瓶尔小草科 ping er xiao cao ke
Plants perennial, mostly terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, usually small and fleshy, lacking sclerenchyma. Roots lacking root hairs, unbranched or with a few narrow lateral branches [rarely dichotomously branched], fibrous or fleshy, sometimes producing vegetative buds. Rhizome mostly erect, less often horizontal, rarely branched, eustelic, glabrous or hairy. Fronds 1 to few per plant, monomorphic, vernation nodding (not circinate); erect or folded, stipe base dilated, clasping, forming open or fused sheath surrounding successive leaf buds; buds glabrous or with long, uniseriate hairs; common stipe usually dividing into sterile, laminate, photosynthetic portion (trophophore) and fertile, spore-bearing portion, i.e., sporophore; sterile lamina ternately or pinnately compound to simple, rarely absent, glabrous or with scattered, long, uniseriate hairs, especially on stipe and rachis; veins anastomosing or free, pinnate, or palmate. Sporophores 1 per frond [rarely more], spikelike or pinnately branched; sporangia exposed or embedded, sometimes clustered on very short lateral branches, wall 2 cell thick, annulus absent; spores many (> 1000) per sporangium, globose-tetrahedral, trilete, thick-walled, surface rugate, tuberculate, baculate (with projecting rods usually higher than wide), sometimes joined in delicate network, mostly with ± warty surface. gametophytes subterranean, usually fleshy, mycorrhizal, non-photosynthetic, round or linear. x = 45 (46).
Four(nine) genera and ca. 80 species: nearly worldwide; three genera and 22 species (one endemic) in China.
Ching Ren-chang, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Chu-hao & Shing Gung-hsia. 1959. Ophioglossaceae, Botrychiaceae, and Helminthostachyaceae. In: Ching Ren-chang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 2: 626.
1a. Fertile lamina simple, rarely forked; sporangia sunken in two rows on sides of a single linear spike; sterile lamina mostly simple, rarely absent or forked at apex, veins reticulate ........... 3. Ophioglossum
1b. Fertile lamina regularly pinnately or radially branched; sporangia exposed on branchlet tips, not sunken; sterile lamina mostly pinnately or ternately lobed or divided, veins free.
2a. Fertile lamina mostly in one plane, branches pinnate; rhizome erect; sporangia solitary and lacking associated sterile projections; sterile lamina mostly pinnately lobed ................. 1. Botrychium
2b. Fertile lamina cylindrical, spikelike, branches very short, radially arranged; rhizome horizontal; sporangia ± clustered in clumps of several, associated with sterile projections; sterile lamina ternate ....... 2. Helminthostachys
阴地蕨属 yin di jue shu
Zhang Xianchun (张宪春); Norio Sahashi
Plants terrestrial or in rocky crevices, evergreen or winter green. Rhizome short, erect, dictyostelic, glabrous or hairy, hairs long, non-septate; gemmae absent or minute, spherical, apex hairy. Roots occasionally laterally branching, yellowish to black, smooth or with corky ridges, not proliferous. Fronds 1(or 2) per stem. Common stipe thick, fleshy, glabrous or hairy. Sterile lamina ascending or perpendicular to common stipe, sessile or stalked; lamina [simple or] 14-pinnate, linear, oblong, or deltoid; pinnae (reduced to segments in many species) spreading to ascending, fan-shaped to lanceolate or linear, margins entire to dentate or lacerate, apex rounded or acute; veins free, arranged like ribs of fan or pinnate. Sporophores normally 1 per frond, 13-pinnate, long stalked, borne at ground level to high on common stipe. Sporangia sessile to shortly stalked, almost completely exposed, large, globose, glabrous, dehiscing by two valves, borne in 2 rows along pinnate branches (except in very small plants). Spore surface rugate, tuberculate, baculate, sometimes joined in delicate network. Gametophytes not green, broadly ovate, unbranched. x = 44, 45, 92.
Between 50 and 60 species: nearly worldwide; 12 species in China.
Botrychium has been separated into four genera, often treated as subgenera: Botrychium, Botrypus Michaux (=B. subg. Osmundopteris (Milde) R. T. Clausen), Sceptridium Lyon, and Japanobotrychum Masamune; here, all the species are treated in a single genus.
Classification mainly follows Zou and Wagner (Amer. Fern J. 78: 122135. 1988).
Botrychium lunaria (Linnaeus) Swartz var. przevalskii Tzvelev (Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 36: 17. 2004), described from Gansu
Botrychium multifidum (S. G. Gmelin) Ruprecht (Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches 11: 40. 1859; Osmunda multifida S. G. Gmelin, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. 12: 517. 1768; Botrychium matricariae (Schrank) Sprengel; O. matricariae Schrank), treated in FRPS 2: 2223. 1959 and in Fl. Liaoning.
1a. Plants small, 315 cm; frond primordium glabrous; sterile lamina pinnate or ternate, 1- or 2-pinnate.
2a. Pinnae fan-shaped, midribs absent .................................................................... 1. B. lunaria
2b. Pinnae elongate, midribs present.
3a. Pinnae rounded at apex, often overlapping; primordial blade[leaf primordia? frond primordium? not in description] erect .......................................................................................... 2. B. boreale
3b. Pinnae pointed at apex, usually well separated; primordial blade[leaf primordia? frond primordium? not in description] pendulous ....................................................................... 3. B. lanceolatum
1b. Plants medium to large, mostly more than 10 cm; frond primordium usually hairy; sterile lamina ternately 24-pinnate.
4a. Sporophore stalk joined to sterile lamina stalk at or above base of sterile lamina.
5a. Sporophore stalk joined to rachis above base of sterile lamina; frond very hairy to essentially glabrous 4. B. lanuginosum
5b. Sporophore stalk joined to base of sterile lamina; frond nearly to entirely glabrous.
6a. Ultimate segments contracted at base, deeply divided; sporangia on 2- or 3-pinnate fertile lamina; sporangial cluster deltoid ..................................................................... 5. B. virginianum
6b. Ultimate segments not contracted, shallowly lobed; sporangia on 1-pinnate fertile lamina; sporangial cluster narrowly linear ................................................................................ 6. B. strictum
4b. Sporophore stalk joined to sterile lamina stalk below base of sterile lamina.
7a. Plants sparsely hairy; frond primordium with many fine hairs; sterile lamina mostly large, 1025 cm.
8a. Sporophore stalk joined to sterile lamina stalk near base of frond ............ 7. B. japonicum
8b. Sporophore stalk joined to sterile lamina stalk 1/32/3 from base to sterile lamina.
9a. Sterile lamina up to 3-pinnate, papery; sporophore stalk arising 1/22/3 from base to sterile lamina 8. B. daucifolium
9b. Sterile lamina up to 4-pinnate, herbaceous; sporophore stalk arising 1/32/3 from base to sterile lamina .............................................................................................. 9. B. formosanum
7b. Plants mostly glabrous; frond primordium glabrous or only upper part hairy; sterile lamina mostly smaller, 515 cm.
10a. Terminal pinnules large, differentiated from lateral pinnules, 815 Χ 510 mm, elongate, acute at apex, margins finely serrate; fronds mostly turning reddish in winter ............... 10. B. nipponicum
10b. Terminal pinnules smaller, ± conforming with lateral pinnules, 310 Χ 29 mm, rounded to truncate at apex, margins subentire to finely dentate; fronds mostly green in winter.
11a. Segments blunt, rounded, or subacute; margins entire to shallowly and coarsely crenate or dentate; sterile lamina leathery .......................................................................... 11. B. robustum
11b. Segments mostly acute; margins shallowly to deeply denticulate; sterile lamina herbaceous 12. B. ternatum
扇羽阴地蕨 shan yu yin di jue
Osmunda lunaria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1064. 1753; Botrypus lunaria Richard.
Rhizomes short, erect, annually producing one frond 515(25) cm tall. Common stipe greenish, cylindrical, 412 cm, 23 mm in diam., hollow, succulent. Sterile lamina pinnate, sessile, broadly lanceolate or oblong, 38 Χ 1.52.5 cm, fleshy, leathery, glabrous, apex rounded or blunt; pinnae 46 pairs, 11.5(2) cm long and wide, shortly stalked to almost sessile, approximate, often overlapping, opposite or almost opposite, lowest 1 or 2 pairs 12 cm apart, flabellate (fan-shaped), lunate, or reniform, margin entire, crenate, or incised; veins free, flabellately forked, glabrous. Sporophore with stalk 47 cm, glabrous; panicle 2- or 3-pinnate, racemose, 36 Χ 1.52 cm, glabrous; sporangia sessile, large, 0.50.1[0.51?] mm in diam. Spores yellowish, surface verrucose. 2n = 90.
Grasslands, meadows, forest understories; 13004000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Asia, Australia, N Europe, North America, Pacific islands].
Throughout the range of Botrychium lunaria, sporadic plants have been found with incised sterile pinnae and which have been named as forms or varieties, such as B. lunaria f. subincisum Roeper, and B. lunaria var. onondagense (Underwood) House.
Reviewer Don Farrar notes that North American authors recognize five taxa within the Botrychium lunaria complex, nearly all of which extend into the Aleutian Islands and thus could extend into Asia. As well, the reported spore size of up to 48 microns might suggest that B. lunaria belongs to the allotetraploid species B. yaaxudakeit Stensvold & Farrar.
北方阴地蕨 bei fang yin di jue
Rhizomes suberect, shortly cylindrical, annually producing one frond 510 cm tall. Common stipe 38 cm. Sterile lamina stalk sessile or nearly so; lamina 2-pinnate at base, pinnate above, shiny, green, ovate-deltoid, 14 Χ 13 cm, fleshy, base cordate. Pinnae 35 pairs, ascending, mostly overlapping; basal pinnae largest, ovate, up to 2 cm wide, base subtruncate, apex obtuse; upper pinnae and segments of basal pinnae elliptic, up to 5 mm wide; veins free. Sporophore arising at or near top of common stipe, with stalk 1.55 cm, 2-pinnate. Spore surface verrucose. 2n = 180.
Forests; ca. 1000 m. Nei Mongol [Japan, Korea; N Europe, Greenland].
According to reviewer Don Farrar, North American authors recognize three species from within the original concept of Botrychium boreale: B. boreale s.s. in Europe, and B. pinnatum H. St. John and B. alaskense W. H. Wagner & J. R. Grant in North America, including Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The correct placement of Asian material has not yet been critically examined but could prove to belong to one or other of the American species rather than B. boreale s.s.
长白山阴地蕨 chang bai shan yin di jue
Osmunda lanceolata S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop. 12: 516. 1768; Botrychium manshuricum Ching; B. ramosum Wang Wei et al. (1958), not (Roth) Ascherson (1864)[only 1864 name in IPNI (1958 date from FRPS 2: 14)].
Rhizomes shortly cylindrical, annually producing one frond 520 cm tall. Common stipe green, 415 cm. Sterile lamina 2-pinnatifid, subternate, medium green to yellow-green, somewhat shiny, broadly ovate-deltoid, 14 Χ 13 cm; pinnae lanceolate, up to 1 cm wide, deeply pinnatifid, apex acute; upper pinnae and segments of basal pinnae oblong, up to 2 cm wide; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising at top of common stipe, narrowly deltoid, 16 cm, 2-pinnate; sporangia exposed and not immersed, mostly approximate or slightly separated and covering midrib of pinnae. Spore surface tuberculate to irregularly verrucose. 2n = 90.
Rocky places; high elevations. Jilin (Changbai Shan), Nei Mongol [Japan; Eurasia, North America].
绒毛阴地蕨 rong mao yin di jue
Botrychium arisanense Masamune; B. decurrens Ching; B. modestum Ching; B. parvum Ching; B. virginianum (Linnaeus) Swartz var. lanuginosum (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) T. Moore; B. yunnanense Ching; Botrypus lanuginosus (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Holub; B. tibeticus Ching; Japanobotrychum lanuginosum (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Nishida ex Tagawa; Osmundopteris lanuginosa (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Nishida.
Rhizomes erect, short, apex hairy; hairs long, light brown. Common stipes stramineous to light brown, 1230 cm, 36 mm in diam., fleshy, woolly-hairy; hairs sparse, whitish, long. Sterile lamina 3- or 4-pinnate, deltoid to subpentagonal, 1445 Χ 1038 cm, thin and herbaceous, degree of pubescence variable; pinnae 58 pairs, alternate, long stalked, 26 cm apart, lowest pair largest, 720 Χ 510 cm; pinnules 610 pairs, alternate, stalked, basiscopic pinnules larger than acroscopic ones, basal pinnule largest; ultimate lobes acute or obtuse; veins free, simple or forked. Sporophore with stalk 210 cm, hairy, arising at various points between lowest two pairs of pinnae of sterile lamina, usually close to base of second lowest pinnae; spikes 2- or 3-pinnate, paniculate, 712 Χ 57 cm, hairy. Spores yellowish, surface reticulate, finely striate on ridges. 2n = 180, 270, 360.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 10003000 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
C. B. Clarke (Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 588. 1880) treated material of Botrychium lanuginosum as the following species, B. virginianum.
蕨萁 jue ji
Osmunda virginiana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1064. 1753; Botrypus virginianus (Linnaeus) Holub[isonym of (Linnaeus) Michaux per IPNI]; Japanobotrychum virginianum (Linnaeus) M. Nishida ex Tagawa.
Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical, fleshy, having many fleshy roots and annually producing one frond, 2570 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 1535 cm, subglabrous; lamina subternate, tri- or quadripinnatifid, pale green, broadly pentagonal or subdeltoid, 528 Χ 730 cm, thinly herbaceous, soft, abaxially lanuginose on midrib, base subtruncate or slightly cordate, apex acute or obtuse; pinnae broadly ovate, with basal pinnules small and middle ones large, oblong or ovate-lanceolate: ultimate segments elliptic or oblong, margin deeply lobed or dentate, apex acuminate; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising at top of common stipe; stalk 1030 cm; lamina ovate-deltoid, 1020 cm, 3- or 4-pinnate; pinnae stalked; sporangia globose or elliptic, each on tip of very short, sometimes obscure axes. Spore surface coarse and distantly verrucose. 2n = 184.
Forests; 16003200 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [temperate regions within the N Hemisphere; Central and South America; temperate Asia: Himalaya, Japan, Korea, Russia].
劲直阴地蕨 jing zhi yin di jue
Botrypus strictus (Underwood) Holub; Japanobotrychum strictum (Underwood) M. Nishida ex Tagawa; Osmundopteris stricta (Underwood) Nishida.
Plants summer-green. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical. Fronds 3070 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 1525 cm, up to 1 cm in diam., fleshy; lamina subternate, bi- or tripinnatifid, dull green, broadly pentagonal; pinnules sessile, narrowly oblong, base decurrent to costal wing; ultimate segments elliptic, dentate, apex rounded; costae and costules beneath sparsely lanuginose. Sporophore arising at top of common stipe, as long as sterile lamina; lamina bipinnate, spikelike; pinnae short; sporangia ellipsoid-globular, each on tip of short but distinct ultimate axes or veins. Spore surface coarsely verrucose. 2n = 88, ca. 90.
Forests. Chongqing, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan [Japan, Korea].
华东阴地蕨 hua dong yin di jue
Botrychium daucifolium Wallich var. japonicum Prantl, Jahrb. Kφnigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 340. 1884; Sceptridium japonicum (Prantl) Lyon.
Rhizomes erect, shortly cylindrical, having many fleshy roots and annually producing one frond (15)3050(70) cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 1226(36) cm, 34 mm in diam., glabrous; lamina subternate, tripinnatifid, subpentagonal, 1025 Χ 1525 cm, apex acute; basal pinnae much larger than upper ones, broadly deltoid-elliptic, 815 Χ 58 cm, with stalk 1.53 cm; pinnules broadly lanceolate, gradually narrowed toward acute apex; pinnule segments narrowly elliptic, margin sharply serrate or crenulate, apex acute or acuminate; basal segments fan-shaped, deeply lobed; stalks and costae sparsely lanuginose; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising 26(10) cm above base of common stipe (or much below middle of common stipe), taller than sterile lamina, subdeltoid, bipinnate, 2550 cm (stalk 2040 cm, lamina 510 cm); sporangia globular, attached on both sides of axes. Spore surface with dense spinules or papillae forming reticulate pattern with fine granules. 2n = 270.
Forests by streams; ca. 1200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ?Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
薄叶阴地蕨 bo ye yin di jue
Sceptridium daucifolium (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Lyon; Botrychium officinale Ching; B. subcarnosum Wallich ex Beddome; S. officinale (Ching) Ching & H. S. Kung.
Rhizomes erect, shortly cylindrical, bearing many fleshy roots. Frond 3040 cm tall with stalk 1012 cm. Sterile lamina: stalk 78 cm, glabrous; lamina bipinnate to tripinnatifid, subpentagonal, 1520 Χ 1624 cm; pinnae 6 or 7 pairs, alternate, shortly stalked; basal pinnae largest, triangular, 1214 Χ 610 cm, bipinnatifid; pinnules 4 or 5 pairs, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate, lower basal pinnule largest, up to 8 Χ 3 cm, pinnatifid, ultimate segments sharply serrate, apex acute or acuminate; lamina herbaceous, veins obvious, rachis and costae with sparse, white, long hairs. Sporophore arising from above middle of common stipe, as long as sterile lamina, with stalk 1416 cm, bi-tripinnate, 1012 cm, with long soft hairs. Spore surface with dense papillae often forming reticulate pattern with minute granules. 2n = 180.
Forests, shaded, wet places. Chongqing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, ?Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE and S India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].
华东阴地蕨 hua dong yin di jue
Sceptridium formosanum (Tagawa) Holub.
Rhizomes erect, cylindrical, ca. 2 cm, annually producing 1 or 2 fronds 1560 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk (4)1335 cm, sparsely lanuginose; lamina subternate, tripinnate, deltoid-pentagonal, 835 Χ 840 cm, thickly herbaceous; pinnules broadly lanceolate, apex acute; ultimate segments elliptic, irregularly roughly serrate, apex obtuse or subacute; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising (2)615 cm below top of common stipe (or near middle of common stipe); stalk 720 cm; lamina deltoid, 518 cm, bipinnate; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface with dense papillae often uniting in reticulate pattern, with minute granules. 2n = 180.
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Himalaya].
Reviewer Ralf Knapp suggests that records of Botrychium japonicum and B. daucifolium from Taiwan might have been based on misidentifications of material of B. formosanum.
日本阴地蕨 ri ben yin di jue
Sceptridium nipponicum (Makino) Holub.
Plants small, winter-green. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical, annually producing one frond 2050 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 4.519 cm, glabrous; lamina subternate, tripinnate, ca. 10 cm long and wide, herbaceous or membranous, reddish in winter; lower pinnae broadly ovate, long stalked, upper ones much narrower; ultimate segments elongate or lanceolate, serrate; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising 1.56 cm above base of common stipe (or distinctly below middle of common stipe), much taller than sterile lamina, deciduous after spore dispersal; stalk ca. 40 cm; lamina smaller than sterile lamina; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface irregularly reticulate with fine granules. 2n = 90.
Forests. Guangxi [Japan, Korea].
粗壮阴地蕨 cu zhuang yin di jue
Botrychium rutifolium A. Braun var. robustum Ruprecht ex Milde, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 26: 763. 1858; B. longipedunculatum Ching; B. multifidum (Gmelin) Ruprecht var. robustum C. Christensen ex Hultιn; B. sutchuanense Ching.
Plants small, hardy. Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical. Fronds 3540 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 27 cm or more, up to 1 cm in diam., fleshy; lamina bi- or tripinnatifid, dull green, pentagonal, 611 Χ 711 cm; pinnae 46 pairs, subopposite, lower ones stalked; basal pinnae largest, ovate to triangular, 46 Χ 2.54.5 cm, bipinnate to tripinnatifid; pinnules 3 or 4 pairs, narrowly oblong or lanceolate, lower basal pinnule longest, 2.54 Χ 1.52 cm, ultimate segments ovate or oblong, margin dentate; costae and costules beneath sparsely lanuginose, lateral veins obscure. Sporophore arising from middle or lower part of common stipe, with longer stalk, up to 1025 cm, lamina 411 cm, bipinnate to tripinnate, spikelike; pinnae short; sporangia ellipsoid-globular, each on tip of short but distinct ultimate axes or veins. Spore reticulate-like on surface, up to 2 μm in diam. 2n = 90.
Forests, grasslands; 10002000 m, sometimes up to 4000 m. Chongqing, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Sichuan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea].
阴地蕨 yin di jue
Osmunda ternata Thunberg, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J. A. Murray), 927. 1784; Sceptridium ternatum (Thunberg) Lyon.
Plants small, winter-green. Rhizomes erect, short, annually producing one frond (10)1555 cm tall. Sterile lamina: stalk 512 cm or longer, ca. 2 mm in diam.; lamina ternate, tri- or quadripinnatifid, subpentagonal, dull green, 510 Χ 812 cm, somewhat thickly herbaceous, glabrous, apex acute; pinnae subdeltoid, basal ones stalked; segments broadly elliptic or broadly ovate, sparsely crenate, apex rounded; veins pinnate, free. Sporophore arising 24 cm above base of common stipe (or below middle of common stipe), much taller than sterile lamina: stalk 1225 cm; lamina bi-to tripinnate, subdeltoid, 410 cm; sporangia globular, attached on both lateral sides of axes. Spore surface irregularly reticulate with minute granules. 2n = 90.
In shaded shrubs; 4001000 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [temperate and warm regions of E Asia including within Himalaya, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Vietnam].
七指蕨属 qi zhi jue shu
Zhang Xianchun (张宪春); Norio Sahashi
Plants medium-sized, terrestrial, evergreen. Rhizomes shortly creeping, dorsiventral with fronds in two rows on dorsal side; buds glabrous; roots thick. Fronds [?solitary] sterile lamina perpendicular to common stipe, ternate with large basal pinnae divided into few pinnules, thus appearing palmately dissected as a whole; veins free, forked into parallel, close veinlets; sporophore attached at base of sterile lamina, spikelike, cylindrical; sporangia globose, born in pseudowhorls on radially arranged stalked clusters interspersed with small sterile projections. Spores trilete, globose, surface reticulate, with delicate projections ± fused baculate. n = 94.
One species: widely distributed in tropics and subtropics of the Old World.
七指蕨 qi zhi jue
Osmunda zeylanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1063. 1753; Botrychium zeylanicum Swartz; Helminthostachys dulcis Kaulfuss; Ophiala zeylanica Desvaux.
Rhizome 48 mm in diam. Fronds usually single at rhizome apex, 2060 cm tall; stipe base sheath ca. 1 cm; common stipe fleshy, 1055 cm, 28 mm in diam., glabrous; sterile lamina ternate with basal pinnae divided into 3 or 4 pinnules; pinnules lanceolate, 620 Χ 1.53 cm, base decurrent, margin irregularly toothed, apex acute or rounded. Spikelike sporophore arising at top of common stipe; stalk 410 cm, spike 420 cm, 512 mm in diam., branches divided 1 or 2 times, each consisting of stalk bearing a pseudowhorl of sporangia and 14 forked sterile apical appendages. 2n = 188.
Forests, edges of marshes; low elevations. Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [widespread: Cambodia, India, Japan, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical Australia, W Pacific islands].
Helminthostachys zeylanica is a rare, endangered species in China because of over-collecting for use in traditional medicine and because of habitat change.
瓶尔小草属 ping er xiao cao shu
Liu Quanru (刘全儒); Norio Sahashi
Ferns terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, generally small, erect, rarely large and pendulous. Rhizome erect, rarely creeping, short, glabrous or long hairy. Fronds often solitary, occasionally 2, rarely more; sterile lamina with stipe, usually simple, lanceolate, ovate, or ribbon-shaped, rarely dichotomously divided, with entire or wavy margin; midrib indistinct; veins reticulate; sporophore arising from base, near base, or middle part of sterile lamina, with long stalk. Sporangia embedded in two rows along margin of linear spike; spore surface irregularly reticulate, foveolate, or subsmooth.
1a. Plants epiphytic; sterile lamina large, ribbon-shaped, pendulous; rhizome with long hairs; sporophore arising from near base or middle part of sterile lamina ................................................ 1. O. pendulum
1b. Plants terrestrial; sterile lamina small, ovate or lanceolate, erect; rhizome glabrous; sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina.
2a. Plants usually 210 cm tall; sterile lamina usually less than 3 cm.
3a. Fronds consisting of sterile and fertile portions, sterile lamina elliptic or elliptic-ovate; spike bearing 1018 pairs of sporangia ................................................................................. 8. O. nudicaule
3b. Fronds usually consisting of sporophore only, or rarely with both sterile and fertile portions; sterile lamina elliptic or ovate-rhombic; spike bearing 312 pairs of sporangia ............. 9. O. kawamurae
2b. Plants more than 10 cm tall, sometimes up to 35 cm; sterile lamina more than 3 cm.
4a. Sterile lamina cordate at base; margin ± wavy; areolae of veins evident.
5a. Spores coarsely reticulate ............................................................. 5. O. austroasiaticum
5b. Spores subreticulate ............................................................................ 6. O. reticulatum
4b. Sterile lamina not cordate at base; margin entire.
6a. Sterile lamina narrow, lanceolate or oblanceolate,
narrowly cuneate at base
................................................................................................................ 7. O. thermale
6b. Sterile lamina broad, oblong to ovate, broadly cuneate, truncate, or rounded at base.
7a. Sterile lamina oblong, rounded at apex ................................................. 4. O. oblongum
7b. Sterile lamina elliptic or narrowly to broadly ovate, rounded or acute at apex.
8a. Sterile lamina elliptic or narrowly ovate, 610 cm or longer ................. 2. O. vulgatum
8b. Sterile lamina ovate to broadly ovate, 36 cm ................................... 3. O. petiolatum
带状瓶尔小草 dai zhuang ping er xiao cao
Ophioderma pendula (Linnaeus) C. Presl; O. pendula f. ramosa Nakai.
Fronds 13 or more, pendulous and ribbon-like, usually lanceolate, sometimes dichotomously divided, up to 3050(100) Χ 13 cm, sessile; veins reticulate, without distinct midrib, forming diagonal and hexagonal areoles; veinlets ± visible. Sporophore arising from near base or middle part of sterile lamina and never longer than sterile lamina, pendent; stalk to 7 cm, spike 530 cm; sporangia 40200 on each side. Spores colorless or light yellow, quadrangular, surface foveolate. 2n = 740960.
On trunks of trees in tropical rainforests. Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka; W Africa, Australia, Polynesia (Hawaiian islands)].
Ophioglossum pendulum is sometimes placed in a separate genus, Ophioderma.
瓶尔小草 ping er xiao cao
Plants 1030 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing a cluster of fleshy roots. Roots extended horizontally and stolonlike. Fronds usually single; common stalk pale at lower part, 69 cm, slightly robust, deeply buried underground. Sterile lamina without a stalk, elliptic or narrowly ovate, rarely ovate, 610 Χ 1.54 cm, slightly fleshy to herbaceous, base cuneate, truncate, or rounded, sometimes abruptly narrowed, margin entire, apex obtuse or abruptly acute; veins distinctly reticulate. Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina, 918 cm or longer; spike 2.53.5 cm, ca. 0.2 mm in diam., apex acute, exceeding sterile lamina; spore surface obviously and coarsely reticulate. 2n = 240960.
Shaded forests, wet meadows; up to 3000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Sri Lanka; Australia, North America, Europe].
柄叶瓶尔小草 bing ye ping er xiao cao
Plants 1525 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing a cluster of thick fleshy roots, which extend horizontally like stolons, producing a new plant from apical bud. Fronds simple; common stalk 915 cm. Sterile lamina sessile, ovate to broadly ovate, 36 Χ 23 cm, herbaceous, base ± elongated and rounded, apex acute or obtuse; veins fairly distinct, reticulate. Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina, 69 cm, linear spike 2.53 cm. Spore surface obviously subreticulate with fine granules. 2n = 240960.
Open shrubby hillsides; 2003300 m. Fujian, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [W India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia, North America, New Zealand].
Specimens described as Ophioglossum pedunculosum Desvaux in FRPS (2: 910. 1959) and some provincial floras (e.g., floras of Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Yunnan) should be included in O. petiolatum. According to the studies by Clausen (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 19(2): 1177. 1938), O. pedunculosum was described as having a lamina with a prominent pale median band, but this character is very different in Chinese specimens. Whether O. pedunculosum is really distributed in China needs further study. Chinnock (Fl. Australia Online: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora; accessed 18 Jul 2012) includes O. petiolatum within O. reticulatum.
矩圆叶瓶尔小草 ju yuan ye ping er xiao cao
Plants 2025 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing few fleshy roots. Fronds caespitose, ca. 23 cm; common stalk 68 cm, greenish or pale at lower part from being buried underground. Sterile lamina simple, sessile, light green when dried, oblong, 28 Χ ca. 1.5 cm, herbaceous, base broadly cuneate, shortly decurrent, margin entire, apex rounded; reticulate veins indistinct. Sporophore 614 cm, slender, arising from base of sterile lamina; spike linear, 1.54 cm, bearing 1734 pairs of sporangia.
* Guangxi (Fengshan).
高山瓶尔小草 gao shan ping er xiao cao
Plants 1020 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, cylindrical. Common stalk 6.57.5 cm. Sterile lamina sessile, suborbicular or broadly ovate, ca. 3.5 Χ 3 cm, base cordate, apex rounded; areolae with included veinlets and smaller areolae. Sporophore arising from near base of sterile lamina. Spore surface coarsely reticulate.
Taiwan [Indonesia (Borneo)].
Ophioglossum austroasiaticum resembles O. reticulatum, but differs from the latter in having coarsely reticulate spores only. This species needs further study.
心叶瓶尔小草 xin ye ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum cordifolium Roxburgh; O. pedunculosum Dunn & Tutcher (1912), not Desvaux (1811).
Plants 1030 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, slender, bearing a few thick fleshy roots. Common stalk 48 cm, light green, gradually pale toward base. Sterile lamina with a short stalk or almost sessile, ovate or orbicular-ovate, 34 Χ 2.63.5 cm, herbaceous, base deeply cordate, margin ± wavy, apex rounded or subobtuse; veins distinct, reticulate. Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina, slender, 1015 cm; spike 33.5 cm, slender. Spore surface regularly or irregularly subreticulate. 2n = 4801440.
Shaded forests; 11004000 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, ?Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Korea; Africa, Madagascar, South America].
For a discussion on the unconfirmed status in Taiwan, see Knapp (Ferns Fern Allies Taiwan, 469470. 2011).
狭叶瓶尔小草 xia ye ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum angustatum Maxon, nom. illeg. superfl.; O. japonicum Prantl (1883), not Thunberg (1784); O. nipponicum Miyabe & Kudτ; O. savatieri Nakai, nom. illeg. superfl.; O. thermale var. nipponicum (Miyabe & Kudτ) M. Nishida ex Tagawa; O. vulgatum Linnaeus var. thermale (Komarov) C. Christensen.
Plants 1020 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, slender, bearing a cluster of unbranched fleshy roots; roots stolonlike, producing new plants at apices. Fronds simple or 2 or 3 together. Common stalk green or pale when lower part buried underground, 36 cm, slender. Sterile lamina sessile, light green, simple, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 25 cm Χ 310 mm, herbaceous, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire, apex slightly acute or obtuse; veins reticulate, indistinct, but visible under light. Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina; stalk 57 cm, overtopping sterile lamina; spike narrowly linear, 23 cm, acute at apices, with 1528 pairs of sporangia. Spores pale, surface subreticulate or subsmooth. 2n = 240720.
Grassy hillsides, near thermal springs; 2001800 m. Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, E and SE Taiwan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Russia (Kamchatka)].
裸茎瓶尔小草 luo jing ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum parvifolium Greville & Hooker.
Plants 38 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, very thick, with numerous fibrous roots, usually bearing 2 or 3 fronds. Common stalk grayish green on most parts from being buried underground, 1.53 cm. Sterile lamina elliptic or elliptic-ovate, 13 Χ ca. 1 cm, subfleshy, base shortly cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or rounded; veins indistinct. Sporophore 45 cm, arising from base of sterile lamina; spike short and thick, 12 cm, surpassing sterile lamina 12 times, apex acute; sporangia 1018 pairs. Spore surface coarsely reticulate. 2n = 2401000.
Slopes, meadows; 18004300 m. SW Sichuan, Xizang, C and NW Yunnan [N India, Japan, Nepal].
Very recent collections from SE Taiwan may represent the Japanese species Ophioglossum parvum M. Nishida & Kurita (see Knapp, Web Albums Pteridophytes Gymnosperms Taiwan; https://picasaweb.google.com/116136418529949606360?feat=email; accessed on 17 Jul 2012). This will key out as O. nudicaule but differs by the smaller sterile lamina, 0.51.5 Χ 0.30.7 cm, shorter spike, 79 mm, and minutely reticulate spores.
永仁瓶尔小草 yong ren ping er xiao cao
Ophioglossum yongrenense Ching ex Z. R. He & W. M. Chu.
Plants 29 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, cylindrical, with fleshy roots, 1 or 2 new fronds arising every year. Common stalk 210 mm, ca. 0.5 mm in diam. Fronds usually consisting only of sporophore, rarely with both sterile and fertile lamina portions. Sterile lamina sessile, adpressed to ground, elliptic or ovate-rhomboid, 0.51.5 Χ 0.20.7 cm, apex abruptly acute. Spike simple, rarely forked, 0.31.5 cm, ca. 0.1 mm in diam.; stalk 0.56 cm, bearing 312 pairs of sporangia. Spores tetrahedral, globose, surface foveolate-reticulate. 2n = 240.
Dry slopes, grasslands; ca. 2000 m. Yunnan (Yongren) [Japan].