瓶尔小草科 ping er xiao cao ke
Five genera: nearly worldwide; 22 species (one endemic) in China.
Ching Ren-chang, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Chu-hao & Shing Gung-hsia. 1959. Ophioglossaceae, Botrychiaceae, and Helminthostachyaceae. In: Ching Ren-chang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 2: 626.
1a. Plants terrestrial; sterile blades small, ovate or lanceolate, erect; rhizomes glabrous; fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade .................................................................. 3. Ophioglossum
1b. Plants epiphytic; sterile blades large, ribbon-shaped, pendulous; rhizome with long hairs; fertile frond portion arising medially from or toward base of sterile blade ............................ 4. Ophioderma
阴地蕨属 yin di jue shu
Zhang Xianchun (张宪春); Norio Sahashi
Plants perennial, terrestrial or in rocky crevices, evergreen or winter green. Rhizomes short, erect, forming caudex up to 5 mm in diam., dictyostelic; gemmae absent or minute, spherical, apex hairy; rhizome [glabrous (Botrychium subgenus Botrychium) or] with hairs light brown, long, uniseriate, non-septate. Roots occasionally laterally branching, yellowish to black, 0.52 mm in diam., smooth or with corky ridges, not proliferous. Fronds 1(or 2) per stem, with common stipe divided into sterile, laminate, photosynthetic portion (sterile blade) and fertile, spore-bearing portion (fertile blade). Common stipe thick, fleshy, glabrous or hairy. Sterile blades ascending or perpendicular to common stipe, sessile or stalked; blade simple to 5-pinnate, linear, oblong, or deltoid, 425 Χ 135 cm. Pinnae (reduced to segments in many species) spreading to ascending, fan-shaped to lanceolate or linear, margins entire to dentate or lacerate, apex rounded or acute; veins free, arranged like ribs of fan or pinnate. Fertile blades normally 1 per frond, 13-pinnate, long stalked, borne at ground level to high on common stipe. Sporangia sessile to shortly stalked, almost completely exposed, large, globose, glabrous, dehiscing by two valves, borne in 2 rows on pinnate (except in very small plants) fertile blade branches. Spores tetrahedral, trilete, thickly walled, surface rugate, tuberculate, baculate, sometimes joined in delicate network, with a large number of spores per sporangium. Gametophytes not green, broadly ovate, unbranched, subterranean, mycorrhizal. x = 44, 45, 92.
Between 50 and 60 species: nearly worldwide; 12 species in China.
Botrychium has been separated into four genera: Botrychium, Botrypus, Sceptridium, and Japanobotrychum; here, all the species are treated in one single genus.
Classification mainly follows Zou and Wagner (Amer. Fern J. 78: 122135. 1988).
1a. Plants small, 315 cm; frond primordium glabrous; sterile blade pinnate or ternate, 1- or 2-pinnate.
2a. Pinnae fan-shaped, pinna midrib absent ............................................................ 1. B. lunaria
2b. Pinnae elongate, pinna midrib present.
3a. Pinnae rounded at apex, often overlapping; primordial blade erect .................. 2. B. boreale
3b. Pinnae pointed at apex, usually well separated;
primordial blade pendent
3. B. lanceolatum
1b. Plants medium to large, mostly more than 10 cm; frond primordium usually hairy; sterile blade ternately 24-pinnate.
4a. Fertile blade stalk joined to sterile blade stalk at or above base of sterile blade.
5a. Fertile blade stalk joined to rachis above base of sterile blade; frond very hairy to essentially glabrous 4. B. lanuginosum
5b. Fertile blade stalk joined to base of sterile blade; frond nearly to entirely glabrous.
6a. Ultimate segments contracted at base, deeply divided; sporangia on 2- or 3-pinnate fertile blade; sporangial cluster deltoid ..................................................................... 5. B. virginianum
6b. Ultimate segments not contracted, shallowly lobed; sporangia on 1-pinnate fertile blade; sporangial cluster narrowly linear ................................................................................ 6. B. strictum
4b. Fertile blade stalk joined to sterile blade stalk below base of sterile blade.
7a. Plants sparsely hairy; frond primordium with many fine hairs; blade mostly large, 1025 cm.
8a. Fertile blade stalk joined to sterile blade stalk near base of frond ............ 7. B. japonicum
8b. Fertile blade stalk joined to sterile blade stalk 1/32/3 from base to sterile blade.
9a. Sterile blade up to 3-pinnate, papery; fertile blade stalk arising 1/22/3 from base to sterile blade 8. B. daucifolium
9b. Sterile blade up to 4-pinnate, herbaceous; fertile blade stalk arising 1/32/3 from base to sterile blade 9. B. formosanum
7b. Plants mostly glabrous; frond primordium glabrous or only upper part hairy; blade mostly smaller, 515 cm.
10a. Terminal pinnules large, differentiated from lateral pinnules, 815 Χ 510 mm, elongate, acute at apex, margins finely serrate; fronds mostly turning reddish in winter ............... 10. B. nipponicum
10b. Terminal pinnules smaller, ± conforming with lateral pinnules, 310 Χ 29 mm, rounded to truncate at apex, margins subentire to finely dentate; fronds mostly green in winter.
11a. Segments blunt, rounded, or subacute; margins entire to shallowly and coarsely crenate or dentate; sterile blade leathery ............................................................................ 11. B. robustum
11b. Segments mostly acute; margins shallowly to deeply denticulate; sterile blade herbaceous 12. B. ternatum
扇羽阴地蕨 shan yu yin di jue
Osmunda lunaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1064. 1753; Botrypus lunaria Richard.
Rhizomes short, erect, annually producing one frond 515(25) cm tall. Common stipe greenish, cylindrical, 412 cm, 23 mm in diam., hollow, succulent. Sterile blade pinnate, sessile, broadly lanceolate or oblong, 38 Χ 1.52.5 cm, fleshy, leathery, glabrous, apex rounded or blunt; pinnae 46 pairs, 11.5(2) cm long and wide, shortly stalked to almost sessile, approximate, often overlapping, opposite or almost opposite, lowest 1 or 2 pairs 12 cm apart, flabellate (fan-shaped), lunate, or reniform, margin entire, crenate, or incised; veins free, flabellately forked, glabrous. Fertile blade with stalk 47 cm, glabrous; panicle 2- or 3-pinnate, racemose, 36 Χ 1.52 cm, glabrous; sporangia sessile, large, 0.50.1 mm in diam. Spores yellowish, surface verrucose. 2n = 90.
Grasslands, meadows, forest understories; 13004000 m. NE to SW China, also in Taiwan, and Xinjiang [Asia, Australia, N Europe, North America, Pacific islands].
Throughout the range of Botrychium lunaria, sporadic plants have been found with incised sterile pinnae and which have been named as forms or varieties, such as B. lunaria f. subincisum Roeper, and B. lunaria var. onondagense (Underwood) House.
北方阴地蕨 bei fang yin di jue
Rhizomes suberect, shortly cylindrical, annually producing one frond 510 cm tall. Common stipe 38 cm. Sterile blade stalk sessile or nearly so; blade 2-pinnate at base, pinnate above, shiny, green, ovate-deltoid, 14 Χ 13 cm, fleshy, base cordate. Pinnae 35 pairs, ascending, mostly overlapping; basal pinnae largest, ovate, up to 2 cm wide, base subtruncate, apex obtuse; upper pinnae and segments of basal pinnae elliptic, up to 5 mm wide; veins free. Fertile blade arising at or near top of common stipe, 2-pinnate, with stalk 1.55 cm. Spore surface verrucose. 2n = 180.
Forests; ca. 1000 m. Nei Mongol [Japan, Korea; N Europe, Greenland].
长白山阴地蕨 chang bai shan yin di jue
Osmunda lanceolata S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop. 12: 516. 1768; Botrychium manshuricum Ching; B. ramosum Wang Wei et al. (1958), not (Roth) Ascherson (1864).
Rhizomes shortly cylindrical, annually producing one frond 520 cm tall. Common stipe green, 415 cm. Sterile blade 2-pinnatifid, subternate, medium green to yellow-green, somewhat shiny, broadly ovate-deltoid, 14 Χ 13 cm; pinnae lanceolate, up to 1 cm wide, deeply pinnatifid, apex acute; upper pinnae and segments of basal pinnae oblong, up to 2 cm wide; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising at top of common stipe, narrowly deltoid, 16 cm, 2-pinnate; sporangia exposed and not immersed, mostly approximate or slightly separated and covering midrib of pinnae. Spore surface tuberculate to irregularly verrucose. 2n = 90.
Rocky places; high elevations. Jilin (Changbai Shan), [??Nei Mongol] [Japan; Eurasia, North America].
绒毛阴地蕨 rong mao yin di jue
Botrychium decurrens Ching; B. modestum Ching; B. parvum Ching; B. virginianum var. lanuginosum Moore; B. yunnanense Ching; Botrypus lanuginosus (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Holub; Japanobotrychum lanuginosum (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Nishida ex Tagawa; Osmundopteris lanuginosa (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Nishida.
Rhizomes erect, short, apex hairy; hairs long, light brown. Common stipes stramineous to light brown, 1230 cm, 36 mm in diam., fleshy, woolly-hairy; hairs sparse, whitish, long. Sterile blade 3- or 4-pinnate, deltoid to subpentagonal, 1445 Χ 1038 cm, thin and herbaceous, degree of pubescence variable; pinnae 58 pairs, alternate, long stalked, 26 cm apart, lowest pair largest, 720 Χ 510 cm; pinnules 610 pairs, alternate, stalked, basiscopic pinnules larger than acroscopic ones, basal pinnule largest; ultimate lobes acute or obtuse; veins free, simple or forked. Fertile blade with stalk 210 cm, hairy, arising at various points between lowest two pairs of pinnae of sterile blade, usually close to base of second lowest pinnae. Spikes 2- or 3-pinnate, paniculate, 712 Χ 57 cm, hairy. Spores yellowish, surface reticulate, finely striate on ridges. 2n = 180, 270, 360.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 10003000 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
蕨萁 jue ji
Osmunda virginiana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1064. 1753; Botrypus virginianus (Linnaeus) Holub; Japanobotrychum virginianum (Linnaeus) M. Nishida ex Tagawa.
Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical, fleshy, having many fleshy roots and annually producing one frond, 2570 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 1535 cm, subglabrous; blade subternate, tri- or quadripinnatifid, pale green, broadly pentagonal or subdeltoid, 528 Χ 730 cm, thinly herbaceous, soft, abaxially lanuginose on midrib, base subtruncate or slightly cordate, apex acute or obtuse; pinnae broadly ovate, with basal pinnules small and middle ones large, oblong or ovate-lanceolate: ultimate segments elliptic or oblong, margin deeply lobed or dentate, apex acuminate; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising at top of common stipe; fertile blade stalk 1030 cm; lamina 3- or 4-pinnate, ovate-deltoid, 1020 cm; pinnae stalked; sporangia globose or elliptic, each on tip of very short, sometimes obscure axes. Spore surface coarse and distantly verrucose. 2n = 184.
Forests; 16003200 m. [??Anhui], Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [temperate regions within the N Hemisphere; Central and South America; temperate Asia: Himalaya, Japan, Korea, Russia].
劲直阴地蕨 jing zhi yin di jue
Botrypus strictus (Underwood) Holub; Japanobotrychum strictum (Underwood) M. Nishida ex Tagawa; Osmundopteris stricta (Underwood) Nishida.
Plants summer-green. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical. Fronds 3070 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 1525 cm, up to 1 cm in diam., fleshy; blade subternate, bi- or tripinnatifid, dull green, broadly pentagonal; pinnules sessile, narrowly oblong, base decurrent to costal wing; ultimate segments elliptic, dentate, apex rounded; costae and costules beneath sparsely lanuginose. Fertile blade arising at top of common stipe, as long as sterile blade; lamina bipinnate, spikelike; pinnae short; sporangia ellipsoid-globular, each on tip of short but distinct ultimate axes or veins. Spore surface coarsely verrucose. 2n = 88, ca. 90.
Forests. Chongqing, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan [Japan, Korea].
华东阴地蕨 hua dong yin di jue
Botrychium daucifolium Wallich var. japonicum Prantl, Jahrb. Kφnigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 340. 1884; Sceptridium japonicum (Prantl) Lyon.
Rhizomes erect, shortly cylindrical, having many fleshy roots and annually producing one frond (15)3050(70) cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 1226(36) cm, 34 mm in diam., glabrous; blade subternate, tripinnatifid, subpentagonal, 1025 Χ 1525 cm, apex acute; basal pinnae much larger than upper ones, broadly deltoid-elliptic, 815 Χ 58 cm, with stalk 1.53 cm; pinnules broadly lanceolate, gradually narrowed toward acute apex; pinnule segments narrowly elliptic, margin sharply serrate or crenulate, apex acute or acuminate; basal segments fan-shaped, deeply lobed; stalks and costae sparsely lanuginose; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising 26(10) cm above base of common stipe (or much below middle of common stipe), taller than sterile blade, subdeltoid, bipinnate, 2550 cm (stalk 2040 cm, lamina 510 cm); sporangia globular, attached on both sides of axes. Spore surface with dense spinules or papillae forming reticulate pattern with fine granules. 2n = 270.
Forests by streams; ca. 1200 m. [??Anhui], Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
薄叶阴地蕨 bo ye yin di jue
Sceptridium daucifolium (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Lyon; Botrychium officinale Ching;; S. officinale (Ching) Ching & H. S. Kung.
Rhizomes erect, shortly cylindrical, bearing many fleshy roots. Frond 3040 cm tall with stalk 1012 cm. Sterile blade: stalk 78 cm, glabrous; blade bipinnate to tripinnatifid, subpentagonal, 1520 Χ 1624 cm; pinnae 6 or 7 pairs, alternate, shortly stalked; basal pinnae largest, triangular, 1214 Χ 610 cm, bipinnatifid; pinnules 4 or 5 pairs, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate, lower basal pinnule largest, up to 8 Χ 3 cm, pinnatifid, ultimate segments sharply serrate, apex acute or acuminate; lamina herbaceous, veins obvious, rachis and costae with sparse, white, long hairs. Fertile blade arising from above middle of common stipe, as long as sterile blade, with stalk 1416 cm, bi-tripinnate, 1012 cm, with long soft hairs. Spore surface with dense papillae often forming reticulate pattern with minute granules. 2n = 180.
Forests, shaded, wet places. Chongqing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE and S India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].
华东阴地蕨 hua dong yin di jue
Sceptridium formosanum (Tagawa) Holub.
Rhizomes erect, cylindrical, ca. 2 cm, annually producing 1 or 2 fronds 1560 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk (4)1335 cm, sparsely lanuginose; blade subternate, tripinnate, deltoid-pentagonal, 835 Χ 840 cm, thickly herbaceous; pinnules broadly lanceolate, apex acute; ultimate segments elliptic, irregularly roughly serrate, apex obtuse or subacute; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising (2)615 cm below top of common stipe (or near middle of common stipe): stalk 720 cm; lamina deltoid, bipinnate, 518 cm; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface with dense papillae often uniting in reticulate pattern, with minute granules. 2n = 180.
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Himalaya].
Sceptridium nipponicum (Makino) Holub.
Plants small, winter-green. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical, annually producing one frond 2050 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 4.519 cm, glabrous; blade subternate, tripinnate, ca. 10 cm long and wide, herbaceous or membranous, reddish in winter; lower pinnae broadly ovate, long stalked, upper ones much narrower; ultimate segments elongate or lanceolate, serrate; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising 1.56 cm above base of common stipe (or distinctly below middle of common stipe), much taller than sterile blade, deciduous after spore dispersal; stalk ca. 40 cm; lamina smaller than sterile blade; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface irregularly reticulate with fine granules. 2n = 90.
Forests. Guangxi [Japan, Korea].
粗壮阴地蕨 cu zhuang yin di jue
Botrychium rutifolium A. Braun var. robustum Ruprecht ex Milde, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 26: 763. 1858; B. multifidum (Gmelin) Ruprecht var. robustum C. Christensen ex Hultιn; B. sutchuanense Ching.
Plants small, hardy. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical. Fronds 3540 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 27 cm or more, up to 1 cm in diam., fleshy; blade bi- or tripinnatifid, dull green, pentagonal, 611 Χ 711 cm; pinnae 46 pairs, subopposite, lower ones stalked; basal pinnae largest, ovate to triangular, 46 Χ 2.54.5 cm, bipinnate to tripinnatifid; pinnules 3 or 4 pairs, narrowly oblong or lanceolate, lower basal pinnule longest, 2.54 Χ 1.52 cm, ultimate segments ovate or oblong, margin dentate; costae and costules beneath sparsely lanuginose, lateral veins obscure. Fertile blade arising from middle or lower part of common stipe, with longer stalk, up to 1025 cm, lamina 411 cm, bipinnate to tripinnate, spikelike; pinnae short; sporangia ellipsoid-globular, each on tip of short but distinct ultimate axes or veins. Spore reticulate-like on surface, up to 2 μm in diam. 2n = 90.
Forests, grasslands; 10002000 m, sometimes up to 4000 m. Chongqing, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Sichuan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea].
阴地蕨 yin di jue
Osmunda ternata Thunberg, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J. A. Murray), 927. 1784; Sceptridium ternatum (Thunberg) Lyon.
Plants small, winter-green. Rhizomes erect, short, annually producing one frond (10)1555 cm tall. Sterile blade: stalk 512 cm or longer, ca. 2 mm in diam.; blade ternate, tri- or quadripinnatifid, subpentagonal, dull green, 510 Χ 812 cm, somewhat thickly herbaceous, glabrous, apex acute; pinnae subdeltoid, basal ones stalked; segments broadly elliptic or broadly ovate, sparsely crenate, apex rounded; veins pinnate, free. Fertile blade arising 24 cm above base of common stipe (or below middle of common stipe), much taller than sterile blade: stalk 1225 cm; lamina bi-to tripinnate, subdeltoid, 410 cm; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface irregularly reticulate with minute granules. 2n = 90.
In shaded shrubs; 4001000 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [temperate and warm regions of E Asia including within Himalaya, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Vietnam].
七指蕨属 qi zhi jue shu
Zhang Xianchun (张宪春); Norio Sahashi
Ferns evergreen, medium-sized. Rhizomes shortly creeping, dorsiventral; primordia (buds) glabrous; fronds dimorphic; sterile blades (trophophylls) ternate with basal pinnae large; fertile blades (sporophylls) spikelike, with stalk attached at base of sterile blade; sporangia radially arranged in stalked clusters interspersed with small sterile projections. Spores trilete, globose, surface reticulate, with delicate projections ± fused baculate.
One species: widely distributed in tropics and subtropics of the Old World.
七指蕨 qi zhi jue
Osmunda zeylanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1063. 1753; Botrychium zeylanicum Swartz; Helminthostachys dulcis Kaulfuss; Ophiala zeylanica Desvaux.
Rhizomes 48 mm in diam., dorsiventral with fronds in two rows on dorsal side and fleshy, bearing thick roots on ventral side. Fronds usually single at rhizome apex, 2060 cm tall; stipe base sheaths ca. 1 cm; common stipe fleshy, 1055 cm, 28 mm in diam., glabrous; sterile blade pinnate, ternate with basal pinnae large, lobed into 3 or 4 pinnules, thus appearing palmately dissected as a whole; pinnules elongate, 620 Χ 1.53 cm, base decurrent, margin irregularly toothed, apex acute or rounded; veins free, forked into parallel, close veinlets. Fertile blade spikelike, arising at top of common stipe; fertile blade stalk 410 cm, spikes 420 cm, 512 mm in diam.; fertile blade pinnae (sporangiophores) arranged in two rows on either margin of spike, branched 1 or 2 times, each consisting of stalk bearing a pseudowhorl of globular sporangia and 14 forked sterile apical appendages. 2n = 188.
Forests, edges of marshes; low elevations. Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [widespread: Cambodia, India, Japan, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical Australia, W Pacific islands].
Helminthostachys zeylanica is a rare, endangered species in China because of over-collecting for use in traditional medicine and because of habitat change.
瓶耳小草属 ping er xiao cao shu
Liu Quanru (刘全儒); Norio Sahashi
Ferns terrestrial, small, erect. Fronds dimorphic: sterile blades 1 or 2, rarely more, with stalks, usually simple, lanceolate or oval, with entire or wavy margin; veins reticulate, with indistinct midrib; fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade, with long stalk.
Plants terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, generally small, erect, rarely pendent. Rhizomes short, erect, bearing a cluster of stout fibrous roots and one to several fronds. Fronds erect or pendent, dimorphic, consisting of sterile (trophophylls) and fertile (sporophylls) portions, both arising from common stalk. Sterile blades 1 or 2, rarely more, simple or once or twice forked at apex, lanceolate, ribbon-shaped, or ovate, with entire or wavy margin; veins reticulate, with indistinct midrib. Fertile frond portion branching from sterile blade. Sporangia embedded in a linear spike, arranged in two rows along margin, dehiscing by transverse slits; spores tetrahedral, trilete, globose or rounded triangular, surface irregularly reticulate or foveo-reticulate or foveolate with fine granules. 2n = 2401440.
About 25 species; mainly in the N Hemisphere; eight species (one endemic) in China.
2a. Fronds consisting of sterile and fertile portions, sterile blade elliptic or elliptic-ovate; spike bearing 1018 pairs of sporangia ......................................................................................... 7. O. nudicaule
2b. Fronds usually consisting of fertile portion only, or rarely with both sterile and fertile portions; sterile blade elliptic or ovate-rhombic; spike bearing 312 pairs of sporangia ................ 8. O. kawamurae
1b. Plants more than 10 cm tall, sometimes up to 35 cm; sterile blade more than 3 cm.
3a. Sterile blade cordate at base; margin ± wavy; areolae of veins evident.
4a. Spores coarsely reticulate ............................................................... 4. O. austroasiaticum
4b. Spores subreticulate ............................................................................... 5. O. reticulatum
3b. Sterile blade not cordate at base; margin entire.
5a. Sterile blade narrow, lanceolate or oblanceolate,
narrowly cuneate at base
6. O. thermale
5b. Sterile blade broad, oblong to ovate, broadly cuneate, truncate, or rounded at base.
6a. Sterile blade oblong, rounded at apex ..................................................... 3. O. oblongum
6b. Sterile blade elliptic or narrowly to broadly ovate, rounded or acute at apex.
7a. Sterile blade elliptic or narrowly ovate, 610 cm or longer ..................... 1. O. vulgatum
7b. Sterile blade ovate to broadly ovate, 36 cm ....................................... 2. O. petiolatum
瓶尔小草 ping er xiao cao
Plants 1030 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing a cluster of fleshy roots. Roots extended horizontally and stolonlike. Fronds usually single; common stalk pale at lower part, 69 cm, slightly robust, deeply buried underground. Sterile blade without a stalk, elliptic or narrowly ovate, rarely ovate, 610 Χ 1.54 cm, slightly fleshy to herbaceous, base cuneate, truncate, or rounded, sometimes abruptly narrowed, margin entire, apex obtuse or abruptly acute; veins distinctly reticulate. Fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade, 918 cm or longer; spike 2.53.5 cm, ca. 0.2 mm in diam., apex acute, exceeding sterile blade; spore surface obviously and coarsely reticulate. 2n = 240960.
Shaded forests, wet meadows; up to 3000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, [??Henan], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Sri Lanka; Australia, North America, Europe].
柄叶瓶尔小草 bing ye ping er xiao cao
Plants 1525 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing a cluster of thick fleshy roots, which extend horizontally like stolons, producing a new plant from apical bud. Fronds simple; common stalk 915 cm. Sterile blade sessile, ovate to broadly ovate, 36 Χ 23 cm, herbaceous, base ± elongated and rounded, apex acute or obtuse; veins fairly distinct, reticulate. Fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade, 69 cm, linear spike 2.53 cm. Spore surface obviously subreticulate with fine granules. 2n = 240960.
Open shrubby hillsides; 2003300 m. Fujian, Guizhou, [??Hainan (specimen of O. pedunculosum at A)], Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [W India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia, North America, New Zealand].
Specimens described as Ophioglossum pedunculosum Desvaux in FRPS (2: 910. 1959) and some provincial floras (e.g., floras of Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Yunnan) should be included in O. petiolatum. According to the studies by Clausen (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 19(2): 1177. 1938), O. pedunculosum was described as having a blade with a prominent pale median band, but this character is very different in Chinese specimens. Whether O. pedunculosum is really distributed in China needs further study.
矩圆叶瓶尔小草 ju yuan ye ping er xiao cao
Plants 2025 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing few fleshy roots. Fronds caespitose, ca. 23 cm; common stalk 68 cm, greenish or pale at lower part from being buried underground. Sterile blade simple, sessile, light green when dried, oblong, 28 Χ ca. 1.5 cm, herbaceous, base broadly cuneate, shortly decurrent, margin entire, apex rounded; reticulate veins indistinct. Fertile frond portion 614 cm, slender, arising from base of sterile blade; spike linear, 1.54 cm, bearing 1734 pairs of sporangia.
* Guangxi (Fengshan).
高山瓶尔小草 gao shan ping er xiao cao
Plants 1020 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, cylindrical. Common stalk 6.57.5 cm. Sterile blade sessile, suborbicular or broadly ovate, ca. 3.5 Χ 3 cm, base cordate, apex rounded; areolae with included veinlets and smaller areolae. Fertile segment arising from near base of sterile blade. Spore surface coarsely reticulate.
Taiwan [Indonesia (Borneo)].
Ophioglossum austroasiaticum resembles O. reticulatum, but differs from the latter in having coarsely reticulate exospores only. This species needs further study.
心叶瓶尔小草 xin ye ping er xiao cao
Plants 1030 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, slender, bearing a few thick fleshy roots. Common stalk 48 cm, light green, gradually pale toward base. Sterile blade with a short stalk or almost sessile, ovate or orbicular-ovate, 34 Χ 2.63.5 cm, herbaceous, base deeply cordate, margin ± wavy, apex rounded or subobtuse; veins distinct, reticulate. Fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade, slender, 1015 cm; spike 33.5 cm, slender. Spore surface regularly or irregularly subreticulate. 2n = 4801440.
Shaded forests; 11004000 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, [??Hubei (specimen at A)], Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, ?Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Korea; South America].
狭叶瓶尔小草 xia ye ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum vulgatum Linnaeus var. thermale (Komarov) C. Christensen.
Plants 1020 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, slender, bearing a cluster of unbranched fleshy roots; roots stolonlike, producing new plants at apices. Fronds simple or 2 or 3 together. Common stalk green or pale when lower part buried underground, 36 cm, slender. Sterile blade sessile, light green, simple, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 25 cm Χ 310 mm, herbaceous, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire, apex slightly acute or obtuse; veins reticulate, indistinct, but visible under light. Fertile frond portion arising from base of sterile blade; stalk 57 cm, overtopping sterile blade; spike narrowly linear, 23 cm, acute at apices, with 1528 pairs of sporangia. Spores pale, surface subreticulate or subsmooth. 2n = 240720.
Grassy hillsides, near thermal springs; 2001800 m. [??Anhui (specimen of O. angustatum at A)], Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, [??Shandong], Sichuan, E and SE Taiwan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Russia (Kamchatka)].
裸茎瓶尔小草 luo jing ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum parvifolium Greville & Hooker.
Plants 38 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, very thick, with numerous fibrous roots, usually bearing 2 or 3 fronds. Common stalk grayish green on most parts from being buried underground, 1.53 cm. Sterile blade elliptic or elliptic-ovate, 13 Χ ca. 1 cm, subfleshy, base shortly cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or rounded; veins indistinct. Fertile frond portion 45 cm, arising from base of sterile blade; spike short and thick, 12 cm, surpassing sterile blade 12 times, apex acute; sporangia 1018 pairs. Spore surface coarsely reticulate. 2n = 2401000.
Slopes, meadows; 18004300 m. SW Sichuan, Xizang, C and NW Yunnan [N India, Japan, Nepal].
永仁瓶尔小草 yong ren ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum yongrenense Ching ex Z. R. He & W. M. Chu.
Plants 29 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, cylindrical, with fleshy roots, 1 or 2 new fronds arising every year. Common stalk 210 mm, ca. 0.5 mm in diam. Fronds usually consisting only of fertile blades, rarely with both sterile and fertile blade portions. Sterile blade sessile, adpressed to ground, elliptic or ovate-rhomboid, 0.51.5 Χ 0.20.7 cm, apex abruptly acute. Spike simple, rarely forked, 0.31.5 cm, ca. 0.1 mm in diam.; stalk 0.56 cm, bearing 312 pairs of sporangia. Spores tetrahedral, globose, surface foveo-reticulate. 2n = 240.
Dry slopes, grasslands; ca. 2000 m. Yunnan (Yongren) [Japan].
带状瓶耳小草属 dai zhuang poing er xiao cao shu
Liu Quanru (刘全儒); Norio Sahashi
Ophioglossum sect. Ophioderma Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 2: 259. 1828.
Plants large, epiphytic. Rhizomes short, with fleshy roots. Sterile blade ribbon-shaped, long, pendulous, base narrowed, apex usually forked; veins reticulate. Fertile frond portion spikelike, arising from middle part of sterile blade, simple, sometimes branched. Sporangia immersed in central axis of fertile frond segment.
Three species; mainly in tropical rainforests; one species in China.
带状瓶尔小草 dai zhuang ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum pendulum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1518. 1763.
Fronds 13, pendulous and ribbon-like, usually lanceolate, up to 3050 or more Χ 13 cm, sessile; veins reticulate, without distinct midrib, forming diagonal and hexagonal areoles; veinlets ± visible. Fertile frond portion arising from near base or middle part of sterile blade and never longer than sterile blade; spike 525 cm; sporangia numerous, 40200 on each side. Spores achromatous or light yellow, quadrangular, surface foveolate (small pits scattered throughout surface). 2n = 740960.
On trunks of trees in tropical rainforests. Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka; W Africa, Australia, Polynesia (Hawaiian islands)].