     Seeds oblong or oblong-ovate, compressed.

25a.     Seeds oblong, truncate at both ends, 18 mm; flowers purple; calyx tube 2.5 cm; sepals linear; fruits orange-yellow ..........................................................................  25. T. rugatisemina

25b.     Seeds oblong-ovate, 10–15 mm; flowers pale red.

26a.     Leaf blade deeply 5(3–7)-lobed; calyx tube 4–6 cm; sepals ovate-lanceolate, denticulate; fruits red ................................................................................................  23. T. rubriflos

26b.     Leaf blade shortly 5–7-lobed or to middle; calyx tube ca. 4 cm; sepals narrowly lanceolate, entire; fruits orange-red ...........................................................................  24. T. subrosea

23b.     Flowers white.

27a.     Bracts entire.

28a.    Bracts ovate, 3.5–4.3 × ca. 2.5 cm, two rows of brownish punctate beside main vein; sepals 2–3 cm, margin sharply 2–3-lobed; seeds triangular-ovate ..................  18. T. quinquangulata

28b.     Bracts oblong, ca. 4 × 1–1.5 cm; sepals ca. 1 cm, entire; seeds subquadrangular  19. T. cordata

27b.     Bract margin dentate or lacerate.

29a.     Leaves leathery.

30a.     Bracts suborbicular, margin lacerate; sepals narrowly ovate, margin laciniate  17. T. lepiniana

30b.     Bracts obovate-oblong, margin dentate; sepals narrowly lanceolate, margin dentate  26. T. tricuspidata

29b.     Leaves membranous or papery.

31a.     Leaves papery .......................................................................  21. T. laceribractea

31b.     Leaves membranous.

32a.     Leaf blade suborbicular, deeply palmately 5–7-lobed; bract margin crenulate; sepals 15 mm, entire .....................................................................................  15. T. wallichiana

32b.     Leaf blade orbicular-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, unlobed or irregularly 2–3(–5)-lobed; bract margin lobulate with linear-lanceolate lobes; sepals 10 mm, entire or serrate  16. T. fissibracteata

1. Trichosanthes anguina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1008. 1753.

蛇瓜  she gua

Trichosanthes cucumerina Linnaeus var. anguina (Linnaeus) Haines.

Annual. Stems slender, branched, angular, puberulent. Petiole 3–7 cm; leaf blade suborbicular or orbicular-reniform, 8–16 × 6–18 cm, membranous, more or less deeply 5-(rarely 3–7-)lobed; lobes usually obovate, adaxially subglabrous, abaxially densely puberulent, margin finely denticulate. Flowers monoecious. Male raceme usually 8–15-flowered; peduncle 10–18 cm, puberulent; pedicel 5–12 cm, erect, minutely spreading bracteate, 3(–5) mm; calyx tube subcylindric, slightly dilated at apex, 2.5–3 × 4–5 mm, puberulent; sepals reflexed, ca. 2 mm. Female flowers solitary; peduncle up to 1 cm; ovary narrowly fusiform, more or less villous. Fruit very long, cylindric, 100–200 × 3–4 cm, smooth, sometimes contorted. Seed oblong, 11–17 × 8–10 mm, finely rugulose, margin undulate. Fl. and fr. summer–autumn.

Cultivated in China [cultivated throughout the tropics].

The fruit is eaten as vegetable. The root and seed are used medicinally for the treatment of diarrhea.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as var. anguina (Linnaeus) Haines of the following species.

2. Trichosanthes cucumerina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1008. 1753.

瓜叶栝楼  gua ye gua lou

Trichosanthes brevibracteata Kundu; T. pachyrrhachis Kundu.

Annual. Stems slender, profusely branched, more or less pubescent. Leaf blade reniform or broadly ovate, (5–)7–10 × 8–11 cm, membranous, more or less deeply 5–7-lobed; lobes triangular or rhombic. Flowers monoecious. Male peduncles in pairs, earlier 1-flowered, later bearing a raceme; raceme few-flowered; peduncle slender, 15–20 cm, puberulent; pedicel 0.5–1.5 cm, erect, puberulent; bracts absent or very small; calyx tube somewhat dilated at apex, 15–16 mm. Female flowers solitary or sometimes replacing earlier male flower; ovary oblong. Fruit ovate-oblong, 5–7 × 2.5–3.5 cm, with 7–10 seeds. Seeds ovate-oblong, 9–12 × 5–6 mm, compressed, rugulose, margin thick with toothed projections from both surfaces. Fl and fr. autumn. 2n = 22.

Jungles along valleys, thickets on mountain slopes; 400–1600 m. Guangxi, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; N Australia].

The roots, fruits and seeds are used medicinally.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as Trichosanthes cucumerina Linnaeus var. cucumerina.

3. Trichosanthes dafangensis N. G. Ye & S. J. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27(2): 153. 1989.

大方油栝楼  da fang you gua lou

Leaf blade cordate, 10–22 × 8–20 cm, membranous, more or less deeply palmately 5–7-lobed; lobes elliptic-obovate, puberulent, adaxially deep green, abaxially pale green, margin distantly denticulate, apex acuminate. Male flowers solitary, fascicled or in short racemes; peduncle ca. 5 cm; bracts absent or ca. 5 mm; calyx tube funnel-form, ca. 1 cm; sepals linear-lanceolate, ca. 1 cm; pistillodes 3, claviform, ca. 5 mm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 2 cm; calyx tube shortly tubular; ovary ca. 2.5 cm, villous; staminodes 3. Fruit cylindric, ca. 20 × 7 cm, with ca. 80 seeds. Seeds ovate, ca. 1 cm, compressed, verrucose, margin sulcate, crenellate.

* Mountain slopes, thickets; 1000–1800 m. Guizhou.

4. Trichosanthes jinggangshanica Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 342. 1980.

井冈栝楼  jing gang gua lou

Stems slender, angular, puberulent. Petiole 3–8 cm, villous; leaf blade narrowly ovate-cordate to broadly ovate-cordate, 14–20 × 10–15 cm, papery, usually more or less 3–5-lobed, rarely unlobed; middle lobe ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate, adaxially deep green and villous, abaxially pale green and glabrous or villous on nerves. Male peduncles in axillary pairs, one 1-flowered, other bearing a raceme; peduncle 4–11 cm, villous; bracts ovate or orbicular-cordate, 2–2.5 × 1.5–4 cm, base round, margin entire, apex acuminate, shortly stipitate; calyx tube narrowly funnel-form, ca. 3 cm; sepals linear-lanceolate, 10–15 × 1.5–2.5 mm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 1.5 cm; calyx tube ellipsoidal, ca. 2 cm; ovary oblong. Fruiting peduncle ca. 6 cm; fruit oblong, 8–10 cm, smooth. Fl. Mar–Jul, fr. Nov.

* Jungles; 700–1500 m. SW Jiangxi.

The roots and fruits are used medicinally as “Tian-hua-fen” and “Gua-lou” in the place of production.

5. Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, Prim. Pl. Amur. 482. 1859.

栝楼  gua lou

Trichosanthes obtusiloba C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Petiole 2–6 cm, striate, villous; leaf blade suborbicular, 5–20 × 5–20 cm, papery, usually 3–5(–7)-lobed up to middle, rarely deeply so (nearly up to base) or unlobed; lobes rhombic-obovate or oblong, adaxially deep green and rough, margin sometimes remotely shortly lobed, apex obtuse. Male raceme solitary or with a solitary flower in axillary pairs; peduncle 10–20 cm, robust, grooved, slightly hairy, 5–8 flowered at apex; bracts obovate or broadly ovate, 1.5–2.5(–3) × 1–2 cm, margin sinuate-dentate, shortly puberulent, stipitate; calyx tube cylindric, dilated at apex, 2–4 × ca. 1 cm; sepals lanceolate, 10–15 × 3–5 mm, entire. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 7.5 cm, shortly puberulent; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 2.5 × 1.2 cm; ovary oblong, 1.2–2 × ca. 1 cm. Fruiting peduncle 4–11 cm; fruit oblong or round, 7–10.5 cm, brown-yellow or orange-yellow. Seeds oblong-ovate, 11–16 × 7–12 mm, sandy beige, marginate. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct. 2n = 88.

Open forests, bushlands, grasslands and fields beside villages; 200–1800 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].

The source of tian-hua-fen (the roots), gua-lou-zi (the seeds) and gua-lou-pi (the fruit rind), which are official TCM source drugs in the Chinese pharmacopeia.

6. Trichosanthes mianyangensis Yueh & R. G. Liao, Bull. Bot. Res. 2(1): 115. 1992.

绵阳栝楼  mian yang gua lou

Stems densely shortly hairy and sparsely villous. Petiole 6–9 cm, punctate, puberulent; leaf blade orbicular-cordate, 11–17 × 10–15 cm, papery, shortly 3–5-lobed or 7–9-lobed up to middle; lobes rhombic, shortly puberulent on both surfaces, margin irregularly crenate-dentate, apex acuminate. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 5–7 cm, slightly villous; sepals linear, 10–12 × 1–1.5 mm, entire; ovary oblong, 15–20 × 8–9 mm. Fruiting peduncle 12–16.5 cm, fruit oblong, 10.5–11.5 × ca. 8.5 cm. Seeds up to 1.9 cm, smooth. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct. 2n = 88.

* ?About 1000 m. Hubei, Sichuan.

7. Trichosanthes hylonoma Handel-Mazzetti., Symb. Sin. 7: 1066. 1936.

湘桂栝楼  xiang gui gua lou

Trichosanthes leishanensis C. Y. Cheng & Yueh; T. parviflora C. Y. Wu ex S. K. Chen.

Stems slender, with white lenticels. Petiole 3–9 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate or broadly cordate, 11–17 × 10–16 cm, papery, usually 3–5-lobed up to middle, sometimes irregularly 5–9-lobed; lobes oblong or rhombic-ovate, glabrous, margin remotely denticulate, apex acuminate. Male flowers solitary; pedicel setiform, 4–7 cm; calyx tube narrowly campanulate, 1.2–1.5 × ca. 0.4 cm, glabrous or remotely villous; sepals linear, 6–7 mm, erect or reflexed. Female flowers unknown. Fruits ovate-oblong, ca. 9 × 5–6 cm, orange-red, attenuate at both ends. Seeds oblong, 1–1.3 × ca. 0.9 cm, brown, base round, margin crenellate, apex truncate. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Sep–Oct.

* Brushwoods along valleys; 800–1000 m. NE Guangxi, SE Guizhou, S Hunan.

8. Trichosanthes smilacifolia C. Y. Wu ex Yueh & C. Y. Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 347. 1980.

叶栝楼  ba qi ye gua lou [ed. note: 2nd Chinese character is a field]

Petiole 2–3 cm; leaf blade ovate-oblong, 9–13 × 7–9 cm, subcoriaceous, unlobed, smooth on both surfaces, adaxially deep green, abaxially pale green, base round, margin reflexed, denticulate. Male flowers paniculate; peduncle 8–15 cm, slightly puberulent; bracts ovate-orbicular, ca. 1 × 0.8 cm, margin bi-triangular dentate up to middle, apex acuminate; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 2 × 0.5 cm; sepals ca. 7 mm, long acuminate. Female flowers unknown. Fruiting peduncle ca. 3 cm; fruit globose, ca. 7 cm, orange-yellow, smooth. Seeds broadly oblong to suborbicular, ca. 1.8 × 1.5 cm, brown, densely rugose on both surfaces, margin undulate-crenate. Fl. autumn, fr. Nov–Dec.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 600–1500 m. SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan.

9. Trichosanthes truncata C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 608. 1879.

大子栝楼  da zi gua lou

Trichosanthes crispisepala C. Y. Wu ex S. K. Chen; T. ovata Cogniaux.

Stems robust, angular-striate, glabrous and punctate. Petiole 1.5–4(–6.5) cm; leaf blade ovate, narrowly ovate or ovate-oblong, 7–12 × 4.5–9 cm, leathery, unlobed or shortly to deeply 2–3-lobed, glabrous on both surfaces, base round or truncate, margin usually entire or rarely distantly denticulate, apex acuminate. Male raceme 8–20-flowered; peduncle 7–15 cm, striate, flowering at apex; bracts ovate, shortly stipitate, margin entire or more usually with a few teeth; calyx tube dilated at apex, 1.8–4 × ca. 1 cm, shortly tomentose; sepals linear-lanceolate, 20–30 × 1–1.5 mm, entire. Female flowers solitary; ovary oblong, 1–2 × ca. 0.8 cm. Fruiting peduncle 4–5 cm, fruit oblong, 12–18 × 5–10 cm, glabrous. Seeds oblong-obovate, 10–23 × 5–20 mm, brown, base truncate, apex obtuse. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 22.

Montane forests, brushwoods; 300–1000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, India].

10. Trichosanthes homophylla Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 10: 8. 1921.

芋叶栝楼  yu ye gua lou

Trichosanthes mushaensis Hayata.

Stems slender. Petiole 2–3 cm, hairy; leaf blade triangular-cordate, 6–10 × 4–6 cm, papery, unlobed, margin dentate, apex acuminate or acute, adaxially scabrous. Male raceme 5–10-flowered; peduncle 8–9 cm; pedicel ca. 3 mm; bracts obovate, 1–1.5 × 0.7–1.1 cm, margin irregularly crenate-dentate; calyx tube cylindric, dilated at apex, ca. 3 × 0.8 mm; sepals linear, ca. 6 mm. Female flowers unknown. Fruits oblong, 7–10 × 6–7 cm. Seeds elliptical, flattened. Fl. Aug.

Taiwan [Japan].

11. Trichosanthes kerrii Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1914: 7. 1914 & Fl. Siam. Enum. 1(4): 753. 1931.

长果栝楼  chang guo gua lou

Trichosanthes tomentosa Chakravarty.

Stems robust, brownish-hirsute. Petiole 2–5 cm, tomentose; leaf blade ovate-cordate, 10–20 × 7–17 cm, papery, entire, adaxially deep green, sparsely and shortly hirsute, abaxially densely felty-tomentose, margin entire or remotely and obscurely serrate, apex long acuminate. Male peduncle ca. 2.5 cm; pedicel ca. 8 mm, tomentose; bracts linear, ca. 1.5 × 0.25 cm; calyx tube cylindric, 2–3.5 × ca. 0.8 cm; sepals oblanceolate, ca. 1.8 × 0.45 cm, tomentose, apex acute. Female peduncle robust, 2.5–3.5 cm, tomentose, one-flowered; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 1 cm, tomentose; sepals narrowly triangular, ca. 1 cm, apex long acuminate; ovary oblong, 1.5–2 × ca. 1 cm, densely and softly tomentose. Fruiting peduncle robust, 2.5–5.5 cm, tomentose, fruit oblong, 8–10 cm × 4.5–6.5 cm. Seeds subovate, compressed, 10–13 × 7–8 mm, base rounded or truncate, margin undulate and serrate, one-nerved at middle, apex obtuse.

Forests along valleys or beside streams; 700–1900 m. SW Guangxi, SW Yunnan [India, Thailand].

12. Trichosanthes sericeifolia C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 346. 1980.

丝毛栝楼  si mao gua lou

Stems angular-striate, sparsely sericeous. Petiole slender, 3.5–7 cm, white-sericeous; leaf blade ovate-cordate, 8–17 × 6–10 cm, papery, deeply 3–5-lobed; middle lobes narrowly lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, adaxially deep green, sparsely sericeous, abaxially densely white-sericeous, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Male flowers solitary; pedicle and flowering bud densely white-sericeous, mature flowers unknown. Female flowers solitary; pedicle 1.5–2.5 cm, densely white-sericeous; calyx tube tubular, ca. 1 × 0.4 cm, densely white-sericeous; sepals linear-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 2 mm, entire; ovary oblong, ca. 1.5 × 0.7 mm, densely white-sericeous. Fruit unknown. Fl. Apr–Jul.

* Brushwoods on mountain slopes or beside rivers; 700–1500 m. W Guangxi, SW Guizhou, SE Yunnan.

13. Trichosanthes reticulinervis C. Y. Wu ex S. K. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 5(2): 114. 1985.

两广栝楼  liang guang gua lou

Stems moderately robust, grooved, striate, glabrous or pubescent at nodes. Petiole 4–6 cm, striate, densely pubescent; leaf blade ovate to broadly ovate-cordate, 1.5–2 × 1–1.8 cm, leathery, unlobed, pubescent on nerves on both surfaces, margin remotely denticulate, apex acuminate. Male flowers in racemes or narrow panicles, 5–6 cm; pedicels ca. 6 mm, densely chocolate-pubescent; bracts lanceolate, ca. 1.5 cm, densely chocolate-villous; calyx tube campanulate, ca. 1.5 × 1.5 cm, densely villous; sepals triangular-ovate, ca. 1 × 0.6 cm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel stout, ca. 2 cm, densely villous; calyx tube ca. 1 × 0.7 cm; sepals linear, ca. 1.2 × 0.2–0.3 cm, entire, densely villous; ovary ovate ca. 2.5 × 2 cm. Fruiting peduncle ca. 2.5 cm, stout, densely villous; fruit ovate, ca. 6 × 5 cm, densely villous. Seeds ovate, compressed, ca. 1.1 × 0.7 cm, pale brown, apex obtuse, base rounded. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jul–Aug.

* Low altitude forests; 200–400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi.

14. Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 29: 603. 1901.

中华栝楼  zhong hua gua lou

Stems grooved, sparsely puberulent. Petiole 2.5–4 cm, striate, sparsely puberulent; leaf blade broadly ovate to suborbicular, (6–)8–12(–20) × (5–)7–11(–16) cm, papery, deeply 3–7-lobed, usually deeply 5-lobed near to base; lobes linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblanceolate, adaxially deep green, shortly hairy, abaxially pale green, glabrous, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Male raceme solitary or with one 1-flowered peduncle in axillary pairs; peduncle 8–10 cm; pedicels up to ca. 7 cm; bracts rhombic-obovate, 6–14 × 5–11 mm, margin irregularly sinuate-dentate, base attenuate, puberulent; calyx tube narrowly cylindric, dilated at apex, 2.5–3(–3.5) cm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 5–8 cm, puberulent; calyx tube cylindric, 20–25 × 5–8 mm; ovary oblong, 10–20 × 5–10 mm, puberulent. Fruiting peduncle 4.5–8 cm; fruit globose or oblong, 8–16 × 7–10 cm, smooth, glabrous, orange-yellow. Seeds ovate-oblong, compressed, 1.5–2.2 × 0.8–1.4 cm, brown, marginate. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Oct.

* Dense forests along valleys, brushwoods or grasslands on mountain slopes; 400–1900 m. S Anhui, N Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, NE Jiangxi, E and W Sichuan, Yunnan.

The roots and fruits are used medicinally as “Tian-hua-fen” and “Gua-luo.”

1a. Leaf blade deeply 5-lobed ...................................................................  14d. var. huangshanensis

1b. Leaf blade deeply 3–7-lobed.

2a. Tendrils 4–6-fid ...................................................................................  14c. var. multicirrata

2b. Tendrils 2–3-fid.

3a. Fruit small, 8–11 × 7–10 cm; seeds 1.5–1.8 × 0.8–0.9 cm ................  14a. var. rosthornii

3b. Fruit large, 12–16 × 6.5–8.5 cm; seeds 2–2.2 × 1.2–1.4 cm ...............  14b. var. scabrella

14a. Trichosanthes rosthornii var. rosthornii

中华栝楼(原变种)  zhong hua gua lou (yuan bian zhong)

Trichosanthes uniflora Hao; T. crenulata C. Y. Cheng & Yueh; T. guizhouensis C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Leaf blade deeply 3–7-lobed. Fruit 8–11 × 7–10 cm. Seeds 1.5–1.8 × 0.8–0.9 cm.

* Guizhou, E Sichuan, Yunnan.

14b. Trichosanthes rosthornii var. scabrella (Yueh & D. F. Gao) S. K. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(1): 244.

糙籽栝楼  zao zi gua lou

Trichosanthes scabrella Yueh & D. F. Gao, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 345. 1980.

Fruit large, 12–16 × 6.5–8.5 cm. Seeds 20–22 × 12–14 mm, slightly rugose on both surfaces.

* W Sichuan.

14c. Trichosanthes rosthornii var. multicirrata (C. Y. Cheng & Yueh) S. K. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(1): 244. 1986.

多卷须栝楼  duo juan xu gua lou

Trichosanthes multicirrata C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12(3): 430. 1974; T. damiaoshanensis C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Leaf blade thick; lobes broad. Tendrils 4–6-fid, villous. Calyx tube ca. 2 × 1.3 cm, densely pubescent.

* Forests, brushwoods, grasslands; 600–1500 m. N Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan.

14d. Trichosanthes rosthornii var. huangshanensis S. K. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 5(2): 116. 1985.

黄山栝楼  huang shan gua lou

Leaf blade deeply 5-lobed near to base; lobes further dissected, lobules 1–2, linear.

* S Anhui, NE Jiangxi.

15. Trichosanthes wallichiana (Seringe) Wight, Madras J. Lit. Sci. 12: 52. 1840.

薄叶栝楼  bo ye gua lou

Involucraria wallichiana Seringe, Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Genève 3(1): 5. 1825; Trichosanthes grandibracteata Kurz; T. palmata Roxburgh. var. scotantus C. B. Clarke.

Stems branched, angular-grooved, glabrous. Petiole robust, 6–10 cm, striate, puberulent; leaf blade suborbicular, 18–20 cm × 18–20 cm, membranous or papery, deeply (nearly to base) palmately 5–7-lobed; lobes oblong, adaxially glandular-punctate and very rough, abaxially glabrous or slightly hairy on nerves, margin denticulate or irregularly crenate-dentate, apex acute or acuminate. Male raceme 6–15-flowered at apex; peduncle stout, grooved, puberulent, 10–20(–30) cm; bracts broadly ovate, 2–3 cm, crenulate, slightly puberulent, multinerved; calyx tube ca. 5 × 1 cm; sepals 1.5 × ca. 0.4 cm, entire. Female flowers solitary; ovary ovate-oblong, glabrous. Fruit ovate or oblong, 5–10 × ca. 7 cm, with an acute or subacute apex. Seeds oblong, 1.5–1.8 × 0.8–1.2 cm, brown. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Oct–Nov.

Forests along valleys; 900–2200 m. Xizang, S Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Nepal].

16. Trichosanthes fissibracteata C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12(4): 438. 1974.

裂苞栝楼  lie bao gua lou

Petiole 6–10 cm, glabrous, striate; leaf blade orbicular-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 11–25 × 9.5–20 cm, membranous to papery, unlobed or irregularly shortly 2–3-lobed or deeply 2–3-lobed, rarely 5-lobed; lobes broadly triangular-ovate, rarely ovate-oblong, adaxially pale green, glabrous, with large disc glands at base, margin nearly entire or remotely minutely denticulate, apex acuminate. Male raceme 9–20 cm; peduncle glabrous or very shortly puberulent, 2–5-flowered at apex; bracts ovate, 2.5–3 × 1.5–2 cm, cucullate, margin lobulate with 1.5–2 cm linear-lanceolate lobes; calyx tube ca. 3.5 cm; sepals lanceolate, ca. 10 × 3–4 cm, entire or serrate. Female flowers unknown. Fruit subglobose, ca. 6 cm. Seeds oblong, 1.1–1.5 × 0.5–0.6 cm, brown, apex truncate or obtuse, base retuse. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Nov.

* Dense forests along valleys, brushwoods on mountain slopes; 1100–1300(–1500) m. SW Guangxi, SE Yunnan.

17. Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogniaux in A. Candolle & C. Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 377. 1881.

马干铃栝楼  ma gan ling gua lou

Involucraria lepiniana Naudin in Huber, Cat. 2. 1868; T. sp. nov. III C. Jeffrey.

Stem robust, branched, glabrous. Petiole 4–7 cm, striate, glabrous or glandular-punctate; leaf blade suborbicular, 9–17(–20) cm, shortly 3–5-lobed up to middle, adaxially deep green, rough, margin denticulate, apex acute or shortly acuminate. Male raceme 13–17 cm; peduncle robust, striate, glabrous; pedicels ca. 5 mm; bracts suborbicular, ca. 4 cm, cucullate, margin lacerate; calyx tube attenuate from apex towards base, ca. 7 cm, puberulent; sepals narrowly ovate, ca. 1.5 × 0.4 cm, margin laciniate. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 2.5–3 cm, glabrous, striate; bracts ovate, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm, entire; calyx tube ca. 4 cm; ovary ovate, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm, glabrous. Fruit ovoid, ca. 9 cm in diam., smooth, red. Seeds broadly ovate, ca. 1.5 × 0.8–1 cm, brown, apex truncate, base obtuse or attenuate. Fl. May–Jul, fr. Aug–Nov.

Evergreen broad-leaved forests along valleys, open forests and brushwoods on mountain slopes; 700–1200 m. SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan [Bhutan, India].

18. Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Gray in Bot. Un. St. Expl. Exped. 1: 645. 1854.

五角栝楼  wu jiao gua lou

Petiole 5–11 cm, striate, punctate; leaf blade quinquangular or broadly ovate, 13–22 × 12–20 cm, membranous, shortly 5-lobed or up to middle; lobes broadly triangular or ovate-triangular, adaxially deep green, glandular-punctate and rough, abaxially glabrous; apex long acuminate, margin denticulate. Flowers monoecious. Male raceme 17–30 cm; peduncle glabrous, striate, 8–10-flowered; bracts ovate, 3.5–4.3 × ca. 2.5 cm, with two rows of brownish puncta beside main vein, entire, apex long acuminate; sepals linear-lanceolate, 2–3 × 0.2–0.3 cm, margin sharply 2–3-lobed, apex long acuminate. Female flowers not seen. Fruiting peduncle 2–3 cm, glabrous; fruit globose, 5–7 cm, glabrous, red. Seeds triangular-ovate, 1–1.2 × 0.4–0.5 cm, brown, base attenuate, apex triangular. Fl. Jun–Oct, fr. Sep–Oct.

Low altitude thickets, roadsides; 500–900 m. Taiwan, S Yunnan [Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

19. Trichosanthes cordata Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 3: 703. 1832.

心叶栝楼  xin ye gua lou

Involucraria cordata (Roxburgh) Roemer; Trichosanthe microsiphon Kurz.

Stem robust, angular, grooved, glabrous or sparsely puberulent. Petiole 14–17 cm, striate, sparsely puberulent; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 8–22 × 7–23 cm, papery, unlobed or rarely angular-sublobate, scattered shortly hirsute on both surfaces, margin minutely denticulate, apex acute or shortly acuminate. Male raceme 4–8-flowered; peduncle 12–20 cm, stout, striate, sparsely puberulent; pedicels 1–2 mm, thick; bracts oblong, ca. 4 × 1–1.5 cm, entire, shortly hirsute; calyx tube attenuate from apex towards base, ca. 4.5 × 0.7 cm; sepals linear-lanceolate, ca. 1.5 cm, erect or flexuous. Female flower solitary; pedicel ca. 1 cm; ovary oblong, slightly puberulent. Fruit globose, smooth, red. Seeds subquadrangular, 1–1.2 × 0.4–0.5 cm. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Aug.

Evergreen broad-leaved forests; ca. 1000 m. SE Xizang [India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore].

20. Trichosanthes villosa Blume, Bijdr. 934. 1826.

密毛栝楼  mi mao gua lou

Stems robust, long, densely brownish-villous; petiole 10–12 cm, densely brownish-villous; leaf blade broadly ovate, 11–18 × 11–17 cm, papery, entire or tricuspidate, adaxially deep green, densely and shortly brownish-villous, abaxially densely villous-hirsute, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Male raceme 10–20 cm, 15–20-flowered; peduncle densely brownish-villous; bracts oblong, 3–5 × 2–4 cm, margin irregularly dentate, brownish-villous on both surfaces; calyx tube 2.5–3 × 0.6–1.2 cm, densely brownish-villous; sepals linear-lanceolate, ca. 2 × 0.3–0.4 cm, entire, villous on both surfaces, apex long acuminate. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 1.5 cm, densely long villous; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 1.5 × 0.7 cm; ovary oblong, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm, densely villous. Fruit subglobose, brown-red, 8–13 cm. Seeds oblong or obovate-triangular, 1.7–2.8 × 1–1.7 cm, apex truncate, base obtuse, one-nerved at middle. Fl. Dec–next Jul, fr. Sep–Nov.

Brushwoods or open forests on mountain slopes; 300–1000 m. S and SW Guangxi, S Yunnan [Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam].

21. Trichosanthes laceribractea Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 117. 1911.

长萼栝楼  chang e gua lou

Trichosanthes hupehensis C. Y. Cheng & Yueh; T. koshunensis Hayata; T. punctata Hayata; T. schizostroma Hayata; T. shikokiana Makino; T. sinopunctata C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Stems angular, grooved, subglabrous. Petiole 1.5–9 cm, striate, hispidulous or white-punctate; leaf blade suborbicular or broadly ovate, 5–16(–19) × 4–15(–18) cm, papery, shortly 3–7-lobed or nearly to base; lobes triangular, ovate or rhombic-obovate, adaxially deep green, densely hispidulous or white-punctate, abaxially pale green, hispidulous on nerves, margin remotely mucronate-serrate, apex acuminate. Male peduncle robust, 10–23 cm, puberulent or sparsely hispidulous; bracts broadly ovate, 2.5–4 × 2.5–4, cucullate, margin lacerate; calyx tube narrowly tubular, ca. 5 cm; sepals ovate, 1–1.3 × ca. 0.7 cm, erect, apex acuminate, margin laciniate. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 1.5–2 cm, puberulent; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 4 × 5 cm; sepals linear, 1–1.3 cm, entire; ovary ovate, ca. 1 × 0.7 cm, smooth. Fruit globose to ovate-globose, 5–8 cm in diam. Seeds oblong, 1–1.4 × 0.5–0.8 cm, rounded or truncate at both ends. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct. 2n = 22*.

* Dense forests along valleys; 200–1100 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan.

22. Trichosanthes dunniana H. Léveillé in Fedde, Rep. Sp. Nov. 10: 148. 1911.

糙点栝楼  cao dian gua lou

Trichosanthes prazeri Kundu; T. rubriflos Thorel ex Cayla f. macrosperma C. Y. Cheng & Yueh; T. tridentata C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Stem moderately robust, grooved, punctate. Petiole slender, 4–5 cm, punctate; leaf blade suborbicular, 10–15 cm, papery, deeply palmately 5–7-lobed; lobes elliptic-obovate, cuspidate, narrowed towards base, adaxially green, glandular-punctate, abaxially pale green, glabrous, glandular-punctate on veins. Male racemes 8–10 cm; peduncle stout, striate, densely pubescent or punctate, 5–10-flowered; bracts broadly ovate, ca. 5 × 4 cm, brown, abaxially punctate, margin deeply serrate; calyx tube ca. 5 cm; sepals pale red. Female flowers unknown. Fruit oblong, ca. 8 × 6 cm, smooth, with acute apex. Seeds ovate, turgid, ca. 1.2 × 0.8 cm. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Dense forests along valleys or brushwoods; 900–1900 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan.

23. Trichosanthes rubriflos Thorel ex Cayla, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 14: 170. 1908.

红花栝楼  hong hua gua lou

Trichosanthes majuscula (C. B. Clarke) Kundu; T. multiloba Miquel var. majuscula C. B. Clarke.

Stems robust, branched, grooved, pubescent. Petiole 5–12(–18) cm, striate, pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate or suborbicular, 7–20 cm, deeply palmately 3–7-lobed; lobes broadly ovate, oblong or lanceolate, adaxially deep green, hispidulous or glandular-punctate, abaxially pubescent, apex acuminate, margin denticulate or irregularly serrate. Male raceme 10–20 cm; peduncle grooved, puberulent, (6–)11–14-flowered; bracts broadly ovate or obovate-rhombic, 2.5–4 × ca. 3 cm, red, puberulent, margin lacerate; calyx tube 4–6 cm, red; sepals linear-lanceolate, 1.2–1.6 × 0.3–0.5 cm, margin entire or rarely denticulate, apex acuminate; corolla red or pale red. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 2 cm, densely pubescent; calyx tube ca. 3 cm; ovary ovate, ca. 2 × 1 cm. Fruiting peduncle robust, ca. 3 cm, striate, pubescent; fruits broadly ovate or globose, 7–9.5 × 5.5–8 cm, red, smooth, with acute apex. Seeds oblong, ca. 1.2 × 0.4–0.5 cm, yellow-brown; apex attenuate, base truncate. Fl. May–Nov, fr. Aug–Dec.

Dense forests along valleys, open forests or brushwoods on mountain slopes; (100–)400–1600 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Xizang [NE India, Myanmar, Thailand].

24. Trichosanthes subrosea C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 349. 1980.

粉花栝楼  fen hua gua lou

Stem glabrous, grooved. Petiole 4–6.5(–8) cm, striate, glabrous; leaf blade quinquangular-cordate or suborbicular, 11–15 cm, thinly papery, shortly 5–7-lobed or to middle; central lobe triangular or subrhombic, adaxially deep green, hispidulous or glandular-punctate, abaxially pale green, glabrous, apex long acute, margin triangular-dentate. Male peduncles occasionally in pairs, one early 1-flowered and other bearing a raceme; pedicel ca. 8 cm, striate, glabrous; bract ovate, 2.5–3 cm, cucullate, apex obtuse, subentire, glabrous; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 1.5–2 cm, entire; corolla pale red. Female flowers unknown. Fruiting peduncle stout, 2–2.5 cm; fruit subglobose, 7–9 × 5–7.5 cm, orange-red, smooth. Seeds oblong, apex triangular, base truncate. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.

Forests; ca. 1700 m. S Guangxi, SW Yunnan [Myanmar].

25. Trichosanthes rugatisemina C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12(4): 440. 1974.

皱籽栝楼  zhou zi gua lou

Stem grooved, densely villous. Petiole 3.5–5.5 cm, densely villous; leaf blade suborbicular, 10–15 cm, papery, 3–5-lobed up to middle; lobes ovate or obovate-elliptic, pubescent on both surfaces, apex acuminate, margin triangular-denticulate. Male racemes 3–6 cm, densely brown villous, 3–5-flowered at apex; bracts ovate, 2.5–3.5 × 2–3 cm, cucullate, apex acuminate; calyx tube ca. 2.5 cm; sepals ovate, ca. 15 mm, margin dentate; corolla red. Female flowers solitary; calyx tube cylindric, ca. 3 cm; sepals linear, pubescent; ovary oblong, ca. 1.5 × 0.5 cm. Fruiting peduncle ca. 2 cm; fruit ovoid, 8–9.5 × 5–6 cm, orange-yellow, attenuate at apex. Seeds ovate-oblong, ca. 1.5 × 0.7 cm, gray-green, truncate at both ends.

* Brushwoods. SE and SW Yunnan.

26. Trichosanthes tricuspidata Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 589. 1790.

三尖栝楼  san jian gua lou

Stems robust, branched, angular-striate, grooved, glabrous. Petiole ca. 5 cm, striate, glabrous, punctate; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 12–13 × 12–13 cm, thinly leathery, shortly 3-lobed; lobes ovate-triangular, adaxially deep green, hispidulous or punctate, abaxially glabrous, margin undulate-denticulate, apex acute or shortly acuminate. Male raceme 12–15 cm; peduncle stout, striate and grooved, glabrous; pedicel short; bracts obovate-oblong, ca. 4 × 2–2.5 cm, cucullate, white squamose or pubescent on both surfaces, margin dentate, apex obtuse. Calyx tube narrowly funnel-form, ca. 6 × 1 cm; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ca. 1 × 0.3 cm. Female flowers and fruit not seen.

Brushwoods on mountain slopes; ca. 900 m. Guizhou [Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand].

27. Trichosanthes pedata Merrill & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 20. 1934.

趾叶栝楼  zhi ye gua lou

Trichosanthes pedata Merrill & Chun var. yunnanensis C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Stem slender, striate, grooved, glabrous or pubescent at nodes. Leaves 3–5-foliolate. Petiole 2.5–6 cm; leaf blade membranous, leaflets lanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 9–12 × 2.5–3.5 cm, adaxially hispidulous or white-punctate, abaxially pale green, glabrous; base acuminate, margin remotely denticulate; petiolule 2–5(–11) mm. Male raceme 14–19 cm; peduncle and pedicels brown-pubescent; bracts obovate or rhombic-ovate, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.8 cm, pubescent, margin entire or dentate, apex acuminate. Female flowers solitary. Calyx tube cylindric, ca. 3 × 5 mm; ovary ovate, ca. 1.5 × 0.8 cm, glabrous. Fruiting peduncle 1(–3) cm; fruit globose, 5–6 cm, orange-yellow, smooth. Seeds ovate, tumid, 1–1.2 × ca. 0.8 cm, brown, apex round, base triangular. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Jul–Dec. 2n = 22.

Open forests along valleys, brushwoods; 200–1500 m. Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Yunnan [Vietnam].

28. Trichosanthes quinquefolia C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 351. 1980.

木基栝楼  mu ji gua lou

Stems striate, glabrous or pubescent at nodes. Leaves 3–5-foliolate. Petiole 3–4 cm, pubescent; median leaflet lanceolate, 15–23 × 2–4 cm, membranous or thinly papery, margin entire, apex acuminate; middle leaflet base cuneate, adaxially hispidulous or white punctate, abaxially pale green, glabrous, leaflets sessile. Male raceme 11–26 cm; peduncle striate, pubescent, 5–15-flowered; bracts rhombic, 7–10 × ca. 5 mm, margin crenate, apex obtuse, pubescent; calyx tube narrowly funnel-form, ca. 3 × 0.7 cm, densely pubescent; sepals linear-lanceolate, (3–)5–8 × ca. 3 mm, pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate. Female flowers unknown. Fruit oblong, ca. 6 × 4 cm, smooth, with acute apex. Seeds ovate-oblong, tumid, 12–15 × 8–10 mm, brown, base round. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Oct–Nov.

* Open forests; 900–1400 m. S Yunnan.

29. Trichosanthes ovigera Blume, Bijdr. 934. 1826.

全缘栝楼  quan yuan gua lou

Trichosanthes chingiana Handel-Mazzetti; T. himalensis C. B. Clarke; T. himalensis var. indivisa Chakravarty; T. ovigera var. sikkimensis Kundu.

Stems slender, grooved, pubescent. Petiole 4–12 cm, striate, densely pubescent; leaf blade ovate-cordate to suborbicular, 7–19 × 7–8 cm, papery, unlobed or very shortly 3-lobed or 3–5-lobed to middle or to base; median lobe ovate, oblong or obovate-oblong, adaxially glabrous or very shortly puberulent, abaxially pubescent, apex acuminate, margin distantly denticulate or dentate. Male peduncle 10–26 cm, striate, densely pubescent; bracts lanceolate or oblanceolate, ca. 1.6 × 0.5–0.6 cm, apex acuminate, attenuate to base, margin triangular-dentate; calyx tube subcylindric, slightly dilated at apex, ca. 5 mm; sepals triangular-ovate, 7–10 × 2–3 mm, entire. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 1–1.3 cm, striate, densely pubescent; calyx tube cylindric, 2–5 × 0.2–0.3 cm, glabrous or pubescent; ovary ovate, 1–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 cm. Fruit ovoid or oblong, 5–7 × 2.5–4 cm, smooth, apex acuminate, beaked, base round. Seeds subquadrangular, 7–9 × 7–8 mm; longitudinally surrounded by two thick ridges, thick near middle; 3-loculed with two lateral locules empty. Fl. May–Sep, fr. Sep–Dec. 2n = 22.

Brushwoods along valleys, open forests on mountain slopes; 700–2500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam].

The junior author (C. J.) would treat the following 3 species as synonyms of Trichosanthes ovigera.

30. Trichosanthes baviensis Gagnepain, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 24: 379. 1918.

短序栝楼  duan xu gua lou

Stems slender, grooved, glabrous or pubescent. Petiole slender, 4–9 cm, striate, densely pubescent; leaf blade ovate, 5–20 × 5–13 cm, thinly membranous, unlobed, adaxially deep green, puberulent, abaxially pale green, pubescent, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Male flowers in corymb, ca. 2 cm; pedicel 1–1.5 cm, pubescent; bracts absent; calyx tube dilated at apex, ca. 2 cm, pubescent; sepals narrowly triangular, ca. 3 mm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 7 mm, pubescent; ovary oblong, 8–10 mm, densely pubescent. Fruit ovoid, 3.5–5 × ca. 3.5 cm, smooth, glabrous, beaked. Seeds unknown. Fl. Apr–May, fr. May–Sep.

* Evergreen broad-leaved forests or brushwoods; 600–1500 m. Guangxi, SW Guizhou, S and SE Yunnan.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Trichosanthes ovigera.

31. Trichosanthes trichocarpa C. Y. Wu ex C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(3): 340. 1900.

杏籽栝楼  xing zi gua lou

Stems slender, grooved, puberulent. Petiole slender, 7–8 cm, striate, puberulent; leaf blade broadly cordate, 10–16 × 7–13 cm, papery, unlobed or irregularly shortly 3-lobed; lobes triangular, adaxially deep green, sparsely hairy, abaxially pale green, pubescent, margin smooth or denticulate, apex acuminate to long acuminate. Flowers unknown. Fruiting peduncle 3–4 cm, striate, puberulent; fruit ovate-oblong or oblong, 7–9 × 7–8 cm, yellow or orange-red, densely white-villous, beaked. Seeds obovate-triangular, 1–1.1 × ca. 1 cm; 3-loculed with two lateral locules narrow. Fr. Oct–Nov.

* Forests on mountain slopes, roadsides; 2100–2400 m. S and SW Yunnan.

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this taxon as a synonym of Trichosanthes ovigera.

32. Trichosanthes cucumeroides (Seringe) Maximowicz in Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 172. 1873.

王瓜  wang gua

Stems slender, branched, grooved, pubescent. Petiole 3–10 cm, striate, densely pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate or orbicular, 5–13(–19) × 5–12(–18) cm, papery, usually shortly 3–5-lobed, sometimes unlobed; lobes triangular, ovate to obovate-oblong, adaxially deep green, tomentose; abaxially pale green, densely shortly pubescent, margin denticulate or serrate, apex obtuse or acuminate. Male peduncle 5–10 cm, striate, pubescent; bracts linear-lanceolate, 2–3 mm, entire, pubescent; calyx tube 6–7 cm, pubescent; sepals linear-lanceolate, 3–6 × ca. 1.5 mm, acuminate, entire. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 0.5–1 cm; ovary oblong, densely pubescent. Fruiting peduncle 5–20 mm, pubescent; fruit ovoid, ovoid-oblong or globose, 6–7 × 4–5.5 cm, orange-red, smooth, beaked. Seeds oblong or triangular-ovate, 7–12 × 7–14 mm, deep brown, 3-loculed; two lateral ones large, ca. 4.5 mm in diam. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Dense forests along valleys, open forests on mountain slopes; (200–)600–1700 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Zhejiang [India, Japan].

The junior author (C. J.) would treat this species and its varieties as synonym of Trichosanthes ovigera.

1a. Fruit ovoid or ovoid-oblong.

2a. Seeds oblong, middle ridge as broad as two lateral locules .................  32a. var. cucumeroides

2b. Seeds triangular, two lateral locules narrow ...........................................  32b. var. hainanensis

1b. Fruit globose or narrowly oblong.

3a. Fruit narrowly oblong ............................................................................  32c. var. stenocarpa

3b. Fruit globose ...................................................................................  32d. var. dicoelosperma

32a. Trichosanthes cucumeroides var. cucumeroides

王瓜(原变种)  wang gua (yuan bian zhong)

Bryonia cucumeroides Seringe in Candolle, Prodr. 3: 308. 1828; Trichosanthes cavaleriei H. Léveillé; T. chinensis Seringe; T. cucumeroides (Seringe) Maximowicz var. formosana (Hayata) Kitamura; T. formosana Hayata; T. ovigera Blume subsp. cucumeroides (Seringe) C. Jeffrey.

Fruit ovoid or ovoid-oblong.

Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan].

32b. Trichosanthes cucumeroides var. hainanensis (Hayata) S. K. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 5(2): 117. 1985.

海南栝楼  hai nan gua lou

Trichosanthes hainanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 10: 8. 1921.

Seeds triangular-ovate, with middle ridge broad; two lateral locules narrow, ca. 2.5 mm in diam.

* Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan.

32c. Trichosanthes cucumeroides var. stenocarpa Honda in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 54: 223. 1941.

狭果草栝楼  xia guo cao gua lou

Trichosanthes matsudae Hayata.

Fruit narrowly oblong, 7–9 × 2.5–4 cm.

Taiwan [Japan].

32d. Trichosanthes cucumeroides var. dicoelosperma (C. B. Clarke) S. K. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res. 5(2): 118. 1985.

波叶栝楼  bo ye gua lou

Trichosanthes dicoelosperma C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 609. 1879; T. ascendens C. Y. Cheng & Yueh.

Fruit globose or oblong. Seeds compressed; two lateral locules suboblong.

Dense forests; 600–1200 m. Guangxi, SE Xizang [India].

33. Trichosanthes tetragonosperma C. Y. Cheng & Yueh, Acta Phytotax. 12(4): 425. 1974.

方籽栝楼  fang zi gua lou

Stems slender, grooved, puberulent. Petiole 2–4 cm, twisted, striate, puberulent; leaf blade narrowly ovate, 8.5–11.5 × 4–5 cm, papery, adaxially green, glabrous, abaxially glabrous or puberulent on veins, apex shortly acuminate. Flowers unknown. Fruiting peduncle slender, 3–4 cm, striate, glabrous; fruit ovoid, 6.5–11 × 4–5.5 cm, orange-yellow or red, smooth, glabrous, base round or obtuse, with acute apex. Seeds 4-angled, ca. 1 × 1–1.2 cm, deep brown, with narrow middle ridge, apex triangular, base concave, 3-loculed; two lateral locules broad, turgid and empty. Fr. Nov–Jan in next year.

* Forests; 1300–1600 m. SE Yunnan.

22. CYCLANTHERA Schrader, Ind. Sem. Hort. Goetting. 1831: 2. 1831.

小雀瓜属  xiao que gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual or perennial climbing herbs. Tendrils simple or 2- to many fid. Leaves undivided, divided or pedately 5–7-foliolate. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers: in raceme or panicle; calyx-tube cup-shaped or cupular, segments 5, subulate, sometimes almost obsolete; corolla rotate, 5-partite, segments broadly ovate-oblong, usually acute; stamen 1, filament very short, anther horizontal, 1-locular, circular. Female flowers solitary, binary or 3-fasciculate; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate, 1-locular, style very short, stigma large, orbicular. Fruit ovate or reniform, more or less fleshy, setose or setiform, rarely glabrous. Seeds few to numerous, compressed, angled, 2-lobed at apex and base.

About 20 species: tropical America; one species (cultivated) in China.

1. Cyclanthera pedata (Linnaeus) Schrader, Ind. Sem. Hort. Goett. 1831: 2. 1831.

小雀瓜  xiao que gua

Momordica pedata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753.

Annual scandent herbs. Stem robust, multibranched, glabrous. Petiole 5–15 cm; leaf blade 5-pedatisect, leaflets elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, median 7–16 × 2–6 cm, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin dentate, lateral 5–14 × 2–4 cm. Tendrils 2-fid. Male flowers in a panicle, peduncle 10–23 cm, 20–50-flowered; pedicels filiform, 4–10 mm; calyx-tube cupular, ca. 2 × 3–4 mm, segments linear, 2 mm; corolla yellow, segments ovate-triangular, 1.5–2 × 2–2.5 mm, puberulent; filaments connate, anther circular, 1.5–2 mm. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male, ovary ovate, 2–3 mm, style 0.5–0.7 mm. Fruit narrowly oblong to long elliptic, 5–7 × 2.5–3 cm, apex acuminate, setose, 8–10-seeded. Seeds black, nearly oblong, 10–12 × 7–8 mm, margin dentate. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.

Cultivated. Xizang, Yunnan [cultivated in tropics of New and Old Worlds, not known wild].

Fruits used as a vegetable.

23. SECHIUM P. Browne, Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 355. 1756.

佛手瓜属  fo shou gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Perennial scandent herbs. Roots tuberous. Tendrils 3–5-fid. Leaf blade membranous, cordate. Flowers monoecious, white. Male flowers in a raceme; calyx-tube semi-globose, segments 5; corolla rotate, 5-partite, segments ovate-lanceolate, apex acute; stamens 3, inserted on base of calyx-tube, filaments connate, anthers free, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules flexuous; pistillode absent. Female flowers solitary or binary, usually in same axil as in male, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary fusiform, 1-locular, setose, style short, stigma 5-lobed, lobes reflexed, with only one pendulous ovule. Fruit fleshy, obovate, sulcate at apex. Seed one, ovate, compressed, woody, cotyledons large.

About five species: Mexico and Central America; one species (cultivated) in China.

1. Sechium edule (Jacquin) Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. 2: 1150. 1800.

佛手瓜  fo shou gua

Sicyos edulis Jacquin, Enum. Pl. Carib. 32. 1760.

Perennial scandent herbs. Stem angular-sulcate. Petioles slender, glabrous, 5–15 cm; leaf blade membranous, nearly orbicular, apex acuminate, margin dentate, base cordate, adaxially slightly scabrous, abaxially puberulent. Male flowers: 10–30 on 8–30 cm long peduncle, pedicels 1–6 mm; calyx-tube short, segments explanate, 5–7 mm; corolla rotate, 12–17 mm, segments ovate-lanceolate. Female pedicel 1–1.5 cm; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary obovate, 5-angled, style 2–3 mm, stigma ca. 2 mm broad. Fruit pale green, obovate, slightly hispid, 8–15 cm, 6–8 cm in diam., 5-sulcate in upper part. Seed large, ca. 10 × 7 cm, ovate, compressed. Fl. Jul–Sep, fr. Aug–Oct.

Commonly cultivated in S China [native to Mexico; commonly cultivated in warm parts of the world].

Fruits used as a vegetable.

24. MELOTHRIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 35. 1753.

Chinese  pinyin

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing or trailing annual herbs; leaves petiolate, usually palmately lobed. Tendrils simple. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers shortly racemose or subcorymbose; calyx campanulate to cylindrical, 5-lobed; corolla rotate, yellow, lobes 5; stamens 3, inserted above middle of tube; anthers two 2-locular, one 1-locular; locules straight or slightly curved; connective not produced; rudimentary ovary subglobose. Female flowers solitary, usually co-axillary with male; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary globose to fusiform, 3-locular; ovules numerous, horizontal; style surrounded at base by an annular disc; stigmas 3. Fruit globose to oblong. Seeds numerous, compressed, smooth.

About 12 species: neotropics; one species (adventive) in China.

1. Melothria pendula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 35. 1753.

Chinese  pinyin

Scandent or trailing herbs. Stems slender, setulose to glabrous. Petiole slender, retrorsely hispid, 0.9–5 cm; leaf blade membranous to herbaceous, ovate to pentagonal, cordate, unlobed or shallowly to deeply 3–5-lobed, adaxially dark green, hispid or scabrid-punctate, abaxially paler, shortly hispid or scabrid, apex obtuse to acuminate, apiculate. Monoecious. Male flowers 3–12 in axillary fascicles, often with an accompanying solitary flowers; peduncle slender, 0.5–3.5 cm; pedicels slender, 1.5–9 mm; calyx campanulate, shortly pubescent to glabrous, 1.5–3.5 mm; corolla yellow, segments obovate-oblong, patent, emarginate, apiculate, 1.5–2.5 mm; stamens 3, two 2-locular, one 1-locular; filaments short, 0.5 mm; anthers ellipsoid. Female flowers solitary, often co-axillary with male; pedicel slender, 0.7–3.5 cm; calyx and corolla as in male. Fruit subglobose to ellipsoid, 0.8–1.9 cm, 0.8–1.2 cm in diameter, black when ripe. Seeds ovate, compressed, pallid, minutely fimbrillate, 4–5 mm, 2–2.8 mm wide, 0.6–0.9 mm thick. Fl. and fr. Jan–Dec.

Ruderal weed; low elevations. Taiwan [native to the Americas (Texas to Argentina); adventive in SE Asia].

25. ZEHNERIA Endlicher, Prodr. Fl. Norfolk Isl. 69. 1833.

儿属  ma jiao er shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Climbing or trailing, annual or perennial herbs; leaves petiolate, entire or 3–5-lobed or-partite. Tendrils slender, simple or rarely 2-fid. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers in a raceme-cyme or subumbellate; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed; corolla campanulate, white or yellow-white, segments 5; stamens 3, inserted at bottom of tube; filaments longer than anther, anthers all 2-locular or two 2-locular and one 1-locular, oblong or ovate-oblong, locules straight or slightly curved, connective not produced; rudimentary ovary variable in form. Female flowers solitary or a few in a cyme; calyx and corolla as in male, ovary ovoid or ellipsoid, 3-locular, ovules numerous, horizontal, style surrounded at base by an annular disk, stigmas 3. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, ovate, compressed, not sculptured.

About 25 species: Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia; two species in China.

1a.       Flowers monoecious; fruit globose or ovate, red ...............................................  1. Z. bodinieri

1b.       Flowers dioecious; fruit oblong, purplish black ...............................................  2. Z. guamensis

1. Zehneria bodinieri (H. Léveillé) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 32: 17. 2004.

钮子瓜  niu zi gua

Melothria bodinieri H. Léveillé, Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 122. 1914–1915; M. perpusilla var. subtruncata Cogniaux.

Scandent herb. Stem and branches slender, sulcate-angular, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Petioles slender, 2–5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate or rarely triangular-ovate, 4–12 × 3–10 cm, adaxially scabrous, abaxially subglabrous, apex acute or short-acuminate, basal sinus semicircular, rarely subtruncate, margin undulate-denticulate, undivided or sometimes shortly 3–5-lobed. Tendrils filiform, simple, glabrous. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers often 3–9 in a subcapitate or cymose inflorescence, peduncle slender, 1–4 cm, glabrous; pedicels 1–4 mm; calyx-tube campanulate, 2–3 mm, 1–2 mm in diam., glabrous or puberulent, segments narrowly triangular, 0.5 mm; corolla white, segments ovate or ovate-oblong, 2–2.5 mm, apex subacute, abaxially puberulent; stamens 3, two 2-locular, one 1-locular, sometimes all 2-locular, inserted at base of calyx-tube, filaments ca. 2 mm, puberulent, anthers ovate, 0.6–0.7 mm. Female flowers: solitary, rarely a few in an umbel; ovary ovate. Fruit-pedicel slender, glabrous, 0.5–1 cm; fruits globose, 1–1.4 cm in diam., baccate, smooth, red when ripe. Seeds ovate-oblong, compressed, smooth, marginate, 5 × 3–3.5 mm. Fl. Apr–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Forest edges or roadsides on mountain slopes; 500–1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

2. Zehneria guamensis (Merrill) Fosberg, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45: 15. 1980.

台湾马  tai wan ma jiao er

Melothria guamensis Merrill, Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 9: 151. 1914; M. kelungensis (Hayata) Hayata ex Makino & Nemoto; M. liukiuensis Nakai; Zehneria kelungensis Hayata; Z. liukiuensis (Nakai) E. H. Walker.

Scandent herb. Stems and branches slender, elongate, sulcate-angular, glabrous or rarely puberulent. Tendrils filiform, simple. Petioles slender, 1.5–5 cm; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate, 4–8 × 4–8 cm, adaxially deep green, scabrous, abaxially pale green, apex acute and shortly mucronate or shortly acuminate, basal sinus semicircular, rarely hastate, undivided or somewhat 3–5-lobed, margin irregularly denticulate or crenate-dentate. Flowers dioecious. Male peduncle slender, 1.5–5 cm, apex 10–30-flowered; pedicels spreading, 3–6 mm; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, base acute, ca. 3 mm, segments subulate, 0.5 mm; corolla pale yellow, puberulent, segments ovate, acute, 2.5 mm, 3-nerved; stamens 3, filaments short, ca. 1 mm, puberulent, anthers ovate, 0.8–1 mm. Female flowers solitary or sometimes in few-flowered fascicled; pedicels 1–1.5 cm; ovary oblong. Fruits baccate, ovate-oblong, obtuse at both ends, smooth, glabrous, 1–1.5(–3) cm, 7–10 mm in diam., purplish black when ripe. Seeds gray-white, ovate-oblong, base slightly attenuate, marginate, 2–3 × ca. 2 mm. Fl. and fr. Mar–Dec.

Forests; 400–1400 m. Guangdong, Taiwan, Yunnan [Guam, Japan].

Note: de Wilde and Duyfjes (Blumea 51: 75. 2006) record Zehneria repanda (Blume) C. Simmons from Taiwan, on the basis of a single collection (van Steenis 20752) which we have not seen. It differs from Z. guamensis in its smaller, 0.5–0.8(–1) cm in diam., globose fruit. It is said to be a montane species of forest edges and scrub, at 1400–2700 m.

26. CUCUMIS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 1011. 1753.

黄瓜属  huang gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual scandent or creeping herbs. Stem and branches scabrous, hispid. Tendrils slender, simple. Leaf blade almost orbicular, reniform or cordate-ovate, undivided or palmately 3–7-lobed. Monoecious, rarely dioecious or hermaphrodite. Male flowers: fascicled or solitary; calyx-tube campanulate, 5-lobed, segments subulate; corolla rotate or subcampanulate, 5-lobed, segments oblong or ovate; stamens 3, free, inserted on corolla-tube, anthers oblong, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, anther-locules linear, reflexed or curved, connective produced; rudimentary ovary glandular. Female flowers solitary or fascicled; calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, subulate; ovary cylindric, style short, stigmas 3–5; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits polymorphic, fleshy, indehiscent, smooth or verrucose. Seeds numerous, compressed, emarginate.

About 32 species: tropical and temperate regions, most species in Africa; three species in China.

1a.       Fruit smooth; ovary hairy .......................................................................................  1. C. melo

1b.       Fruit and ovary muriculate or verrucose, not hairy.

2a.       Fruits large, oblong or cylindric, over 5 cm .......................................................  2. C. sativus

2b.       Fruits small, oblong, less than 5 cm ...................................................................  3. C. hystrix

1. Cucumis melo Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1011. 1753.

甜瓜  tian gua

Annual creeping herbs. Stems and branches scabrous, puberulent or hispid. Tendrils filiform, puberulent. Petioles 7–12 cm, setose; leaf-blade papery, suborbicular or reniform, 6–15 × 6–15 cm, adaxially scabrous, abaxially hispid, undivided or 3–7-lobed, dentate, sinus truncate or rounded. Flowers monoecious or bisexual. Male flowers 1–2-several, fasciculate; pedicels filiform, 0.5–4 cm, pubescent; calyx-tube narrowly campanulate, densely hispidulous to white-villous, 3–8 mm, segments subulate or linear, 2–4 × 0.4–1.2 mm; corolla yellow, tube 1–2 mm, segments ovate-oblong to broadly ovate or obovate, 3–24 × 2.5–20 mm, obtuse; stamens 3; anther-locules flexuous. Female flowers solitary; ovary ellipsoid or fusiform, densely white-lanate, villous or puberulent, 4–11 mm, 2–5 mm in diam.; style 1–2 mm; stigmas 3, 2–2.5 mm. Fruit very variable in size, shape, color, odor and taste. Seeds numerous, yellow-white, ovate-oblong, 4–8 × 2.4–4 mm, apex acute, base rounded, smooth, emarginate. Fl. and fr. May–Sep.

Cultivated throughout China [native to Old World tropics and subtropics; widely cultivated in tropical and temperate countries; adventive in New World tropics].

1a. Ovary densely villous or white-lanate, with spreading hairs ....................................  1a. subsp. melo

1b. Ovary very shortly and densely puberulent, hairs appressed .............................  1b. subsp. agrestis

1a. Cucumis melo subsp. melo

甜瓜  tian gua

Cucumis bisexualis A. M. Lu & G. C. Wang ex Lu & Zhi Y. Zhang, Bull. Bot. Res. NE Inst. 4(2): 126, 1984.

Ovary and young fruit pilose or lanate, with spreading hairs; fruits in cultivated forms fragrant and sweet.

Farmlands, roadsides. Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, Xinjiang [native to Old World tropics and subtropics; widely cultivated in tropical and temperate countries; adventive in New World tropics].

Also cultivated throughout China and other tropical and temperate countries.

Fruits used as a refreshing dessert in summer; plants used in medicine.

1b. Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo in Zhukovskii, Zemledel’ch. Turtsiya 534. 1933.

甜瓜  tian gua cai gua

Cucumis melo Linnaeus var. agrestis Naudin, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Sér. 4, 11: 73. 1859; Bryonia collosa Rottler; C. acidus Jacquin; C. callosus (Rottler) Cogniaux & Harms.

Ovary and young fruit sericeous with short appressed hairs; fruits in cultivated forms mostly not fragrant and not sweet.

Farmlands, roadsides. C and E China [throughout Old World tropics; introduced in  New World tropics].

Also commonly cultivated in China and other east and south-east Asian countries, rarely elsewhere.

Fruits used as a vegetable (菜瓜 cai gua).

The forms cultivated in China belong to the ‘conomon’ cultivar group (Cucumis conomon Thunberg, Nov. Acta Soc.-Sci. Upsal. 3: 208. 1780 & Fl. Jap. 324. 1784; C. melo var. conomon (Thunberg) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 16: 16. 1902).

2. Cucumis sativus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1012. 1753.

黄瓜  huang gua

Annual scandent or creeping herbs. Stem and branches angular, white-hispid. Tendrils slender, simple. Petiole 10–16(–20) cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, membranous, 7–20 × 7–20 cm, margin 3–5-angular or -lobed, lobes triangular, dentate, apex acute or acuminate, sinus half-orbicular. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers fasciculate; pedicel filiform, 5–15 mm, puberulent; calyx-tube narrowly campanulate, 8–10 mm, densely white-pubescent, segments subulate; corolla yellow-white, ca. 2 cm, segments oblong-lanceolate, acute; stamens 3, anthers 3–4 mm, connective ca. 1 mm. Female flowers solitary or fascicled, pedicels pubescent, 1–2 cm; ovary fusiform, muricate. Fruit oblong or cylindric, 10–30(–50) cm, yellow-green, muricate, usually verrucose. Seeds small, narrowly ovate, white, emarginate, both ends acute, 5–10 mm. Fl. and fr. summer.

Commonly cultivated in China [cultivated in all tropical and temperate countries].

1a. Fruit oblong or cylindric, 10–30(–50) cm, muricate, usually verrucose ..................  2a . var. sativus

1b. Fruit oblong or subglobose, 5–6 cm, smooth ..................................................  2b. var. hardwickii

2a. Cucumis sativus var. sativus

黄瓜  huang gua

Fruit oblong or cylindric, 10–30(–50) cm, muricate, usually verrucose.

Commonly cultivated in China [cultivated in all tropical and temperate countries].

2b. Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii (Royle) Gabaev, Ogurtsy 47. 1932.

西南野黄瓜  xi nan ye huang gua

Cucumis hardwickii Royle, Ill. Himal. Pl. 1: 220. 1835; C. sativus [unranked] hardwickii (Royle) Alefeld.

Fruit oblong or subglobose, 5–6 cm, smooth.

Forests, mountain slopes, thickets; 700–2000 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [NE India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].

3. Cucumis hystrix Chakravarty, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50: 896. 1952.

野黄瓜  ye huang gua

Cucumis muriculatus Chakravarty.

Annual scandent herbs. Stem and branches angular-sulcate, scabrous, white-hirsute. Tendrils filiform, simple. Petiole 6–10 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 6–13 × 6–10(–12) cm, irregularly 3–5-lobed, margin dentate, lobes triangular, apex acute, base cordate. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers: solitary or subfasciculate; calyx-tube narrowly campanulate, ca. 6 mm, segments linear, 1–2 mm; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, 5–6 × 3–4 mm; stamens 3, filaments ca. 1 mm, anthers ca. 2 mm. Female flowers: solitary, pedicels ca. 5 mm; calyx and corolla as in male; corolla 8–10 mm; ovary oblong-ovate, ca. 10 × 4 mm, densely yellow-brown hispid, style 2–3 mm, stigmas 3-lobed. Fruits oblong, 4–5 × 1.5–2.3 cm, muricate, verrucose. Seeds narrowly ovate, 3–4 mm, both surfaces smooth, emarginate. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.

Forests, thickets; 800–1500 m. W Yunnan [NE India, Myanmar, Thailand].

27. MUKIA Arnott, Madras J. Lit. Sci. 12: 50. 1840.

帽儿瓜属  mao er gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual scandent herbs, setose, slender. Petiole very short, nearly glabrous; leaf blade usually 3–7-lobed, base cordate. Tendrils undivided. Flowers monoecious, small, male flowers fascicled; female flowers usually solitary or in a few-flowered fascicle in same axil as male; calyx campanulate, segments 5, subulate; corolla rotate, segments 5; stamens 3, free, inserted on calyx-tube, filaments short, anthers oblong, two 2-locular, one 1-locular, locules erect, connective slightly produced; rudimentary ovary glandular. Calyx and corolla in female flowers as in male; staminodes absent or very small; ovary ovoid, hispid, style terete, stigma 2–3-lobed, ovules few, horizontal. Berry oblong or globose, small, indehiscent. Seeds horizontal, ovate, compressed, marginate, scabrous or smooth on both surfaces.

Three species: tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia; two species in China.

Renner et al. (B. M. C. Evol. Biol. 7: 58. 2007) presented molecular evidence to show that Mukia is an ingroup of Cucumis and should, therefore, be reduced to Cucumis.

1a.       Fruits globose, fruit coat thickening; seed surfaces scorbiculate, indistinctly marginate ......  1. M. maderaspatana

1b.       Fruits oblong, fruit coat not thickening; seed surfaces indistinctly scorbiculate, marginate  2. M. javanica

1. Mukia maderaspatana (Linnaeus) M. J. Roemer, Syn. Mon. 2: 47. 1846.

帽儿瓜  mao er gua

Cucumis maderaspatanus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 1012. 1753; Bryonia althaeoides Seringe; B. cordifolia Linnaeus; B. scabrella Linnaeus f.; Coccinia cordifolia (Linnaeus) Cogniaux; Melothria althaeoides (Seringe) Nakai; M. maderaspatana (Linnaeus) Cogniaux; Mukia althaeoides (Seringe) M. Roemer; M. scabrella (Linnaeus f.) Arnott.

Annual scandent or prostrate herbs, all parts densely yellow-brown hispid. Stems many-branched, robust, sulcate. Leaf blade somewhat rigid, ovate or ovate-cordate, usually 3–5-lobed, 5–9 × 5–9 cm, median  lobe ovate-triangular, apex slightly obtuse, base cordate, margin irregularly denticulate, both surfaces scabrous. Tendrils moderately robust, simple. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers fascicled, pedicels short or absent; calyx-tube campanulate, ca. 2 mm × 1.5 cm, segments subulate, reflexed, 1–1.5 × ca. 1 mm; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, ca. 2 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse; stamens 3, filaments short, slightly pilose, ca. 0.5 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 1 mm, ciliate, connective distinct; rudimentary ovary globose. Female flowers solitary or 3–5-fasciculate. Fruiting pedicels extremely short; fruit dark red, globose, ca. 1 cm in diam., smooth. Seeds ovate, ca. 4 × 2.5 mm, ca. 2.5 mm thick, both surfaces scorbiculate, indistinctly marginate. Fl. Apr–Aug, fr. Aug–Dec.

Rocky mountain slopes, thickets; 400–1700 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Taiwan, Yunnan [tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia, Australia].

2. Mukia javanica (Miquel) C. Jeffrey, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 37: 3, t. 3661. 1969.

帽儿瓜  mao er gua

Karivia javanica Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. 1(1): 661. 1856; Melothria assamica Chakravarty; M. assamica var. scabra Chakravarty; M. javanica (Miquel) Cogniaux.

Annual scandent herbs. Stem and branches slender, hispid. Petioles shortly hispid; leaf blade ovate-cordate, 4–6 × 3–5(–7) cm, usually 3–5-lobed, median lobe ovate-triangular, apex acuminate, margin dentate, both surfaces shortly hispid. Tendrils slender, unbranched, hispid. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers 2 to several, fasciculate, in leaf axils; pedicel very short, 2–3 mm, shortly hispid; calyx-tube cupular, 2–2.5 mm, segments erect, subulate, 1.5–2.5 mm; corolla yellow, segments ovate-oblong, 3–4 mm, apex obtuse; stamens 3, inserted on calyx-tube, filaments puberulent, 0.5 mm, anthers 1.5–2 mm, connective produced. Female flowers fasciculate in same axil of leaf as male; calyx tube cupular, segments triangular 0.5 × 0.3 mm; corolla segments ovate-oblong, ca. 2.5 × 1.5 mm 3-nerved; ovary ovate, 3–4 mm, 1.5–2.5 mm in diam., densely hispid, style ca. 1 mm, apex 3-lobed; staminodes glandular. Fruit-pedicel 2–4 mm, densely hispid; fruits oblong, red, 1–1.5 × ca. 1 cm. Seeds ovate, ca. 4 × 2.5 mm, margin prominent. Fl. Apr–Jul, fr. Jul–Oct.

Forests, grasslands on mountain slopes; 500–1200 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Java, Vietnam].

28. NEOACHMANDRA W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 12. 2006.

Chinese  pinyin

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Small trailing or climbing usually annual herbs; leaves petiolate, unlobed or lobed. Tendrils simple. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers axillary, 1 to few, long pedicellate; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed; corolla white, becoming cream with age; stamens 3, inserted on upper part of tube; filaments shorter than or as long as anthers; anthers all 2-locular; locules straight; connective often produced; rudimentary ovary globose. Female flowers 1–2, often co-axillary with male; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary globose to ellipsoid-fusiform, 3-locular; ovules numerous, horizontal; style surrounded at base by an annular disc. Fruit globose to fusiform, indehiscent. Seeds few to numerous, compressed, faces not sculptured.

About 30 species: Old World tropics; two species in China.

1a.       Fruit globose or oblong, less than 1.8 cm .........................................................  1. N. japonica

1b.       Fruit fusiform, attenuate, 3–4 cm, 1–1.5 cm wide .............................................  2. N. wallichii

1. Neoachmandra japonica (Thunberg) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 22. 2006.

  ma jiao er

Bryonia japonica Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 870. 1784; Melothria indica Loureiro; Melothria formosana Hayata; M. japonica (Thunberg) Maximowicz ex Cogniaux; M. leucocarpa var. rubella Gagnepain; Zehneria indica (Loureiro) Keraudren; Z. japonica (Thunberg) H. Y. Liu.

Scandent herbs. Stems and branches filiform, glabrous. Petiole slender, 2.5–3.5 cm, villous at first, glabrescent; leaf blade membranous, polymorphic, triangular-ovate, ovate-cordate or hastate, unlobed or 3–5-lobed, 3–5 × 2–4 cm, adaxially dark green, scabrous, abaxially pale green, glabrous; apex acute or rarely short-acuminate. Monoecious. Male flowers solitary or 2–3 in a raceme; peduncle slender, very short, glabrous; pedicels filiform, 3–5 mm, glabrous; calyx broadly campanulate, base acute or obtuse, 1.5 mm; corolla pale yellow, puberulent, segments oblong or ovate-oblong, 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm; stamens 3, two 2-locular and one 1-locular, sometimes all 2-locular, filaments short, 0.5 mm, anthers ovate-oblong or oblong, pubescent, ca. 1 mm, anther-cells curved, puberulent, connective broad, apex produced. Female flowers solitary or rarely paired in same axil as male flowers; pedicel filiform, glabrous, 1–2 cm, corolla broadly campanulate, ca. 2.5 mm in diam., segments lanceolate, apex slightly obtuse, 2.5–5 × 1–1.5 mm; ovary narrowly ovate, 3.5–4 × 1–2 mm, style short, ca. 1.5 mm, stigmas 3; staminodes glandular. Fruit oblong or attenuately ovate, both ends obtuse, 1–1.5 cm × 5–8(–10) mm, orange or red. Seeds gray-white, ovate, base attenuate, margin obscure, 3–5 × 3–4 mm. Fl. Apr–Jul, fr. Jul–Oct.

Moist places in forests, roadsides, thickets; 500–1600 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Vietnam].

2. Neoachmandra wallichii (C. B. Clarke) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 32. 2006.

锤果马  chui guo ma jiao er

Melothria wallichii C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 626. 1879; Zehneria wallichii (C. B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey.

Slender herbs. Stems and branches glabrous. Tendrils filiform, glabrous, simple. Petioles slender, sparsely white-hirsute, 3–4 cm; leaf blade membranous, ovate or triangular, 6–7 × 6–7 cm, abaxially more scabrous, white-punctate, adaxially sparsely hirsute on nerves, apex acute, base truncate or with ca. 5 mm deep sinus, margin sparsely dentate. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers: usually 7–10 in a raceme or solitary, rachis filiform, puberulent, 1–2 cm, pedicels slender, 0.5–1 cm; calyx-tube campanulate, glabrous, 1–2 mm, 2 ca. mm in diam., lobes subulate, ca. 0.5 mm; corolla yellow-white, segments explanate, ovate or oblong, apex acute or slightly obtuse; stamens 3, two 2-loculed, one 1-loculed, inserted on base of calyx-tube, filaments short, anthers oblong, glabrous, 1–1.2 mm, anther-cells erect, connective narrow, not produced. Female flowers solitary; pedicels slender, puberulent, 1–1.5 cm; fruits fusiform, attenuate at both ends, subglabrous, ca. 1 × 1.5 cm. Fruit-pedicel sparsely hirsute, 1–2 cm; fruits fusiform, attenuate at both ends, 3–4 × 1–1.5 cm. Seeds gray-white, oblong or ovate, compressed, smooth, marginate, 5–7 × 3–4 mm. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Mountain slopes; 800–1000 m. Yunnan [India, Myanmar].

29. SCOPELLARIA W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 297. 2006.

Chinese  pinyin

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scopella W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 34. 2006, not Mains (1939) [Fungi].

Climbing annual or perennial herbs; leaves petiolate, unlobed or lobed. Tendrils simple, hairy. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers shortly racemose; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed; corolla yellow, petals 5; stamens 3, inserted on throat of tube; filaments longer than anthers; anthers all 2-locular, locules straight; connectives not produced; rudimentary ovary subglobose. Female flowers 1–2, often co-axillary with male; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ellipsoid-globose, 3-locular; ovules numerous, horizontal; style surrounded at base by an annular disc; stigmas 3. Fruit globose to fusiform, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, ovate-ellipsoid, somewhat compressed, faces scrobiculate.

Two species: SE Asia and W Malaysia; one species in China.

1. Scopellaria marginata (Blume) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 297. 2006.

云南马  yun nan ma jiao er

Bryonia marginata Blume, Bijdr. 924. 1826; Melothria marginata (Blume) Cogniaux; Scopella marginata (Blume) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes; Zehneria marginata (Blume) Keraudren.

Annual scandent herbs. Stem and branches glabrous, angular-sulcate. Petioles slender, 2–3.5 cm, white-hirsute; leaf blade membranous, ovate-cordate or oblong-hastate, 6–10 × 4–10 cm, usually 3-lobed, median lobe larger, narrowly triangular or lanceolate-triangular, 5–7 × 1.5–2.5 cm, apex acute, lateral lobes smaller, triangular, 2.5–3.5 × 2–2.5 cm, apex obtuse, margin callous-dentate, base truncate or slightly concave, scabrous on both surfaces, white-setose. Tendrils simple, slender, pubescent. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers usually 5–15 in a 4–6 cm long raceme, pedicels only 2–6 mm, puberulent; calyx-tube narrowly campanulate, hirsute, ca. 1 mm, segments subulate, 0.3–0.5 mm; corolla yellow, pubescent, segments ovate-triangular, ca. 1 mm; anthers attenuate, glabrous, connective not produced, pistillodes glandular. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves; pedicels filiform, 3–4 cm; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary narrowly oblong, puberulent; styles short, stigmas enlarged. Fruit-pedicel slender, 3–4 cm, glabrous; fruit ovate or subglobose, 1.5–1.8 cm × 5–12 mm, base slightly obtuse or attenuate. Seeds ovate, ca. 4 × 2.2 mm, ca. 1 mm thick, base obtuse-rounded, both surfaces scorbiculate, margin prominent.

Sparse forests or roadsides on mountain slopes; 600–800 m. Yunnan [Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam].

30. DIPLOCYCLOS (Endlicher) Post & Kuntze, Lex. 178. 1903.

毒瓜属  du gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scandent herbs. Tendrils 2-fid. Leaf blade palmately 5-lobed. Flowers small, monoecious, fasciculate, often male and female together in axils. Male flowers: calyx-tube broadly campanulate, segments short; corolla broadly campanulate, segments ovate; stamens 3, free, inserted on calyx-tube; filaments short, anthers ovate, one 1-locular, other 2-locular, locules linear, slightly flexuous. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3; ovary globose or ovate, with 3 placentas, ovules few, horizontal, style slender, stigmas 3, 2-lobed. Fruit baccate, globose or ovoid. Seeds strongly margined, on faces in middle slightly scorbiculate.

Four species: tropical Africa, Asia, Australia; one species in China.

1. Diplocyclos palmatus (Linnaeus) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 352. 1962.

毒瓜  du gua

 Bryonia palmata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1012. 1753; B. affinis Endlicher; Bryonopsis affinis (Endlicher) Cogniaux; B. laciniosa (Linnaeus) Naudin var. erythrocarpa Naudin; B. laciniosa var. walkeri Chakraborty; Ilocania pedata Merrill.

Scandent herbs; root tuberous. Stems slender, glabrous. Tendrils glabrous. Petiole 4–6 cm, slightly puberulent; leaf blade membranous, broadly ovate, 8–12 × 8–12 cm, palmately 5-lobed, middle lobe oblong-lanceolate, 8–10 × 2–3.5 cm, apex acuminate or obtuse, lateral lobes short, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sinus rounded, both surfaces subglabrous. Male and female flowers usually fasciculate in same axil of leaf. Male flowers: pedicel slender, 5–15 mm; calyx-tube ca. 2 × 5–6 mm, segments subulate, 0.5–1 mm; corolla green-yellow, ca. 7 mm in diam., segments ovate, ca. 2 × 0.5–1 mm; stamens 3, filaments 1–1.5 mm, anthers ovate, 2 mm, anther-locules reflexed. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovoid, smooth. Fruits globose, indehiscent, 14–18 mm in diam., smooth, yellow-green to red, narrowly white-striped. Seeds few, ovate, brown, ca. 5 × 3 mm. Fl. Mar–Aug, fr. Sep–Dec.

Forests, thickets; ca. 1000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [India, Malaysia, Vietnam; Africa, Australia].

Fruit and roots contain toxin!

31. COCCINIA Wight & Arnott, Prod. Fl. Penins. Ind. Or. 1: 347. 1834.

红瓜属  hong gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Cephalandra Schrader.

Climbing herbs; roots tuberous. Branches glabrous or slightly scabrous. Tendrils simple, rarely 2-fid. Leaf blade angled or divided. Flowers dioecious or rarely monoecious. Male flowers solitary or in a cyme or raceme; calyx-tube short, campanulate or turbinate, segments 5; corolla campanulate, segments 5; stamens 3, inserted at base of calyx-tube, filaments connate, anthers connivent, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules reflexed, connective not produced. Female flowers solitary, calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, oblong or subulate; ovary ovoid, oblong or linear, placentas 3, style filiform, stigma 3-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit ovate or oblong, baccate, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, compressed, marginate.

About 20 species: mainly distributed in tropical Africa; one species in China.

1. Coccinia grandis (Linnaeus) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 59. 1845.

红瓜  hong gua

Bryonia grandis Linnaeus, Mant. 1: 126. 1767; Cephalandra indica (Wight & Arnott) Naudin, nom. illeg; Coccinia indica Wight & Arnott, nom. illeg.

Climbing herbs; roots robust. Stem slender, slightly woody, many-branched, angular, glabrous. Tendrils filiform, glabrous, simple. Petioles slender, 2–5 cm; leaf blade broadly cordate, 5–10 × 5–10 cm, usually 5-angled or 5-lobed, apex obtuse, base with several glands. Flowers dioecious, solitary. Male pedicel slender, 2–4 cm, glabrous; calyx-tube broadly campanulate, 4–5 mm, segments linear-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm; corolla white or slightly yellow, 2.5–3.5 cm, segments ovate, glabrous outside, pubescent inside; stamens 3, filaments and anthers connate, filaments 2–3 mm, anthers subglobose, 6–7 mm. Female pedicel slender, 1–3 cm; staminodes 3, 1–3 mm, nearly subulate, villous at base; ovary fusiform, 12–15 mm, style 6–7 mm, stigmas 3, 5–6 mm. Fruits fusiform, ca. 5 × 2.5 cm, red when mature. Seeds yellow, oblong, 6–7 × 2.5–4 mm, ca. 1.5 mm thick, both surfaces densely punctate, apex rounded. Fl. and fr. summer.

Thickets on mountain slopes and in forests; 100–1100 m. Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan [tropical Africa and Asia].

32. LAGENARIA Seringe, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 3(1): 25. t. 2. 1825.

葫芦属  hu lu shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Scandent herbs, softly pubescent. Tendrils 2-fid. Petiole apex 2-glandular; leaf blade ovate-cordate or reniform. Flowers dioecious or monoecious, solitary or male racemose, white. Male flowers: pedicels elongate; calyx-tube narrowly campanulate or funnelform, segments 5; corolla-segments 5, oblong-obovate, apex retuse; stamens 3, filaments free, anthers included, slightly coalescent or free, oblong, one 1-locular, others 2-locular, locules sigmoid-flexuous, connective not produced; pistillode glandular. Female flowers: pedicels short, calyx-tube cupular, calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate or cylindric, placentas 3, styles short, stigmas 3, 2-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruits polymorphic, indehiscent, fleshy, woody when mature. Seeds numerous, obovate, compressed, distinctly marginate.

Six species: mainly distributed in tropical African region; one species (cultivated) in China.

1. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago Bot. Ser. 3: 435. 1930.

葫芦  hu lou

Cucurbita siceraria Molina, Sagg. Chile 133. 1782; Cucumis mairei H. Léveillé; Cucurbita lagenaria Linnaeus; C. leucantha Duchesne, nom. illeg. superfl.; Lagenaria leucantha Rusby; L. leucantha var. clavata Makino; L. leucantha var. depressa (Seringe) Makino; L. leucantha var. hispida (Thunberg) Nakai; L. leucantha var. makinoi Nakai; L. leucantha var. microcarpa (Naudin) Nakai; L. microcarpa Naudin; L. siceraria var. depressa (Seringe) H. Hara; L. siceraria var. hispida (Thunberg) H. Hara; L. siceraria var. microcarpa (Naudin) H. Hara; L. vulgaris Seringe; L. vulgaris subsp. asiatica Kobjakova; L. vulgaris var. depressa Seringe; L. vulgaris var. hispida (Thunberg) Nakai; L. vulgaris var. microcarpa Matsumura & Nakai.

Annual scandent herb. Stem and branches sulcate-angular, pubescent. Tendrils filiform, puberulent, 2-fid. Petiole 16–20 cm, with 2 glands at apex; leaf blade ovate-cordate or reniform-ovate, 10–35 × 10–35 cm, undivided or 3–5-lobed, palmately 5–7-nerved, margin irregularly dentate, base cordate, both surfaces puberulent. Flowers monoecious, solitary. Male flowers: pedicels slender; calyx-tube funnelform, ca. 2 cm, segments lanceolate, ca. 5 mm; corolla yellow, segments 3–4 × 2–3 cm; stamens 3, filaments 3–4 mm, anthers 8–10 mm, oblong. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; ovary densely pubescent, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Fruits various in size and shape, woody when mature. Seeds white, obovate or triangular, apex truncate, ca. 20 mm. Fl. summer, fr. autumn.

Commonly cultivated in China [cultivated in all warmer areas of the world].

Fruits used as a vegetable when young; woody when mature, used as various vessels.

33. CITRULLUS Schrader ex Ecklon & Zeyher, Enum. Pl. Afr. Austr. 2: 279. 1836, nom. cons.

西瓜属  xi gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual or perennial climbing herbs; stem and branches scabrous, robust. Tendrils 2–3-fid, rarely simple. Leaves rounded or triangular-ovate, deeply 3–5-partite, segments lobulate or dissected. Flowers monoecious, all solitary, rarely fasciculate. Male flowers: calyx-tube broadly campanulate, 5-lobed; corolla rotate or broadly campanulate, deeply 5-partite, segments ovate-oblong; stamens 3, inserted on base of calyx tube, filaments free, short; anthers free or slightly coherent, one 1-locular, others 2-locular, locules linear, sigmoid-flexuous; connective dilated, not produced; rudimentary ovary gland-like. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, setiform or ligulate; ovary ovoid, with 3 placentas; style short, columnar, stigmas 3, thick, reniform, nearly 3-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit globose or oblong, fleshy or dry, indehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, compressed, smooth, marginate or emarginate.

Four species: tropical and S Africa, W Asia, E Mediterranean region; one species (introduced) in China.

1. Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai in Cat. Sem. Spor. Hort. Bot. Univ. Imp. Tokyo 30: no. 854. 1916.

西瓜  xi gua

Momordica lanata Thunberg, Prodr. Fl. Cap. 13. 1800; Citrullus colocynthis Schrader var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai; C. edulis Spach; C. vulgaris Schrader ex Ecklon & Zeyher; Colocynthis citrullus (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Cucumis citrullus (Linnaeus) Seringe; Cucurbita citrullus Linnaeus.

Annual herbs. Stem and branches robust, sulcate-angular, villous. Tendrils puberulent, 2-fid. Petiole 3–12 cm, densely pubescent; leaf blade triangulate-ovate, white-green, 8–20 × 5–15 cm, both surfaces hispid, 3-partite, segments lobulate, apex acute or acuminate, base cordate, sinus semicircular. Flowers monoecious, solitary. Male flowers: pedicel 3–4 cm, villous, calyx-tube densely villous, segments narrowly lanceolate, 2–3 mm; corolla pale yellow, 2.5–3 cm in diam., segments ovate-oblong, 1–1.5 × 0.5–0.8 cm; stamens 3, nearly free. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male, ovary 5–8 mm, densely villous, stigmas 3, reniform. Fruits globose or oblong, smooth. Seeds numerous, ovate, color various, 1–1.5 × 0.5–0.8 cm. Fl. and fr. Apr–Oct.

Commonly cultivated in China [native to S Africa; cultivated in all warmer areas of the world]

Fruits are water fruits in summer; seeds contain edible oil; fruit coats used as medicine.

34. SOLENA Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 514. 1790.

茅瓜属  mao gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Perennial scandent herbs; roots tuberous. Stem and branches slender, nearly glabrous. Tendrils simple, glabrous. Petiole very short or almost obsolete; leaf blade polymorphic, very variable, base cordate or hastate. Flowers dioecious or monoecious. Male flowers in umbelliform or cymose inflorescence; calyx-tube campanulate, segments 5, more or less subulate; corolla yellow or yellow-white, segments triangular; stamens 3, two 2-locular, one 1-locular, filaments short, anthers oblong, locules conduplicate or curved. Female flowers solitary, ovary oblong, ovules few, horizontal; staminodes 3. Fruits oblong or ovoid, indehiscent. Seeds few, globose.

Three species: S and SE Asia; one species in China.

1. Solena heterophylla Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 514. 1790.

茅瓜  mao gua

Scandent herbs. Roots fusiform, 1.5–2 cm in diam. Stem and branches glabrous. Petiole slender, 4–10 mm, puberulent at first, glabrescent; leaf blade leathery, very variable, ovate, oblong, ovate-triangular or hastate, undivided or 3–5-lobed, lobes oblong-lanceolate, lanceolate or triangular, 8–12 × 1–5 cm, apex obtuse or acuminate, adaxially densely setose or scabrous, abaxially densely setose or almost glabrous, base cordate, margin entire or dentate. Tendrils slender. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers umbellate or subumbellate, peduncle very short, apically 10–20-flowered; pedicels 2–8 mm; calyx-tube 3–5 mm, ca. 3 mm in diam., segments subulate, 0.2–0.4 mm; corolla yellow or yellow-white, segments triangular, 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse or acute; stamens 3, filaments filiform, ca. 3 mm, anther-locules curved or conduplicate, puberulent. Female flowers usually solitary; pedicel 2–10 mm, puberulent; calyx and corolla as in male; ovary ovate, 2.5–3.5 × 2–3 mm, stigmas 3. Fruit red-brown, broadly ovate, oblong or subglobose, 2–6 × 2–5 cm. Seeds gray-white or gray-brown, subglobose or obovate, 5–7 × 5–6.5 mm, smooth or slightly tuberculate. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Jun–Nov.

Mixed forests, thickets, grasslands, roadsides on mountain slopes; 600–2600 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [NE Afghanistan, India, Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].

Roots used as a medicine.

1a. Flowers dioecious; leaves polymorphic; anthers curved ............................  1a. subsp. heterophylla

1b. Flowers monoecious; leaves palmately 5-lobed, segments lanceolate; anthers conduplicate  1b. subsp. napaulensis

1a. Solena heterophylla subsp. heterophylla

茅瓜  mao gua

Bryonia hastata Loureiro; Melothria delavayi Cogniaux; Solena delavayi (Cogniaux) C. Y. Wu.

Flowers dioecious; anther-locules curved. Fruit oblong or subglobose, 2–6 cm, 2–5 cm in diameter. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Aug–Nov.

Mixed forests, thickets, grasslands, roadsides on mountain slopes; 600–2600 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [NE Afghanistan, India, Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].

Roots used as a medicine.

1b. Solena heterophylla subsp. napaulensis (Seringe) W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 49: 75. 2004.

西藏茅瓜  xi zang mao gua

Bryonia napaulensis Seringe in Candolle, Prodr. 3: 307. 1828.

Flowers monoecious; anther-locules conduplicate. Fruit broadly ovoid, glabrous, apex and base obtuse, 2.5–3 cm, 2.5 cm in diameter. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jun–Aug.

Mountain slopes, grasslands, thickets; 2000–2300 m. SE Xizang, Yunnan [N India, Myanmar, Nepal].

35. BENINCASA Savi, Bibl. Ital. 9: 158. 1818.

冬瓜属  dong gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual creeping herbs, all parts densely hispid. Leaves palmately 5-lobed, petiole eglandular. Tendrils 2–3-fid. Flowers usually monoecious, solitary. Male flowers: calyx-tube broadly campanulate, segments almost foliaceous, dentate, reflexed; corolla rotate, usually 5-lobed, segments obovate, entire; stamens 3, free, inserted on corolla-tube, filaments short, anthers one 1-locular, two 2-locular, locules very sigmoid-flexuous, connective margined; pistillode gland-like. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3; ovary ovoid; ovules numerous, horizontal, style inserted on disk, stigmas 3, expanded, 2-lobed. Fruit large, oblong, baccate, terete, hispid, glaucous, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, ovoid-oblong, compressed, margin tumid.

One species: cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries of the world.

1. Benincasa hispida (Thunberg) Cogniaux in A. Candolle & C. Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 513. 1881.

冬瓜  dong gua

Cucurbita hispida Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 868. 1784; Benincasa cerifera Savi; B. hispida var. chieh-qua F. C. How.

Annual creeping or scandent herbs; stem and branches yellow-brown hispid and villous, sulcate-angular. Petioles robust, 5–20 cm, yellow-brown hispid and villous; leaf blade reniform-rounded, 15–30 cm broad, 5–7-lobed, lobes broadly triangular or ovate, apex acute, margin dentate, base deeply cordate, sinus almost rounded, both surfaces scabrous, adaxially puberulent, abaxially densely pubescent. Male flowers solitary, pedicel 5–15 cm, densely hispid and villous, bract ovate or broadly oblong, 6–10 mm, apex acute; calyx-tube 12–15 mm in diam., densely hispid-villous, segments 8–12 mm; corolla yellow, segments 3–6 × 2.5–3.5 cm, both surfaces pubescent; filaments 2–3 mm, base expanded, anthers ca. 5 mm. Female flowers also solitary, pedicel less than 5 cm, densely yellow-brown hispid and villous; ovary ovate or cylindric, densely hispid, 2–4 cm; style 2–3 mm, stigmas 3, 12–15 mm, 2-lobed. Fruit 50–60 cm, 10–25 cm in diam. Seeds ovate, white or pale yellow, compressed, marginate, 10–11 × 5–7 mm, ca. 2 mm thick. Fl. Jun–Sep, fr. Jul–Nov.

Commonly cultivated in China [Australia, New Guinea, Polynesia, also cultivated throughout the tropics, especially in Asia].

Fruits are eaten as a vegetable; seeds used as a medicine.

36. CUCURBITA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1010. 1753 & Gen. Pl. ed. 5. 441. 1754.

南瓜属  nan gua shu

Lu Anmin (路安民 Lu An-ming); Charles Jeffrey

Annual climbing herbs. Stem and branches robust. Tendrils 2- to many fid. Leaf blade lobed, base cordate. Flowers monoecious, solitary, yellow. Male flowers: calyx-tube campanulate, rarely elongate, segments 5, lanceolate or foliaceous at apex; corolla campanulate, 5-lobed; stamens 3, filaments free, anthers connected into a head, one 1-locular, two 2-locular, anther-locules linear, reflexed, connective not produced; pistillode absent. Female peduncle short; calyx and corolla as in male; staminodes 3, short-triangular; ovary oblong or globose, with 3–5-placentas; style short, stigmas 3–5-lobed or bifurcate, ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit large, fleshy, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, compressed, smooth.

About 15 species: warm Americas, also cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions; three species (cultivated) in China.

1a.       Calyx-segments linear, apex foliaceous; fruit-pedicel conspicuously enlarged at apex; seed margin thickened                                                                                                                        3.. C. moschata

1b.       Calyx-segments linear or linear-lanceolate, apex not foliaceous; fruit-pedicel not strongly enlarged at apex.

2a.       Leaf blade triangular or ovate-triangular, irregularly 5–7-lobed; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate; fruit-pedicel angular-sulcate, slightly thickened at apex; seed marginate and obtuse  1. C. pepo

2b.       Leaf blade reniform or orbicular, almost entire or dentate; calyx-segments lanceolate; fruit-pedicel not angular-sulcate, not thickened at apex; seed margin obtuse or more or less marginate  2.. C. maxima

1. Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1010. 1753.

西葫芦  xi hu luo

Annual climbing herbs. Stem setose and scabrous-hairy. Petiole setose, 6–9 cm; leaf blade triangular or ovate-triangular, apex acute, margin irregularly dentate, base cordate, both surfaces scabrous-hairy. Tendrils many-fid. Flowers monoecious, solitary; pedicel angular, 3–6 cm, yellow-brown setose; calyx-tube 5-angled, segments linear-lanceolate; corolla campanulate, ca. 5 × 3 cm, segments erect, apex acute; stamens 3, filaments ca. 15 mm, anthers connivent, ca. 10 mm. ovary ovate, 1-locular. Fruit-pedicel robust, conspicuously angular-sulcate, apex slightly thickened; fruit variable in shape and size. Seeds numerous, ovate, white, ca. 20 mm, marginate and obtuse. Fl. and fr. May–Nov.

Commonly cultivated throughout China [North America; cultivated in tropical and temperate regions].

Fruits used as a vegetable.

2. Cucurbita maxima Duchesne, Essai Hist. Nat. Courges, 7, t. 1786; or Duchesne ex Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 151. [16 Oct] 1786.

笋瓜  sun gua

Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus var. maxima (Duchesne) Delile.

Annual climbing herbs. Stem robust, white-setose. Petiole 15–20 cm, densely setose; leaf blade reniform or orbicular-reniform, 15–25 cm, almost entire or dentate, apex obtuse, base cordate, both surfaces setose. Tendrils usually many-fid, slightly setose. Male pedicel 10–20 cm, puberulent; calyx-tube campanulate, segments linear-lanceolate, 18–20 mm, densely white-setose; corolla tubular, segments ovate-orbicular, apex obtuse, 2–3 cm, margin rugose, reflexed; stamens 3, filaments connivent, 5–7 mm, almost glabrous or puberulent at base, anthers connivent. Ovary ovoid, style short, stigmas 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel short, cylindric, not angular-sulcate, apex not enlarged; fruits variable in shape, size and color. Seeds compressed, margin obtuse or marginate. Fl. and fr. Apr–Nov.

Commonly cultivated in China [South America; also cultivated in tropical and temperate region of the world].

Fruit used as a vegetable; seeds contain oil.

3. Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Essai Hist. Nat. Courges, 7, t. 1786.

南瓜  nan gua

Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus var. moschata Duchesne ex Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 152. 1786; C. melopepo Loureiro.

Annual prostrate herbs. Stem to 2–5 m, densely white-setose. Petiole robust, 8–19 cm, setose; leaf blade broadly ovate or ovate-orbicular, 5-angled or 5-lobed, 12–25 × 20–30 cm, lobes triangular, adaxially yellow-white-setose and velvety. Male calyx-tube campanulate, 5–6 mm, segments linear, 1–1.5 cm, pubescent, enlarged or foliaceous at apex; corolla campanulate, ca. 8 × 6 cm, segments with revolute margin, rugose, apex acute; stamens 3, filaments glandular, 5–8 mm, anthers connivent, ca. 15 mm. Ovary 1-locular, style short, stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Fruit-pedicel robust, angular-sulcate, 5–7 cm, strongly enlarged at apex; fruits variable in shape, size and color. Seeds numerous, ovate or oblong, gray-white, margin thickened, 10–15 × 7–10 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr–Nov.

Commonly cultivated throughout China [Central America; also cultivated worldwide].

Fruits used as a vegetable; seeds edible.



[1] Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China.

[2] Address??

[3] Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, People’s Republic of China.

[4] Apt 91, block 5, pr. Morisa Toreza 102, St. Petersburgh 194017, Russia.