HARVARD PAPERS IN BOTANY 3: 231-237. 1998.
JinShuang Ma 2
Abstract. Studies toward a worldwide revision of Euonymus (Celastraceae), based on collections in several herbaria, revealed six new species from Asia, mainly from south central China. Euonymus verrucocarpa, E. pittosporoides, E. tenuiserrata, and E. prismatomerioides are here described for the first time.
Keywords: Celastraceae, China, Euonymus, morphology.
Euonymus verrucocarpa C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma, sp. nov. Sect. Echinococcus. TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan: Longling Xian, 2400 m, H. T. Tsai 54558 (Holotype: A; Isotypes: KUN, PE 3 sheets). Fig 1.
Species E. echinati Wall. similis, sed capsule dense tubercularis non echinatis differt; species E. aculeoli C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma similis, arboris ad 5 m altis, capsulis tubercularis differt.
Deciduous shrubs to small trees, to 5 m tall, DBH to 13 cm (5 inches on field record). Stems green to gray-green, 4-angled, glabrous; twigs green to light green, 4-angled when dry; winter buds generally acute, with several yellow scales. Leaves more or less papyraceous, ovate or elliptic-ovate, 3.5--5.0 cm long, 1.7--2.7 cm wide, acuminate or acute at both ends, margin with small denticulations; lateral veins 4--6 pairs, disappearing before reaching margin or unclear, glabrous on both surfaces; petiole 2--3 mm long. Peduncles axillary, to 10 mm long, usually with only one flower, sometimes few flowered. Flowers not seen. Fruits usually 1(2 or 3), pedicel ca. 5 mm long. Capsules less than 6 mm long and 5 mm in diam., with dense short tubercles, opening by 4 lobes at maturity, red when fresh. Seeds 2 per locule, nearly round to oblong-round, ca. 4 mm long, 3 mm in diam., black when dry, covered by aril. Thickets; rare.
This species is similar to E. echinata Wall. in its pattern of growth, but differs by its dark brown capsule and dense tubercles, not spines, on the surface of the capsule; it is also similar to E. aculeola C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma in many ways, but this species is a shrub to small tree to 5 m tall and has capsules with dense, short tubercles. Euonymus aculeola is a small shrub around 30 cm tall with sparse needle-like spines on the capsule.
Phenology: Fruiting in November.
Distribution: China (endemic to Yunnan).
Additional specimens examined: CHINA. Yunnan: Tengcong Xian, Second District, Ping Di, Gan Li Gong Shan, 2400 m, J. Chen 319 (KUN, 2 sheets).
Euonymus pittosporoides C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma, sp. nov. Sect. Euonymus. TYPE: CHINA. Guangxi: Nandan Xian, Luo Fu Xiang, Hong Hong Shan, mixed forest, 2000 ft, 3 August 1937, C. Wang 41260 (Holotype: PE; Isotype: A, PE). Fig. 2.
Species E. bullata Wall. similis, sed foliis parvis, linear-lanceolatis, basi et apice attenuatis, acuminatis vel acutis, margine paucis crenulatis vel denticulatis, pubescent differt.
Small trees, 3--7 m tall, DBH to 30 cm, sometimes shrublike, especially in forests or in shaded woods. Stems gray to gray-brown, terete, glabrous; twigs green to light green, terete; winter buds very small, generally pubescent. Leaves more or less coriaceous, lanceolate or saliciform, 7--10 cm long, 1.5--2.5 cm wide, acuminate or acute at both ends; margin denticulate; lateral veins 6--9 pairs, disappearing before reaching margin, glabrous or pubescent on both sides; petioles 5--10 mm long. Peduncles axillary, to 10 cm long, 1(to few)-flowered. Flowers not seen, petals white to pinkish. Fruit 1(2 or 3), pedicel ca. 5 cm long. Capsules ca. 8 mm long, 6 mm in diam., lobes 4, usually only 2 or 3 locules developed, opening at maturity, red when fresh, brown or yellow-brown when dry. Seeds 2 per locule, nearly round or oblong, ca. 4 mm long, 3--4 mm in diam., red when fresh, black when dry, covered by aril only at base.
This species is similar to E. bullata Wall. in the venation pattern, but much different from the latter in its smaller, linear-lanceolate or saliciform leaves, which are acuminate or acute at both ends and pubescent on both surfaces. It is similar also to E. morrisonensis Kaneh. & Sasaki, but the leaves and fruit are pubescent and the fruit is smaller in E. pittosporoides.
Phenology: Flowering in February to July; fruiting in May to December.
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan), Vietnam. Altitude: 120--1750 m.
Additional specimens examined: CHINA. Guangdong: Foolung, H. Y. Liang 69760 (A, IBSC, PE). Guangxi: Dongxing, Naqin Group 403 (PE); Dongxing, Naqin Group 403 (PE); Napo, P. C. Tsoong & K. C. Kuan 355 (PE 2 sheets, IBSC). Guizhou: Ludian, Y. Tsiang 7274 (A, NY, PE); Guizhou Agricultural College 31 (IBSC, PE). Sichuan: Nanchuan, J. H. Xiong & Z. L. Zhou 93824 (SZ). Yunnan: Hekou, Hekou Exped. 121 (KUN 2 sheets, PE); Marlipo [Malipo], K. M. Feng 13301 (A, KUN, PE); C. W. Wang 86460 (KUN 2 sheets, PE), 86477 (KUN, PE), 86660 (IBSC, KUN, PE), 87044 (KUN); Yanshan, C. W. Wang 84275 (KUN). VIETNAM. Tonkin, W. T. Tsang 27165 (A); without location, Luyuch 7110 (IBSC).
Euonymus tenuiserrata C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma, sp. nov., Sect. Euonymus. TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan: Jianshui Xian, H. T. Tsai 53318 (A). Fig. 3.
Species E. serratifolia Bedd. similis, sed foliis ovatis vel ovatis-lanceolatis, parvis, 6--10 cm longis, floris 4-meriis, viridis differt.
Evergreen shrubs, ca. 3 m tall; branches terete, sturdy, twigs green to light green, terete with raised lines; leaves papyraceous, ovate to ovate-elliptic, 6--10 cm long, 2.0--5.5 cm wide, apex caudate, base orbicular to suborbicular, margin ciliate to sharply and finely toothed, lateral veins ca. 8 pairs, webbing and disappearing before reaching margin; petiole sturdy, 6--10 mm long. Peduncle slender, 2--3 cm long, with several flowers, pedicle 6--8 mm long. Flowers 4-merous, 7--9 mm in diameter, green; capsule not seen.
This species is very similar to E. serratifolia in the margin of the leaves, but differs in the 4-merous, green flowers and ovate to ovate-elliptic, smaller leaves. So far it is known only from the type, and further collections are needed.
Phenology: Flowering in May.
Distribution: China (endemic to Yunnan). Altitude: 2000 m; in woods.
Euonymus prismatomerioides C. Y. Wu ex J. S. Ma, sp. nov. Sect. Euonymus (?). TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan: Xichou Xian, Fa Dou, Cao Guo Shan, 1620 m, 3 May 1964, S. Z. Wang 17 (Holotype, KUN 2 sheets). Fig. 4.
Species E. laxicymosae C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma similis, sed pedunculis minus 3 cm longis, petalis margine integris differt.
Shrubs, 2--4 m tall; branches gray-black, terete, glabrous; twigs green to light brown, 4-angled, glabrous. Leaves long-subulate or widely-linear, to 14 cm long, less than 2 cm wide, main vein impressed on upper surface, prominent on lower surface, lateral veins unclear, reticulate before reaching margin, apex long attenuate, base cuneate; margin obscurely and sparsely denticulate; petiole ca. 5 mm long. Cymes axillary at apex of young twigs, usually 3- to 5- flowered, peduncle less than 3 cm long; flowers purple-red, 5-merous, sepals 5, semiorbicular, ca. 2 mm long and wide, petals 5, orbicular, 3-4 mm long and wide, base slightly attenuate, nearly entire margin minutely crenulate, not ciliate; stamens 5, filaments shorter than anthers. Ovary and fruit not seen. Evergreen broad-leaved forests.
This species is similar to E. laxicymosa C. Y. Cheng ex J. S. Ma in general, but differs in the short peduncle less than 3 cm long, the obscurely and sparsely serrulate leaf margins, the veins impressed on the upper surface and prominent on the lower surface, the lateral veins obscure and reticulate before reaching the margin, and the purple-red, orbicular or nearly orbicular fresh petals with entire or nearly entire nonciliate margins.
In my first paper on Euonymus (Ma, 1997), the two specimens cited here were misidentified as E. laxicymosa. After careful study (see diagnosis above), the differences between them became evident. The species is described here without fruit, which may seem unreasonable in this genus where fruit characteristics are so diagnostic. From my revision work on the genus, however, this species is a very peculiar one because it cannot be matched with any other species (Fig. 6). Euonymus prismatomerioides is provisionally placed in section Euonymus since the fruit is not available, but I am sure that once found the fruit should justify this assignment.
Phenology: Flowering in May.
Additional specimens examined: CHINA. Yunnan: Nan Chang Xiang, Leng Shui Gou, 1410 m, 18 May 1964, S. Z. Wang 357 (KUN 2 sheets).
Ma, J. 1997. New species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from East and South Asia. Harvard Pap. Bot. 10: 93--111.
1This work, included in the Flora of China Project, was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, and the Missouri Botanical Garden, to whom my sincere thanks are due. I thank the curators and keepers of the herbaria of A, B, BM, CDBI, GH, IBK, IBSC, K, KUN, MO, NA, NY, P, PE, PEM, NA, SM, SYS, SZ, and US who permitted me to use their collections or kindly sent me specimens on loan. I especially thank Dr. Anthony Brach and Ms. Emily Wood in the Harvard University Herbaria, Mr. Robert A. Defilipps and Dr. Lawrence Skog of the Natural History Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and Dr. Kevin Concord of the National Arboretum of the United States for their assistance and help during my visit; Dr. Gustavo A. Romero of the Oakes Ames Orchid Herbarium of the Harvard University Herbaria for help in preparation of the plates; Mr. Li Xuedong and Dr. Sun Hang of the Kunming Institute of Botany, Mrs. Bang Qin, Dr. Qin Haining, and Fu Dezhi of the Institute of Botany, Beijing, and Mr. Liu Quanru of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, for valuable help and assistance at their institutions; and Dr. Ihsan Al-Shehbaz at the Missouri Botanical Garden for kindly sending me all the specimens of the genus for this study. My special thanks are due Dr. David E. Boufford of the Harvard University Herbaria, not only for his valuable help and longtime encouragement of my research work when I was in China during the past 10 years but also for arranging and assisting in my research visit to the Harvard University Herbaria in 1995--1998. Without this visit the work could not have been done. Finally I would like to acknowledge my great indebtedness to my Ph.D. supervisor, Professor Ching-yung Cheng, of Beijing Medical University, who has worked on the Celastraceae in the flora of China for about 30 years. Some of this work is based on her manuscript for Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinica (Flora of China, Chinese edition); the opinions expressed in this paper, however, are my own and may not reflect her views precisely.
2Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2020, U.S.A.