肠蕨科 chang jue ke
He Zhaorong (和兆荣); Masahiro Kato
Ferns, medium-sized or large, usually in forests near or beside streams. Rhizomes decumbent to erect, thick. Lamina 1-pinnate, imparipinnate, with pinnae entire, glabrous; veins free on either side of midrib, fully anastomosing toward margins and forming 24 rows of areoles, without included free veinlets. Sori elongate along long veins close to midrib, covered by a similarly elongate, membranous indusium; indusia usually 38 mm, sometimes up to 12 cm, arched, sausage-shaped. Spores with winglike fimbriate and echinate folds, or low perforate plain folds. x = 41, 40 or 31.
Three genera and five species: tropical America, tropical, subtropical, and temperate Asia; one genus and three species in China.
Based on molecular evidence (Sano, R. et al. 2000. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 15: 403413; Wei et al. 2010. Acta Bot. Yunnan., suppl. 17: 4654. 2010), the family Diplaziopsidaceae X. C. Zhang & Christenhusz consisting of Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus (and provisionally Hemidictyum) was proposed (M. J. M. Christenhusz, X.-C. Zhang & H. Schneider. 2011. Phytotaxa 19: 754).
[check:] Chu Wei-ming, Wang Zhong-ren, Hsieh Yin-tang & He Zhao-rong. 1999. Athyriaceae (Diplaziopsis). In: Chu Wei-ming, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(2): ????.
肠蕨属 chang jue shu
Plants terrestrial, medium-sized. Rhizome robust and ascending or erect, with sparse scales; scales dark brown, broadly lanceolate, entire, thick; fronds caespitose. Stipe herbaceous, upward glabrous, deeply grooved on adaxial side; lamina imparipinnate, elliptic; lateral pinnae 110 pairs, alternate, subsessile, lanceolate, base symmetrical, rounded-truncate, entire or slightly repand, apex acuminate or caudate; costae robust, shallowly grooved adaxially; veins anastomosing with 24 rows of polygonal areoles without included veinlets, marginal areoles smaller, vein endings free, submarginal, or connected by submarginal veinlets. Sori linear along veinlets, often single, rarely double from base to near margin; indusia inframedial or subcostal, gray, then black-brown when mature, sausage-shaped, thick, membranous when young, open acroscopically or often irregularly ruptured on back side. Spores semicircular, perispore hyaline, with multilayered, broadly rugate, marginally rugate, aculeate projections. x = 41.
Three species: distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate Asia; three species in China.
1a. Veinlets 2-furcate near costa, rarely at costa; sori subcostal from near costa to below middle of pinna; pinna lanceolate, apex acuminate ................................................................ 1. D. cavaleriana
1b. Veinlets 2-furcate at costa, rarely near costa; sori subcostal from near costa to middle of pinna; apex of pinna acuminate or caudate.
2a. Pinnae, especially lower pinnae broadly lanceolate-elliptic or suboblong, apex often considerably narrowed and caudate; basal pinnae shortened .......................................... 2. D. brunoniana
2b. Pinnae oblong-lanceolate, acuminate at apex, basal pinnae not shortened ....... 3. D. javanica
川黔肠蕨 chuan qian chang jue
Allantodia cavaleriana Christ, Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 16: 243. 1906; Diplaziopsis intermedia Ching; D. javanica (Blume) C. Christensen subsp. cavaleriana (Christ) Nakaike; D. javanica var. cavaleriana (Christ) Tagawa; Diplazium cavalerianum (Christ) M. Kato; D. javanicum (Blume) Makino.
Rhizome erect, short, apex like base of stipe, with few brown lanceolate scales; fronds caespitose. Fertile fronds up to 1.2 cm; stipe stramineous or green-stramineous when dry, 2545 cm, 23 mm in diam., upward glabrous; lamina broadly lanceolate, 3570 × 1520 cm at middle, base often slightly narrowed; lateral pinnae 415 pairs, alternate, sessile or shortly stalked, slightly ascending, oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; basal 13 pairs of pinnae often reduced, ovate or narrowly ovate; middle pinnae subcontiguous, 815 × 1.53 cm, base broadly cuneate or subtruncate, entire; apical pinnae larger than lateral pinnae, similar, base asymmetrical; veins anastomosing with 2 or 3 rows of oblique long hexagonal areoles. Lamina green or yellow-green when dry, pale on abaxial surface. Sori thick, linear, 5(8) mm, often from near costa to near or below middle of pinna; indusia brown, sausagelike, opening acroscopically or ruptured on back side when mature, persistent. 2n = 164.
Understories of broad-leaved forests in valleys; 10001800 m. Chongqing (Nanchuan, Zuanjiang), Fujian (Wuyi Shan), Guizhou (Chishui, Fanjing Shan, Huishui), Hubei (Xianfeng), Jiangxi (Jinggangshan), Sichuan (Daxiangling, Emei Shan), Yunnan, Zhejiang (Suichang) [Bhutan, NE India, Japan, Nepal, Vietnam].
The type is from Guizhou (Huishui).
阔羽肠蕨 kuo yu chang jue
Allantodia brunoniana Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 44. 1830; Diplaziopsis hainanensis Ching.
Rhizome erect, apex like base of stipe, with brown, entire, lanceolate scales; roots long, wiry, fleshy; fronds caespitose. Fertile frond up to 1.5 m; stipe black-brown at base, upward brown, 1540 cm, 25 mm in diam., glabrous; lamina elliptic, 15100 × 1535 cm; lateral pinnae 114 pairs, alternate or subopposite, base subsessile or slightly adnate to rachis, obliquely ascending, elliptic, broadly lanceolate, or suboblong, 1120 × 2.55.5 cm, base rounded-cuneate or shallowly cordiform, margin entire, apex abruptly narrowed to caudate (tail up to 2.5 cm); apical pinnae similar to lateral pinnae, often large, ca. 23 cm, base often asymmetrical, stalk up to 2 cm; basal pinna short; veins prominent, anastomosing with 24 rows of areoles, 2-furcate at costa, rarely near costa, oblique, vein endings free inframarginally or connected by inframarginal veinlets. Lamina submembranous when dry, dark green adaxially, green abaxially. Sori thick, linear, up to 1.5 cm, close to costa, ca. 4 mm apart, borne on acroscopic vein of 2-furcate vein, basiscopic veinlet sterile; indusia sausage-shaped, thick but thinly membranous when young, wrapping all sporangia, thick when mature, ruptured irregularly from back surface or opening acroscopically, persistent.
Guizhou (Chishui), Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Nepal, Philippines, Vietnam].
The type is from Nepal.
Diplaziopsis brunoniana is usually identified as D. javanica (Blume) C. Christensen. The two differ in that the lower pinnae of D. brunoniana are elliptic broadly lanceolate or suboblong, apex often abruptly narrowed to caudate, basal pinnae short; the pinnae of D. javanica are oblong-lanceolate, acuminate at apex, and the basal pinnae are not shortened. Diplaziopsis hainanensis Ching, in fact, is based on a tiny specimen of D. brunoniana.[see Knapp queries for authors.doc]
肠蕨 chang jue
Asplenium javanicum Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 2: 175. 1828; Allantodia javanica (Blume) Trevisan, p.p.
Rhizome erect, apex like base of stipe, with brown, entire lanceolate scales; roots wiry, fleshy, long; fronds caespitose. Fertile fronds more than 1 m; stipe brown, up to 70 cm, up to 7 mm in diam. Lamina broadly lanceolate, ca. 75 × 30 cm; lateral pinnae up to 12 pairs, ascending, lanceolate, up to 18 × 4 cm, base broadly cuneate or subtruncate, base asymmetrical, pinna stalk ca. 1 cm, entire, slightly irregularly repand, apex long acuminate or slightly shortened; veins prominent on both surfaces, anastomosing with 2 or 3 rows of areoles, 2-furcate at costa, rarely above costa, slightly ascending, distal veins free, ending inframarginally or connected by inframarginal veinlets. Lamina dark green adaxially, pale (light) green abaxially, submembranous when dry. Sori linear or sausage-shaped, up to 1 cm, thick, often borne on acroscopic vein of 2-furcate vein, basiscopic vein sterile; indusia thick, membranous, opening acroscopically, persistent.
Taiwan (Gaoxiong) [Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka; Pacific islands (Tahiti), Polynesia].[see Knapp queries for authors.doc]
The type is from Indonesia (Java).