金毛狗蕨科 jin mao gou jue ke
Terrestrial, rhizomes massive, creeping to ascending or erect (to 6 m), solenostelic or sometimes dictyostelic with vascular bundles lacking sclerenchymatous sheath, bearing adventitious roots, densely covered with soft, yellowish-brown, multicellular long hairs. at apices and persistent petiole bases; fronds close, forming a crown at apex, monomorphic or dimorphic, mostly 2–4 m; petioles hairy at base, with three corrugated vascular bundles 1 abaxial, 2 adaxial arranged in an omega-shape with adaxial ends curved strongly inward, or with abundant V-, U- or W-shaped vascular bundles arranged in omega configuration, sometimes adaxial inwardly recurved arms of vascular bundles form an isolated set of bundles forming a reversed U-shape; petiole flattened on adaxial face with lateral aerophores (pneumatophores) forming a line on each side; laminae 2-pinnate + pinnatifid to 3-pinnate + pinnatifid, firm, often glaucous beneath, glabrous when mature or persistently hairy on rachis, costa, costule and veins; rachis hairy in middle, in dried material often sulcate in middle of ridge which is flanked by 2 grooves; sterile segments entire or crenate; fertile segments poorly differentiated; veins free, simple or forked to pinnate; stomata paracytic with 3 subsidiary cells; sori single, marginal at vein ends, indusiate; indusia bivalvate, each with a strongly differentiated, non-green outer indusium and a similarly modified tongue-like inner indusium, paraphyses few, short and brown; spores globose-tetrahedral, with prominent angles and a well-developed equatorial flange; antheridial walls 5-celled. x = 68.
One genus and ca. 11 species: E and SE Asia, Central America, Pacific islands (Hawaii); two species in China.
A fossil permineralized rhizome Cibotium iwatense Ogura (1933) is described from the Late Cretaceous of Iwate Prefecture, Japan.
The Cibotiaceae are monophyletic, with affinity to the tree fern families.
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金毛狗蕨属 jin mao gou jue shu
Morphological characters and geographical distribution are the same as those of the family.
1a. Pinnules on basiscopic side of lower pinnae present; sori usually 1–5 at base of lower pairs of pinnule-segments; spores with an equatorial flange ....................................................... 1. C. barometz
1b. Pinnules on basiscopic side
of lower pinnae usually lacking; sori usually 1 or 2 at base of lower pairs of
pinnule-segments; spores without an equatorial flange
2. C. cumingii
金毛狗蕨 jin mao gou jue
Polypodium barometz Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1092. 1753; Aspidium barometz (Linnaeus) Willdenow; Balantium glaucescens (Kunze) Link; Cibotium assamicum Hooker; C. djambianum Hasskarl; C. glaucescens Kunze; Dicksonia barometz (Linnaeus) Link.
Rhizome stout, prostrate, densely covered with shining brown long hairs. Fronds close; stipes thick, up to 1 m or more, triangular in transverse section at base, densely bearing caducous appressed hairs, stipe and rachis green, turning purplish beneath with age; with a continuous or broken row of linear aerophores on each side of stipe, base of stipe with a mass of long (1–1.5 cm) hairs, upper part of stipe and rachis covered with small, appressed flaccid hairs becoming glabrescent; laminae 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 1.5–3 m; medial pinnae 40–80 × 15–30 cm, lower pinnae shortened, deflexed; pinnae many, alternate, stalked, pinnules short stalked, usually of about equal length on either side of rachilla; pinnule-segments slight falcate, apiculate, margins crenulate to serrulate-serrate; veins free, fertile ones simple, sterile simple or forked; laminae subcoriaceous, upper surface deep green, lower surface glaucous, glabrous on both sides, except hairy midrib; venation visible on both surface, free, lateral veins simple or forked. Sori usually 1–5 at base of lower pairs of pinnule-segments; indusia bivalvate, outer indusia round, inner ones more or less oblong; outer valve of indusium usually large; paraphyses dark reddish brown. Spores pale yellowish, with equatorial flange.
Open places in forests, forest margins, valleys, warm humid environments; (50–)200–600(–1600) m. Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, C Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India, Indonesia (Java to Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia (W Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
It is rather common in S subtropical regions and tropical regions, usually growing with Alsophila spinulosa, Diplopterygium chinense, Dicranopteris pedata, etc., sometimes abundant and forming a dense community. It is an acid-soil indicator species in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly distributed in S and SW China, with Guangxi, Guangdong, and Guizhou as the main distribution areas, then Yunnan and Sichuan. The most northerly distribution of this species in China reaches the Chang Jiang in Chongqing.
The rhizome of this plant is very thick, woody, covered by long soft, golden yellow hairs, looks like a golden hair dog. Therefore, the plant is called “Jinmao Gouji” (Golden Hair Dog), or “Huanggoutou” (Yellow Dog’s Head) in China. It is a famous traditional Chinese herb medicine known as “Gouji” (Cibot Rhizome, Rhizoma Cibotii). Hairs of the rhizome and stipe are also used as a wound dressing and to staunch blood loss. It is listed in CITES Appendix II. Conservation and sustainable use should be attained.
菲律宾金毛狗蕨 fei lü bing jin mao gou jue
Cibotium barometz (Linnaeus) J. Smith var. cumingii (Kunze) C. Christensen; C. crassinerve Rosenstock; C. taiwanense C. M. Kuo.
Habit as in Cibotium barometz in general but fronds not quite so large. Pinnules on basiscopic side of lower pinnae usually lacking; pinnules on larger pinnae 12–15 cm × 12–16 mm. Sori usually 1 or 2 at base of lower pairs of pinnule-segments. Spores without an equatorial flange.
Open forests, road cuttings, slopes in hilly and montane areas; sea level to ca. 1000 m. Taiwan [Philippines].
In Taiwan, Cibotium cumingii is more widespread than C. barometz.