18. Distribution:


18.1 In general, distributions will be given at the provincial level unless a taxon is highly restricted in distribution and a more detailed account is necessary (see paragraphs 18.3 and 18.6). Provinces and autonomous regions are listed alphabetically, and no distinction will be made between a province and an autonomous region (see also nonprovincial areas in paragraph 18.3). These divisions include the following: Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang. These divisions can be modified by using the directions C, E, EC, N, NC, NE, NW, S, SC, SE, SW, W, or WC (e.g., "S Gansu, NE Sichuan"). Do not use a dash or the word "to" in order to indicate a distributional range (e.g., "Anhui-Shandong"; "Guizhou to Hubei"; "N-NW Yunnan"; or "S to SE Jiangsu" must not be used).


18.2 A taxon endemic to China is marked with an asterisk "*" at the beginning of the paragraph on the habitat and distribution (see the example in paragraph 12.17).


18.3 The inclusion of Beijing Shi, Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai Shi, Nanhai Zhudao, and Tianjin Shi should be done only when the distribution within these regions is of particular note (i.e., plants are endemic to one of these regions or plants are found in one of these regions but not in the adjacent Chinese provinces) (e.g., "Fujian, Hong Kong, Nanhai Zhudao, Taiwan [Indonesia, Philippines]").


18.4 Attention must be paid to the following regarding place names:

a. Any rivers, mountains, places, or islands on the Chinese border must use the standard Chinese names, not name from other languages, (e.g., "Heilong Jiang" not "Amur River" and "Qomolangma Feng" not "Mt. Everest").

b. Chinese place names will be given according to the standards accepted now (e.g., "Jinhong" not "Cheli" and "Youyiguang" not "Zhengnanguang").

c. Names of foreign countries will be the standard current ones (e.g., "Malaysia" not "Malaya"; "Sri Lanka" not "Ceylon"; "Thailand" not "Siam"; "Myanmar" not "Burma").

d. A place name belonging to a country will not be listed in the same rank as that country (e.g., "Japan including Ryukyu Islands" not "Japan and Ryukyu Islands").

e. For standard place names of China, authors should refer to Gazetteer of China An Index to the Atlas of the People's Republic of China, Map Press, Beijing (1983). It must be noted that place names in Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uighur areas are often not standard Hanyu Pinyin and cannot be transliterated character by character using a dictionary.

f. For the standard names of places in foreign countries, authors should refer to the latest edition of the National Geographic Atlas of the World. If authors have further questions about place names, they should contact the Editorial Committee.


18.5 If a taxon is very local (i.e., only in a single Xian or on a single mountain) a more exact distribution can be given in parentheses (e.g., "Hubei (Lichuan Xian)" and "Sichuan (Emei Shan)"). However, a locality should not be given below the level of a Xian or mountain (see also paragraph 18.4e for transliteration problems).


18.6 If a taxon occurs beyond China, the distribution will be given in brackets and in alphabetical order. Only countries adjacent to China plus all other countries of tropical Asia, will be explicitly listed. These countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Both Kashmir and Sikkim are to be treated like countries and included in the alphabetical list of countries. If the distribution extends beyond these countries, a generalized range, separated from that of the foreign countries by a semicolon, will be given in the brackets. The generalized range includes Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, Pacific Islands, and South America (e.g., "Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang [Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia; SW Asia, Europe]").


18.7 The words boreal, temperate, tropical, circumpolar, and subtropical will not be used. Also avoid using Eurasia (use Asia, Europe), Middle East (use SW Asia), Far East (list Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia).