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Volume 15, Number 2
April-June 2001
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The Flora of North America project is pleased to welcome Mr. Charles M. Levine as its first full-time Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer. A search committee recruited for this position since October of last year when funding became available. The committee met with candidates on 18 April and was unanimous in recommending Mr. Levine for the position. Mr. Levine, who will work from his home office in New York until other arrangements can be made, accepted the position effective 1 May 2001. He has been familiarizing himself with the project and he met with representatives from the Oxford University Press in June.

An innovative publishing executive with significant global experience in the development and management of content for both digital and print media, Mr. Levine has held senior management positions with Random House, Simon & Schuster, John Wiley, and Macmillan. For many years he has been at the forefront of electronic publishing as well, including managing electronic databases, SGML/HTML data and document mark-up systems, multimedia publishing, and Web site design and content.

Harnessing both his technical skills and global background, he has successfully built brand names and lines of publications, including books with Scientific American, the J. K. Lasser Tax Institute, the Random House Webster's Dictionaries, and the Insight Travel Guides, among many others.

While acting as consultant, agent, and packager for publishing clients, Mr. Levine also served as the part-time Vice President of Content and Strategic Development for the start-up Web company Etronica.com of Pacific Palisades, California.

Mr. Levine began his publishing career in Singapore after a stint working in India on rural development projects. Having spent over a decade working in Asia, he maintains business contacts in this important, expanding marketplace. He has an M.A. from Indiana University in the history of philosophy and science, and he graduated with honors from Columbia College, majoring in physics.

Mr. Levine can be reached at 71-43 Kessel Street, Forest Hills, NY 11375-5931; (718) 575-3864; charlev@att.net.



At the invitation of the Management Committee, Dr. Kancheepuram N. Gandhi of Harvard University has agreed to become Nomenclature Editor for the Flora project. As such, he will serve on the Editorial Committee. FNA is delighted that someone with Dr. Gandhi's knowledge, enthusiasm, and capacity for hard work has agreed to take on this often time-consuming and occasionally frustrating task.

The Nomenclature Editor not only reviews manuscripts for nomenclatural accuracy, but also is available to technical editors, taxon editors, and authors to clarify nomenclatural matters within flora accounts.

Dr. Gandhi took over the responsibilities of Nomenclature Editor from Dr. John McNeill earlier this year. Dr. McNeill will continue to serve the project as Nomenclatural Advisor, and both he and Dr. Gandhi are available to answer nomenclatural queries from editors and authors.

Originally from Bangalore, India, Dr. Gandhi obtained his Ph.D. at Texas A&M University in 1989 and has been the Gray Index Bibliographer at Harvard since 1995. Dr. Gandhi can be reached by e-mail at gandhi@oeb.harvard.edu and by fax at (617) 495-9484.


Mr. Michael Piep and Ms. Sandy Long are assisting Dr. Mary Barkworth in the preparation of the Grass Manual, volumes 24 and 25 of the FNA. Mr. Piep and Ms. Long help review treatments, maintain the geographic database, and verify specimens for use in preparing the illustrations. In early May, copies of Volume 25 maps and treatments were sent to those regional reviewers who had not yet received them.

For a synopsis of the current status of Grass Manual treatments and illustrations, visit http://herbarium.usu.edu/. Graphs are updated whenever progress is made in one of the categories being tracked.


The Herbarium of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT) calls attention to its holdings as a source of information for contributors to the FNA project. The Herbarium's collections were built around the regional floristics of the late Dr. Lloyd Shinners of Southern Methodist University, who built a sizeable collection centered upon the southern and central United States. The utility of BRIT for the FNA was enhanced greatly by the recent acquisition of the Vanderbilt University Herbarium (VDB) by BRIT. There are nearly a million specimens now at BRIT, with particularly good coverage for the southeastern and south-central United States. FNA authors are invited to borrow materials by contacting Dr. Debra Trock, Collections Manager, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX 76102; (817) 332-4441; fax (817) 332-4112; dtrock@brit.org.


The Bryophyte Flora of North America, FNA volumes 27, 28, and 29, recently sent a progress report to all participants. New treatments on the Web site, include Pterobryaceae (Jaegerina, Pireella, Henicodium) and Pottiaceae (Crumia). Illustrations were added for Ephemerum, Micromitrium, Splachnobryum, and Crumia; a total of 60 species have been illustrated to date. Text was revised for Splachnobryum, formerly Splachnobryaceae, now in Pottiaceae. An "authors' kit" of downloadable files was added to the Web site to help in the preparation and editing of treatments. Larger maps at 1.7 inches in width are being planned for the volumes, with four printed across the page; see the map for Crumia on the Web site for a sample. A meeting on the bryophyte flora is planned for the Botany 2001 meetings in Albuquerque.

The Flora of North America (FNA) project is a cooperative program to produce a comprehensive account of the plants of North America north of Mexico. The FNA Newsletter, edited at the Hunt Institute and printed at the Missouri Botanical Garden, is published twice a year by the Flora of North America Association to communicate news about the FNA project and other topics of interest to North American floristic researchers. For more information, please see the FNA Web site, http://www.fna.org.

Readers are invited to send appropriate news items to:
Elizabeth A. Polen, Newsletter Editor
Flora of North America
Hunt Institute, Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Items can also be sent by e-mail to: kiser@andrew.cmu.edu.


Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Colorado

The Rocky Mountain Herbarium is pleased to announce that a checklist has been developed for use by students and staff as an aid in the identification of the vascular plants of Colorado and in the databasing of specimens from major floristic inventories in that state (10 projects thus far, with over 85,000 numbered collections) and in the Rocky Mountain region. The checklist is now available for viewing or downloading (as a Microsoft Word or .pdf document) from the RMH Web site. The disposition of names, here accepted or synonymized, from five taxonomic references for the Great Plains, Utah, and Wyoming, are indicated explicitly using three-letter abbreviations. This is also true for H. D. Harrington's Manual of the Plants of Colorado (1954), four checklists and floras published for the state by Weber and Wittman (since 1992), the Synthesis of the North American Flora by Kartesz and Meacham (1999), the PLANTS Database (USDA: NRCS, February 1997 version), the Flora of North America, and other references. The Internet version went online on 23 March 2001 and is 183 pages in length. Corrections will be posted periodically and included in future updates.

Statistics from the Colorado flora checklist are as follows:

Invasives: 393 taxa from outside North America; 105 taxa from elsewhere in North America; 498 taxa total in Colorado, or 14.5 percent of the total flora.

Endemics to Colorado, taxa currently known to be confined to the state: 97 taxa total (79 species, 14 varieties, 2 subspecies, and 2 named hybrids).

Size of the Colorado flora: 3,025 species (3,051 fide Kartesz and Meacham, 1999); 35 hybrid species; 19 subspecies; 351 varieties; and 3,430 unique taxa (3,525 fide Kartesz and Meacham, 1999).

With regard to infraspecific taxa, subspecies used as a grouping category (i.e., quadranomials) are omitted except in synonymy, as are formae; varieties are the preferred infraspecific category if the combination is available.

Rare Book Digitization Project

The Missouri Botanical Garden Library has completed the first phase of its Rare Book Digitization Project. Eight volumes are online at http://ridgwaydb.mobot.org/mobot/rarebooks/. The goal of the project is to digitize and present beautifully illustrated and botanically significant books from our private holdings in order to make them available to an international audience. This project will result in a large database of botanical and gardening books available to scholars, gardeners, and bibliophiles. Users may browse through the books or search for a specific illustration by scientific name. Full-text searching will be added as the project progresses.


The following volumes are now available:

Émile Desvaux. Graminae Chilenses. (Paris: Claudio Gay), 1853 (Paris, Impr. Lesauvage).

Aylmer Bourke Lambert. A Description of the Genus Cinchona. Printed for B. and J. White, 1797.

Charles Antoine Lemaire. Iconographie descriptive des cactées. Paris: H. Cousin [1841_1847].

Franz Eugen Köhler. Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen in naturgetreuen Abbildungen mit kurz erläuterdem Texte. Gera-Untermhaus: F. E. Köhler [1883_1914].

Nicolaas Meerburgh. Afbeeldingen van zeldaame gewassen. Te Leyden: By Johannes le Mair, 1775.

Nicolaas Meerburgh. Plantarum selectarum icones pictae, editae a Nicolao Meerburg. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Apud J. Meerburg, 1798.

Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire. Traité des arbrisseaux et des arbustes cultivés en France et en pleine. Paris: chez l'auteur, 1825.

James Edward Smith. Icones pictae plantarum rariorum descriptionibus et observationibus illustrae, auctore J. E. Smith, M. D. Fasc. 1_3. London, 1790_1793.

Comments about this site may be directed to Dr. James C. Solomon, Curator of the Herbarium, jim.solomon@mobot.org, or Dr. Chris Freeland, freeland@mobot.org

Eighteenth-Century Herbarium Online

The Natural History Museum of London has launched a new Web site dedicated to an important eighteenth-century botanical collection, the George Clifford Herbarium. This new site, which is accompanied by background information on the collector and his significance, enables scientists, historians, and the general public to view collections that are normally restricted in access due to their age, importance, and fragility. The collection contains a high proportion of specimens of historical and nomenclatural significance, particularly regarding their close association with Carl Linnaeus and the Hortus Cliffortianus. Accompanying databases allow the specimen images to be readily correlated with this work and more recent identifications. This new site complements three other NHM online botanical collections: the Clayton Herbarium, the Sloane Jamaican Collections, and the Hermann Sri Lankan Collections, all of which can be found on the NHM Databases page. Other historical collections will be available later in the year.

Mexican Vascular Plant Database

The University of Texas at Austin Herbaria (TEX, LL) have started to produce digital images to complement the label information contained in their Mexican Vascular Plant Database project. This pilot study began with the Lauraceae, followed by the Asteraceae and Pinaceae. There are two images per species for most families. The rationale for producing these images is to accelerate data capture by Mexican colleagues at CONABIO, the Mexican National Commission for the Understanding and Use of Biodiversity, as well as to enhance the value of the herbaria's collection and database. The images may be viewed by clicking on the Images link. They are also available through REMIB (Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad) queries. Any questions or comments should be directed to Dr. Jose L. Panero, Associate Director of TEX, LL, panero@mail.utexas.edu.

Flora of the Greater Antilles Newsletters on NYBG Site

The Flora of the Greater Antilles Newsletters Nos. 1_17 (1991_2001) may be viewed at the New York Botanical Garden Web site. Also available at the same location is the Symposium: Flora of the Greater Antilles, 23_24 June 2000, Program and Abstracts.


Rhodora Indices Complete

The cumulative Index to Volumes 76_100 of Rhodora (1974_1998) is now available. The index is divided into two parts: an index to scientific names, and an index to authors and subjects, created directly from the journal issues.

Copies of the Index to Volumes 1_50 and the Index to Volumes 51_75 are still available. For more information about the first two cumulative indexes, contact Dr. Cathy Paris, Back Issues Manager (cparis@zoo.uvm.edu), or visit the New England Botanical Club Web site.

To order the Index to Volumes 76_100, visit the Web site and download an order form. The cost is $25.00 for NEBC members and $50.00 for non-members.

FNA Editors Revise National Audubon Society Field Guides

Two members of the FNA Editorial Committee are the revising authors of the National Audubon Society Field Guides to North American Wildflowers, published in April. The guide for the eastern region was revised by Dr. John W. Thieret; the guide for the western region was revised by Dr. Richard Spellenberg. The books may be purchased at most bookstores and retail for $19.95 each.


The American Museum of Natural History and Yale University proudly announce the international symposium, "Assembling the Tree of Life, " 20_22 September 2001 at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. It will include three full days of scientific papers summarizing current understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of all major groups of organisms. In addition, a series of plenary lectures will address the importance of phylogenetic knowledge for advances in human health, genomics, and developmental and comparative biology, as well as the implications of phylogenetic knowledge for understanding humanity's place in nature.

The Tree of Life Symposium is a product of the International Biodiversity Observation Year, designated by the international biodiversity science program, DIVERSITAS. The major sponsors of the symposium are the American Museum of Natural History and Yale University; other support comes from the International Union of Biological Sciences.

For more information about the symposium and how to register, and to add your name to the conference mailing list, please send an e-mail with your name and mailing address to tolsymposium@amnh.org.


Assistant Curator, Missouri Botanical Garden

The Missouri Botanical Garden, which operates the world's most active research program in tropical botany and is a leader in international scientific collaboration, seeks an assistant curator to serve as the in-country coordinator in Vietnam. The successful candidate will coordinate training and research programs with Garden staff and Vietnamese counterparts, conduct botanical inventory and systematic research on the Vietnam flora, prepare funding proposals and grants, and prepare and oversee the preparation of scientific papers.


Qualifications include a Ph.D. in botany and up to seven years' specialized experience in botanical systematics and related activities. Other requirements include familiarity with herbarium routines and botanical literature, the ability to obtain funding, exceptional written communication skills, strong computer skills, and the ability to live in Vietnam and conduct fieldwork under difficult conditions. Reading and writing fluency in French is strongly preferred.

The Garden offers an outstanding benefits package. To apply, send a curriculum vitae, along with the names and addresses of three references, to: The Missouri Botanical Garden, Human Resource Management, Attn: ACVT, Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299. Materials may also be sent by e-mail to jobs@mobot.org. Visit the Garden Web site . Review of resumes is currently in progress and will continue until the position is filled. EOE.

Curatorial Research Associate, Pullen Herbarium

The Department of Biology at the University of Mississippi seeks a curatorial research associate (CRA) to assist the curator during a three-year, NSF-funded renovation and computerization of the Pullen Herbarium. The CRA will gain experience in all aspects of modern herbarium renovation and installation of a compactor system; database entry and management; GIS/mapping software use; Web-page development; the managing of specimen and accession records; the mounting and curating of both old and new herbarium specimens, including the processing of backlogged specimens; and the collection and knowledge of the flora of Mississippi and southeastern coastal plain.

Founded in 1963, the Pullen Herbarium now consists of over 64,000 accessioned vascular plant specimens and a backlog of over 40,000 specimens, including collections of bryophytes, lichens, and myxomycetes. A majority of specimens are from Mississippi and the southeastern United States.

The Department of Biology at Ole Miss currently includes five Ph.D.-level botanists and a graduate program. The recent reinvigoration of botanical studies in the Departments of Biology and Pharmacognosy and in the Thad Cochran National Center for Natural Products Research has led the University of Mississippi to invest in faculty, research infrastructure, and curricula in the plant sciences, including the Pullen Herbarium. Visit the Pullen Herbarium Web site to view a preliminary list of plants for the state of Mississippi ( http://www.herbarium.olemiss.edu).

The minimum qualification for the CRA position is a bachelor's degree in botany, biology, or related field. Candidates should be familiar with several kinds of computer programs, including databases and Web page design and maintenance. They should also have formal training and/or experience in plant taxonomy and nomenclature, a knowledge of the southeastern flora, and the ability to supervise students conducting data entry and herbarium tasks. Annual salary is $24,000, plus full benefits as a state employee.

To apply, please send a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and the names, addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses of three references to: Dr. Lucile McCook, Department of Biology, Box 1848, University, MS 38677-1848. Review of applications is underway and will continue until the position is filled. EOE/AA/TitleVI/Title IX/Section 504/ADA/ADEA.

Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Plant Molecular Systematics and Molecular Evolution

University of Missouri, Columbia

The Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri, Columbia, invites applications for a post-doctoral fellowship to participate in a study of the molecular evolution of phytochromes in parasitic figworts (Orobanchaceae). The goals of the project are: 1) to infer a nuclear phylogeny for the family; 2) to describe patterns of nucleotide evolution at individual phytochrome loci from autotrophic, hemi-, and holoparasitic species; and 3) to determine whether patterns of phytochrome gene expression vary among species exemplifying each of the three habits.

A strong background in systematics and familiarity with molecular techniques is required, and applicants must be able to work independently. The successful candidate will be encouraged to make the greatest contribution in his or her area of special interest.

A one-year stipend with benefits is available. The Division of Biological Sciences has an active program in evolutionary biology and ecology, and UMC has a strong Interdisciplinary Plant Group. For more information about the academic environment and postdoctoral benefits, visit the Web site.

Interested applicants should send a curriculum vitae, a brief statement of research interests and experience, and the names of two references to:

Sarah Mathews, University of Missouri, Division of Biological Sciences, 226 Tucker Hall, Columbia, MO 65211; mathewss@missouri.edu.

Project Coordinator, Papuan Plant Diversity Project

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is in need of a project coordinator to serve a three-year fixed-term appointment with the UK Darwin Initiative Papuan Plant Diversity Project.

The goal of this ambitious project is to rehabilitate the Herbarium at the Biodiversity Study Centre, Universitas Negeri Papua, Manokwari, the only herbarium in the Indonesian part of the mega-diverse tropical island of New Guinea.

The project coordinator will implement a far-reaching program of staff and student training in herbarium management, plant exploration, and research aimed at significantly enhancing the role of the University in biodiversity research and conservation. The coordinator's own research will be centered around the preparation of a field guide to the flowering plant families of New Guinea. This position presents an exciting opportunity to spend six months each year in Papua and six months at Kew.

Requirements include a relevant higher degree, experience working in a herbarium, and experience working overseas. Fluency in Indonesian is desirable but not essential.

Salary is up to £20,650 per annum depending on experience. A bonus will be paid at the end of the three-year term upon satisfactory completion of all project requirements within agreed time scales. Benefits include a mainly non-contributory pension, generous annual leave, and a stunning work environment.

An application form and further information is available from the Personnel Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB. Candidates may also call ++(020) 833-5184 or -5150 (24-hour), or send e-mail to j.hancock@rbgkew.org.uk. Please quote job number 1152. Closing date is 9 July 2001.

Research Technician III, North Carolina State University

The molecular systematic lab at the Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, seeks a full-time research technician. The successful applicant will be expected to: 1) work independently in the laboratory; 2) collect, analyze, and summarize data; 3) maintain research materials in the lab and greenhouse; 4) conduct online library research; 5) prepare and assist in the preparation of written and electronic materials (e.g., manuscripts, reports, Web-page descriptions, research presentations, etc.); 6) assist in the training of students and other laboratory personnel; 7) assist in the management and day-to-day operation of the laboratory; 8) work effectively with graduate and undergraduate students, and staff.

Qualifications include a B.A. or B.S. in botany, biology, zoology, or a related field, plus two years laboratory experience in the research field assigned. An M.S. in molecular systematics of molecular biology is preferred. Also required is experience with PCR, DNA electrophoresis, restriction site analysis, molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and Microsoft Office. Experience with phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of molecular data is desired. The applicant should be mature, hard-working, and conscientious, and available to work occasional night or weekend hours.

This is a state-funded position with a salary grade of 66, based on education and experience. The minimum salary is $29,000, plus benefits. The position is open until filled, but applicant review is already underway. Any interested applicant should send a resume and the names, addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses of three references to Dr. Jenny Xiang, Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7612; phone (919) 515-2728; fax (919) 515-3456; jenny_xiang@ncsu.edu.


EDWARD F. ANDERSON, 68, Senior Research Botanist at the Desert Botanical Garden, died on 29 March 2001 after a sudden attack of pancreatitis.

Before joining the staff at the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix, Dr. Anderson taught biology at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington. He studied botany with Dr. Lyman Benson at the Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California.

Dr. Anderson's comprehensive work on succulents, The Cactus Family, was published in March of this year. He was awarded the Cactus d'Or in 1998, by the Principality of Monaco, for outstanding research in succulents. He was a member of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America, a Fellow of the Linnean Society, London, and a past president of the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study.

Survivors include his wife, Adele; his sons, Clark, Duc, Stephen, and Bruce; his daughters, Adrienne, Erica, and Monica; his sister, Elizabeth; his brother, William; and numerous grandchildren.


A memorial service was held at the Horizon Presbyterian Church in Phoenix on 1 April 2001.

Edward F. Anderson
Edward F. Anderson, 1987. Photo courtesy of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation Archives Collection.

LINCOLN CONSTANCE, 92, Professor Emeritus of the University of California at Berkeley, died on 11 June 2001 after a battle with pneumonia.

Dr. Constance joined the faculty at UC Berkeley as an assistant professor in 1937 and remained there until retiring in 1976. His botanical career began when he was a graduate student with Willis Linn Jepson in the 1930s. Several years after earning his Ph.D. in botany, Dr. Constance returned to Berkeley as a professor and went on to serve the university as Curator of Seed Plants in the herbarium in the 1940s, Chair of the Department of Botany in the 1950s, Dean of the College of Letters from 1955 to 1962, Vice-Chancellor of Academic Affairs from 1962 to 1965, Director of the Herbarium from 1963 to 1975, and Trustee of the Jepson Herbarium from 1960 until his death.

Lincoln Constance
Lincoln Constance, 1974. Photo
courtesy of the Hunt Institute Archives.

An expert on Umbelliferae/Apiaceae systematics, Dr. Constance was extremely influential in shaping both the modern history of the University as well as systematic botany on a worldwide level.

Dr. Constance was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the California Academy of Sciences, and the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. His son, William Constance, resides in Berkeley.

A memorial service will be held in September. Memorial donations may be made to the UC Botanical Garden or to the University Herbarium, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720.

JUNE McCASKILL, Curator Emerita of the J. M. Tucker Herbarium, died of a heart attack in May 2001.

A specialist in the California flora, especially weeds, Dr. McCaskill was a major contributor to the Growers Weed Identification Handbook. With Drs. Grady Webster and Larry Mitich, she founded the Davis Herbaria Society, and she also volunteered her time with the Friends of the Davis Arboretum. She worked at the Botany Department of the University of California at Davis for over 40 years.

No memorial service is planned at this time. Donations in Dr. McCaskill's name may be sent to either the UC Davis Herbarium or to the UC Davis Foundation for the new herbarium building, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616.

Richard Evans Schultes
Richard Evans Schultes, 1988. Photo by Timothy
Plowman, courtesy of the Hunt Institute Archives.
RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES, 86, Professor Emeritus of Harvard University, died on 10 April 2001 in Boston.

A well-known expert in ethnobotany and hallucinogenic and medicinal plants, Dr. Schultes spent a large part of his career doing fieldwork in Amazonia. He collected specimens and gathered botanical knowledge on over 2,000 medicinal plants from a dozen rain-forest Indian tribes, and documented the use of plant extracts such as peyote and curare in tribal medicine and culture. Though some of his books on hallucinogenic plants became popular with drug experimenters in the 1960s, the focus of his research was very much on the medicinal value of these plants sacred to the Indians. He was one of the first scientists to warn that both the plant species and the native people of the rain forest were in danger of being wiped out by habitat destruction and modern industry.

Dr. Schultes received his bachelor's degree and Ph.D. from Harvard University. His research on hallucinogenic plants began with his undergraduate paper on the Kiowa Indians' use of peyote to commune with their ancestors. He went on to study plants used by the Indians of Oaxaca, and in 1941 he journeyed to the Colombian Amazon to do fieldwork. During WWII he researched sources of natural rubber and soon became an expert on Hevea, the trees that produce latex. He remained in Colombia until returning to the United States in 1953, when he became a professor, botanical researcher, and curator at Harvard.

In addition to authoring 10 books and over 450 scientific articles, Dr. Schultes also edited the journal Economic Botany, and served on the editorial boards of Horticulture, Social Pharmacology, and the Journal of Latin American Folklore, among others.

Dr. Schultes received a number of awards, including the 1992 gold medal of the Linnean Society of London. More than 120 plant species now bear his name, and a 2.2 million-acre tract of rain forest was preserved and named in his honor by the Colombian government in 1986.

He is survived by his wife, Dorothy Crawford McNeil, and their three children, Richard Evans Schultes II, Alexandra Ames Schultes Wilson, and Neil Parker Schultes.

William T. Stearn
William T. Stearn, 1974. Photo by W. Hodge,
courtesy of the Hunt Institute Archives.

WILLIAM T. STEARN, 90, author of Botanical Latin, died on 9 May 2001.

Renowned for his work in botanical nomenclature, Dr. Stearn, a self-taught botanist, authored some 470 publications over his 70-year career, including monographs, scholarly editions of Ray and Linnaeus, bibliographies, and botanical histories. His first paper was published at the age of 18 and was a study of a fungal disease of bellflowers. He became librarian of the Royal Horticultural Society when he was 22, and he continued to study plants where he was posted in Southeast Asia with the RAF Medical Service during WWII. Upon his return, Mr. Stearn and his colleague Patrick Synge completed the Royal Horticultural Society's four-volume Dictionary of Gardening. As a result of his work on these volumes, Mr. Stearn introduced the important concepts of the cultivar and the grex, and he drafted the first International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

Mr. Stearn left the RHS for the botany department of the Natural History Museum, where he specialized in the genera Allium, Lilium, and Paeonia until his retirement in 1976. That same year, he became editor of the Greek botanical journal Annales Musei Goulandris, to which he continued to contribute until 1999. He and his wife, Ruth Alford, translated Hellmut Baumann's Greek Wild Flowers and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece in 1993.

A prominent member of the Linnean Society of London, Mr. Stearn was elected a Fellow in 1934 and went on to serve as botanical curator from 1959 to 1985, and as president from 1979 to 1982. He received the RHS Victoria Medal of Honor in 1965, the Linnean Medal for Botany in 1976, and honorary doctorates from Leiden, Cambridge, and Uppsala. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which named him Commander of the Order of the Star of the North in 1980, and CBE in 1997.

Mr. Stearn is survived by his wife and three children.

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